Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Global distribution of earthworm diversity
Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.

Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

Soil functional responses to drought under range-expanding and native plant communities
Manrubia, Marta ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Weser, Carolin ; Hooven, Freddy C. ten; Martens, Henk ; Brinkman, Pernilla ; Geisen, Stefan ; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Veen, G.F. - \ 2019
Functional Ecology (2019). - ISSN 0269-8463
litter mass loss - plant range expansion - saprophytic soil fungi - soil functioning - soil rewetting - summer drought

Current climate warming enables plant species and soil organisms to expand their range to higher latitudes and altitudes. At the same time, climate change increases the incidence of extreme weather events such as drought. While it is expected that plants and soil organisms originating from the south are better able to cope with drought, little is known about the consequences of their range shifts on soil functioning under drought events. Here, we test how range-expanding plant species and soil communities may influence soil functioning under drought. We performed a full-factorial outdoor mesocosm experiment with plant communities of range expanders or related natives, with soil inocula from the novel or the original range, with or without summer drought. We measured litter decomposition, carbon mineralization and enzyme activities, substrate-induced respiration and the relative abundance of soil saprophytic fungi immediately after drought and at 6 and 12 weeks after rewetting. Drought decreased all soil functions regardless of plant and soil origin except one; soil respiration was less reduced in soils of range-expanding plant communities, suggesting stronger resistance to drought. After rewetting, soil functioning responses depended on plant and soil origin. Soils of native plant communities with a history of drought had more litter mass loss and higher relative abundance of saprophytic fungi than soils without drought and soils of range expanders. Functions of soil from range expanders recovered in a more conservative manner than soils of natives, as litter mass loss did not exceed the control rates. At the end of the experiment, after rewetting, most soil functions in mesocosms with drought history did not differ anymore from the control. We conclude that functional consequences of range-expanding plants and soil biota may interact with effects of drought and that these effects are most prominent during the first weeks after rewetting of the soil. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.

BrAPI-an application programming interface for plant breeding applications
Selby, Peter ; Abbeloos, Rafael ; Backlund, Jan Erik ; Basterrechea Salido, Martin ; Bauchet, Guillaume ; Benites-Alfaro, Omar E. ; Birkett, Clay ; Calaminos, Viana C. ; Carceller, Pierre ; Cornut, Guillaume ; Vasques Costa, Bruno ; Edwards, Jeremy D. ; Finkers, Richard ; Yanxin Gao, Star ; Ghaffar, Mehmood ; Glaser, Philip ; Guignon, Valentin ; Hok, Puthick ; Kilian, Andrzej ; König, Patrick ; Lagare, Jack Elendil B. ; Lange, Matthias ; Laporte, Marie Angélique ; Larmande, Pierre ; LeBauer, David S. ; Lyon, David A. ; Marshall, David S. ; Matthews, Dave ; Milne, Iain ; Mistry, Naymesh ; Morales, Nicolas ; Mueller, Lukas A. ; Neveu, Pascal ; Papoutsoglou, Evangelia ; Pearce, Brian ; Perez-Masias, Ivan ; Pommier, Cyril ; Ramírez-González, Ricardo H. ; Rathore, Abhishek ; Raquel, Angel Manica ; Raubach, Sebastian ; Rife, Trevor ; Robbins, Kelly ; Rouard, Mathieu ; Sarma, Chaitanya ; Scholz, Uwe ; Sempéré, Guilhem ; Shaw, Paul D. ; Simon, Reinhard ; Verouden, Maikel - \ 2019
Bioinformatics 35 (2019)20. - ISSN 1367-4803 - p. 4147 - 4155.

MOTIVATION: Modern genomic breeding methods rely heavily on very large amounts of phenotyping and genotyping data, presenting new challenges in effective data management and integration. Recently, the size and complexity of datasets have increased significantly, with the result that data are often stored on multiple systems. As analyses of interest increasingly require aggregation of datasets from diverse sources, data exchange between disparate systems becomes a challenge. RESULTS: To facilitate interoperability among breeding applications, we present the public plant Breeding Application Programming Interface (BrAPI). BrAPI is a standardized web service API specification. The development of BrAPI is a collaborative, community-based initiative involving a growing global community of over a hundred participants representing several dozen institutions and companies. Development of such a standard is recognized as critical to a number of important large breeding system initiatives as a foundational technology. The focus of the first version of the API is on providing services for connecting systems and retrieving basic breeding data including germplasm, study, observation, and marker data. A number of BrAPI-enabled applications, termed BrAPPs, have been written, that take advantage of the emerging support of BrAPI by many databases. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: More information on BrAPI, including links to the specification, test suites, BrAPPs, and sample implementations is available at The BrAPI specification and the developer tools are provided as free and open source.

Hoofed animals bad for Veluwe forests
Ramirez Chiriboga, Juan - \ 2019
Rarity of monodominance in hyperdiverse Amazonian forests
Steege, Hans Ter; Henkel, Terry W. ; Helal, Nora ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Huth, Andreas ; Groeneveld, Jürgen ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Souza Coelho, Luiz de; Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes de; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia de; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo de; Cárdenas López, Dairon ; Magnusson, William E. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Silva Guimarães, José Renan da; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo ; Ramos, José Ferreira ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Moraes de Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Terborgh, John ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Baraloto, Chris ; Engel, Julien ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Quaresma, Adriano ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Andrade, Ana ; Camargo, José Luís ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Laurance, William F. ; Rincón, Lorena M. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sousa, Thaiane R. ; Sousa Farias, Emanuelle de; Lopes, Maria Aparecida ; Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima ; Mendonça Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo ; Lima de Queiroz, Helder ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Brienen, Roel ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Lozada, José Rafael ; Comiskey, James A. ; Toledo, José Julio de; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; Draper, Freddie ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Lopes, Aline ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Lloyd, Jon ; Neill, David ; Aguiar, Daniel Praia Portela de; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Amaral, Dário Dantas do; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Gribel, Rogerio ; Pansonato, Marcelo Petratti ; Barlow, Jos ; Berenguer, Erika ; Ferreira, Joice ; Fine, Paul V.A. ; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro ; Jimenez, Eliana M. ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Villa, Boris ; Cerón, Carlos ; Maas, Paul ; Silveira, Marcos ; Stropp, Juliana ; Thomas, Raquel ; Baker, Tim R. ; Daly, Doug ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Milliken, William ; Pennington, Toby ; Ríos Paredes, Marcos ; Fuentes, Alfredo ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Pena, José Luis Marcelo ; Peres, Carlos A. ; Silman, Miles R. ; Tello, J.S. ; Chave, Jerome ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Hilário, Renato Richard ; Phillips, Juan Fernando ; Rivas-Torres, Gonzalo ; Andel, Tinde R. van; Hildebrand, Patricio von; Noronha, Janaína Costa ; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques ; Barbosa, Flávia Rodrigues ; Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos de; Sá Carpanedo, Rainiellen de; Dávila Doza, Hilda Paulette ; Fonty, Émile ; GómeZárate Z, Ricardo ; Gonzales, Therany ; Gallardo Gonzales, George Pepe ; Hoffman, Bruce ; Junqueira, André Braga ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula de; Pinto, Linder Felipe Mozombite ; Prieto, Adriana ; Jesus Rodrigues, Domingos de; Rudas, Agustín ; Ruschel, Ademir R. ; Silva, Natalino ; Vela, César I.A. ; Vos, Vincent Antoine ; Zent, Egleé L. ; Zent, Stanford ; Weiss Albuquerque, Bianca ; Cano, Angela ; Carrero Márquez, Yrma Andreina ; Correa, Diego F. ; Costa, Janaina Barbosa Pedrosa ; Flores, Bernardo Monteiro ; Galbraith, David ; Holmgren, Milena ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Rocha, Maira ; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Tirado, Milton ; Umaña Medina, Maria Natalia ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Vilanova Torre, Emilio ; Vriesendorp, Corine ; Wang, Ophelia ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Ahuite Reategui, Manuel Augusto ; Baider, Cláudia ; Balslev, Henrik ; Cárdenas, Sasha ; Casas, Luisa Fernanda ; Farfan-Rios, William ; Ferreira, Cid ; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Mesones, Italo ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego ; Villarroel, Daniel ; Zagt, Roderick ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina ; Hernandez, Lionel ; Palacios Cuenca, Walter ; Pansini, Susamar ; Pauletto, Daniela ; Ramirez Arevalo, Freddy ; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe ; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H. ; Valenzuela Gamarra, Luis ; Levesley, Aurora ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Melgaço, Karina - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

Tropical forests are known for their high diversity. Yet, forest patches do occur in the tropics where a single tree species is dominant. Such "monodominant" forests are known from all of the main tropical regions. For Amazonia, we sampled the occurrence of monodominance in a massive, basin-wide database of forest-inventory plots from the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (ATDN). Utilizing a simple defining metric of at least half of the trees ≥ 10 cm diameter belonging to one species, we found only a few occurrences of monodominance in Amazonia, and the phenomenon was not significantly linked to previously hypothesized life history traits such wood density, seed mass, ectomycorrhizal associations, or Rhizobium nodulation. In our analysis, coppicing (the formation of sprouts at the base of the tree or on roots) was the only trait significantly linked to monodominance. While at specific locales coppicing or ectomycorrhizal associations may confer a considerable advantage to a tree species and lead to its monodominance, very few species have these traits. Mining of the ATDN dataset suggests that monodominance is quite rare in Amazonia, and may be linked primarily to edaphic factors.

Wild ungulates as forest engineers
Ramírez Chiriboga, Juan Ignacio - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. Poorter, co-promotor(en): J. den Ouden; P.A. Jansen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951074 - 159
Speckle pattern analysis of crumpled papers
Rad, Vahideh Farzam ; Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E. ; Cabrera, Humberto ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Moradi, Ali Reza - \ 2019
Applied Optics 58 (2019)24. - ISSN 1559-128X - p. 6549 - 6554.

In this paper, we show that laser speckle analysis (LSA) can provide valuable information about the structure of crumpled thin sheets. Crumpling and folding of slender objects are present in several phenomena and in various ranges of size, e.g., paper compaction, cortical folding in brains, DNA packing in viral capsids, and flower buds, to name a few. The analysis of laser speckles, both numerical and graphical, is a source of information about the activity of biological or non-biological materials, and the development of digital electronics, which brought the ease of image processing, has opened new perspectives for a spectrum of LSA applications. LSA is applied on randomly crumpled and one-, two-, and three-times folded papers, and appreciable differences in LSA parameters are observed. The methodology can be applied for easy-to-implement quantitative assessment of similar phenomena and samples.

Author Correction: Diversity-dependent temporal divergence of ecosystem functioning in experimental ecosystems
Guerrero-Ramírez, Nathaly R. ; Craven, Dylan ; Reich, Peter B. ; Ewel, John J. ; Isbell, Forest ; Koricheva, Julia ; Parrotta, John A. ; Auge, Harald ; Erickson, Heather E. ; Forrester, David I. ; Hector, Andy ; Joshi, Jasmin ; Montagnini, Florencia ; Palmborg, Cecilia ; Piotto, Daniel ; Potvin, Catherine ; Roscher, Christiane ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Tilman, David ; Wilsey, Brian ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1365 - 1365.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

Characterisation of the effect of day length, and associated differences in dietary intake, on the gut microbiota of Soay sheep
Thomas, Nadine A. ; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M. ; Abecia, Leticia ; Adam, Clare L. ; Edwards, Joan E. ; Cox, Georgina F. ; Findlay, Patricia A. ; Destables, Elodie ; Wood, Tracy A. ; McEwan, Neil R. - \ 2019
Archives of Microbiology 201 (2019)7. - ISSN 0302-8933 - p. 889 - 896.
Anaerobic fungi - Bacteria - Ciliated protozoa - Day length - Digestive tract - Soay sheep

Differences in the rumen bacterial community have been previously reported for Soay sheep housed under different day length conditions. This study extends this previous investigation to other organs of the digestive tract, as well as the analysis of ciliated protozoa and anaerobic fungi. The detectable concentrations of ciliated protozoa and anaerobic fungi decreased with increased day length in both the rumen and large colon, unlike those of bacteria where no effect was observed. Conversely, bacterial community composition was affected by day length in both the rumen and large colon, but the community composition of the detectable ciliated protozoa and anaerobic fungi was not affected. Day length-associated differences in the bacterial community composition extended to all of the organs examined, with the exception of the duodenum and the jejunum. It is proposed that differences in rumen fill and ruminal ‘by-pass’ nutrients together with endocrinological changes cause the observed effects of day length on the different gut microbial communities.

The problem of water use in rural areas of Southwestern Spain: A local perspective
Pulido, Manuel ; Barrena-González, Jesús ; Alfonso-Torreño, Alberto ; Robina-Ramírez, Rafael ; Keesstra, Saskia - \ 2019
Water 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2073-4441
Drinking water - Irrigation - Leisure facilities - Local perception

Water is a key strategic resource, particularly in Mediterranean climate-type areas with impermeable rocks and shallow soils like Southwestern Spain. The region of Extremadura is commonly known by its large surface occupied by big dams (30% of water dammed in Spain) although this theoretical abundance of water does not hide other problems of use. In this study, we have interviewed 132 people from the municipality of Arroyo de San Serván in order to know what the problems related to water use are, especially those that concern local people the most. Regarding the use of water at home, 90% of interviewees spend less than 60 EUR per month for water and their mean degree of satisfaction about the service is 3.7 out of 7. The reason for this low value can be the excessive content of calcium and bad taste according to 82.1%. Therefore, 64.2% of people do not usually drink water from the tap. Around two thirds of these local people usually buy water in the supermarket or drink filtered water. Concerning agricultural activities, local people gave great importance to irrigation as a source of employment (5.6/7) and inputs (4.5/7), although their satisfaction decreases about the current price of water for agriculture (0.02 EUR m-3). In addition, they are really worried about the overuse of fertilizers and herbicides (5.4/7) and they think about the necessity of taking measures to reduce these problems (6.1/7) as well as to reduce some management problems such as supply cuts. In the last few years, private (swimming pools) and public leisure facilities (swimming pool and spa) have been built in spite of not being considered important by local people (3.6-4.0/7). Nevertheless, about 60% of them consider these common facilities very positive in terms of employment, tourism attractions and entertainment for local people.

Latitudinal variation in soil nematode communities under climate warming-related range-expanding and native plants
Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Geisen, Stefan ; Martens, Henk ; Kostenko, Olga ; Hollander, Mattias de; Hooven, Freddy C. ten; Weser, Carolin ; Snoek, L.B. ; Bloem, Janneke ; Caković, Danka ; Čelik, Tatjana ; Koorem, Kadri ; Krigas, Nikos ; Manrubia, Marta ; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Tsiafouli, Maria A. ; Vreš, Branko ; Putten, Wim H. van der - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)8. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2714 - 2726.
Centaurea stoebe - enemy release hypothesis - plant-pathogenic nematodes - range expansion - range-expanding plant species - root-feeding nematodes

Current climate change has led to latitudinal and altitudinal range expansions of numerous species. During such range expansions, plant species are expected to experience changes in interactions with other organisms, especially with belowground biota that have a limited dispersal capacity. Nematodes form a key component of the belowground food web as they include bacterivores, fungivores, omnivores and root herbivores. However, their community composition under climate change-driven intracontinental range-expanding plants has been studied almost exclusively under controlled conditions, whereas little is known about actual patterns in the field. Here, we use novel molecular sequencing techniques combined with morphological quantification in order to examine nematode communities in the rhizospheres of four range-expanding and four congeneric native species along a 2,000 km latitudinal transect from South-Eastern to North-Western Europe. We tested the hypotheses that latitudinal shifts in nematode community composition are stronger in range-expanding plant species than in congeneric natives and that in their new range, range-expanding plant species accumulate fewest root-feeding nematodes. Our results show latitudinal variation in nematode community composition of both range expanders and native plant species, while operational taxonomic unit richness remained the same across ranges. Therefore, range-expanding plant species face different nematode communities at higher latitudes, but this is also the case for widespread native plant species. Only one of the four range-expanding plant species showed a stronger shift in nematode community composition than its congeneric native and accumulated fewer root-feeding nematodes in its new range. We conclude that variation in nematode community composition with increasing latitude occurs for both range-expanding and native plant species and that some range-expanding plant species may become released from root-feeding nematodes in the new range.

Range-expansion effects on the belowground plant microbiome
Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Koorem, Kadri ; Geisen, Stefan ; Bloem, L.J. ; Hooven, Freddy ten; Kostenko, Olga ; Krigas, Nikos ; Manrubia, Marta ; Caković, Danka ; Raaij, Debbie van; Tsiafouli, Maria A. ; Vreš, Branko ; Čelik, Tatjana ; Weser, Carolin ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Putten, Wim H. van der - \ 2019
Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019)4. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 604 - 611.

Plant range expansion is occurring at a rapid pace, largely in response to human-induced climate warming. Although the movement of plants along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is well-documented, effects on belowground microbial communities remain largely unknown. Furthermore, for range expansion, not all plant species are equal: in a new range, the relatedness between range-expanding plant species and native flora can influence plant–microorganism interactions. Here we use a latitudinal gradient spanning 3,000 km across Europe to examine bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils of range-expanding plant species. We selected range-expanding plants with and without congeneric native species in the new range and, as a control, the congeneric native species, totalling 382 plant individuals collected across Europe. In general, the status of a plant as a range-expanding plant was a weak predictor of the composition of bacterial and fungal communities. However, microbial communities of range-expanding plant species became more similar to each other further from their original range. Range-expanding plants that were unrelated to the native community also experienced a decrease in the ratio of plant pathogens to symbionts, giving weak support to the enemy release hypothesis. Even at a continental scale, the effects of plant range expansion on the belowground microbiome are detectable, although changes to specific taxa remain difficult to decipher.

Phytochrome a protects tomato plants from injuries induced by continuous light
Velez-Ramirez, Aaron I. ; Vreugdenhil, Dick ; Millenaar, Frank F. ; Ieperen, Wim van - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Continuous light - Far-red light - Photosynthesis down-regulation - Phytochrome - Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato

Plants perceive and transduce information about light quantity, quality, direction and photoperiod via several photoreceptors and use it to adjust their growth and development. A role for photoreceptors has been hypothesized in the injuries that tomato plants develop when exposed to continuous light as the light spectral distribution influences the injury severity. Up to now, however, only indirect clues suggested that phytochromes (PHY), red/far-red photoreceptors, are involved in the continuous-light-induced injuries in tomato. In this study, therefore, we exposed mutant and transgenic tomato plants lacking or over-expressing phytochromes to continuous light, with and without far-red light enrichment. The results show that PHYA over-expression confers complete tolerance to continuous light regardless the light spectrum. Under continuous light with low far-red content, PHYB1 and PHYB2 diminished and enhanced the injury, respectively, yet the effects were small. These results confirm that phytochrome signaling networks are involved in the induction of injury under continuous light. HIGHLIGHTS-PHYA over-expression confers tolerance to continuous light regardless the light spectrum.-In the absence of far-red light, PHYB1 slightly diminishes the continuous light-induced injury.-Continuous light down-regulates photosynthesis genes in sensitive tomato lines.

Assessment of browsed plants in a sub-tropical forest frontier by means of fuzzy inference
Dechnik-Vázquez, Yanus A. ; García-Barrios, Luis ; Ramírez-Marcial, Neptalí ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 236 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 163 - 181.
Agroforestry - Browsing - Cattle - Fuzzy inference - Silvopastoral systems

Browsing of forest frontiers by cattle in sub-tropical landscapes is detrimental to ecosystem health, but essential to smallholder livelihoods. We described a silvopastoral landscape, searching for browsed plants to assess how much of the forest is actually used for this end, and also searching for potential new useful species for silvopastoral purposes. The first objective was accomplished through a floristic description, making observations of individuals with browsing marks. Information from interviews, bromatological analyses and vegetative propagation tests further complemented this information to achieve the second objective. We classified the results using Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs). A great variety of nutritious browsed plants was found, distributed across various types of vegetation, growth habits and taxonomic groups: forest frontiers already are like silvopastoral systems. Various plants like Acalypha leptopoda, Montanoa tomentosa and Verbesina perymenioides are interesting prospects for further intensification of silvopastoral systems.

Robust soil mapping at the farm scale with vis–NIR spectroscopy
Ramirez-Lopez, L. ; Wadoux, A.M.J.C. ; Domingues Franceschini, Marston ; Terra, F.S. ; Marques, K.P.P. ; Sayão, V.M. ; Demattê, J.A.M. - \ 2019
European Journal of Soil Science 70 (2019)2. - ISSN 1351-0754 - p. 378 - 393.

Sustainable agriculture practices are often hampered by the prohibitive costs associated with the generation of fine-resolution soil maps. Recently, several papers have been published highlighting how visible and near infrared (vis–NIR) reflectance spectroscopy may offer an alternative to address this problem by increasing the density of soil sampling and by reducing the number of conventional laboratory analyses needed. However, for farm-scale soil mapping, previous studies rarely focused on sample optimization for the calibration of vis–NIR models or on robust modelling of the spatial variation of soil properties predicted by vis–NIR spectroscopy. In the present study, we used soil vis–NIR spectroscopy models optimized in terms of both number of calibration samples and accuracy for high-resolution robust farm-scale soil mapping and addressed some of the most common pitfalls identified in previous research. We collected 910 samples from 458 locations at two depths (A, 0–0.20 m; B, 0.80–1.0 m) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. All soil samples were analysed by conventional methods and scanned in the vis–NIR spectral range. With the vis–NIR spectra only, we inferred statistically the optimal set size and the best samples with which to calibrate vis–NIR models. The calibrated vis–NIR models were validated and used to predict soil properties for the rest of the samples. The prediction error of the spectroscopic model was propagated through the spatial analysis, in which robust block kriging was used to predict particle-size fractions and exchangeable calcium content for each depth. The results indicated that statistical selection of the calibration samples based on vis–NIR spectra considerably decreased the need for conventional chemical analysis for a given level of mapping accuracy. The methods tested in this research were developed and implemented using open-source software. All codes and data are provided for reproducible research purposes. Highlights: Vis–NIR spectroscopy enables an increase in sampling density with little additional cost. Guided selection of vis–NIR calibration samples reduced the need for conventional soil analysis. Error of spectroscopic model prediction was propagated by spatial analysis. Maps from the vis–NIR augmented dataset were almost as accurate as those from conventional soil analysis.

Defining and applying the concept of Favourable Reference Values for species habitats under the EU Birds and Habitats Directives : examples of setting favourable reference values
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Agrillo, E. ; Attorre, F. ; Boitani, L. ; Brunner, A. ; Evans, P. ; Foppen, R. ; Gubbay, S. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Langhout, W. ; Pacifici, M. ; Ramirez, I. ; Rondinini, C. ; Roomen, M. van; Siepel, H. ; Swaaij, C.A.M. van; Winter, H.V. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2929) - 219
Defining and applying the concept of Favourable Reference Values for species habitats under the EU Birds and Habitats Directives : technical report
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Agrillo, E. ; Attorre, F. ; Boitani, L. ; Brunner, A. ; Evans, P. ; Foppen, R. ; Gubbay, S. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Langhout, W. ; Noordhuis, R. ; Pacifici, M. ; Ramirez, I. ; Rondinini, C. ; Roomen, M. van; Siepel, H. ; Winter, H.V. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2928) - 93
Recent insights on uncertainties present in integrated catchment water quality modelling
Tscheikner-Gratl, Franz ; Bellos, Vasilis ; Schellart, Alma ; Moreno-Rodenas, Antonio ; Muthusamy, Manoranjan ; Langeveld, Jeroen ; Clemens, Francois ; Benedetti, Lorenzo ; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel ; Carvalho, Rita Fernandes de; Breuer, Lutz ; Shucksmith, James ; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M. ; Tait, Simon - \ 2019
Water Research 150 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 368 - 379.
Complexity management - Integrated catchment modelling - Sub-models of integrated modelling - Uncertainty - Water quality

This paper aims to stimulate discussion based on the experiences derived from the QUICS project (Quantifying Uncertainty in Integrated Catchment Studies). First it briefly discusses the current state of knowledge on uncertainties in sub-models of integrated catchment models and the existing frameworks for analysing uncertainty. Furthermore, it compares the relative approaches of both building and calibrating fully integrated models or linking separate sub-models. It also discusses the implications of model linkage on overall uncertainty and how to define an acceptable level of model complexity. This discussion includes, whether we should shift our attention from uncertainties due to linkage, when using linked models, to uncertainties in model structure by necessary simplification or by using more parameters. This discussion attempts to address the question as to whether there is an increase in uncertainty by linking these models or if a compensation effect could take place and that overall uncertainty in key water quality parameters actually decreases. Finally, challenges in the application of uncertainty analysis in integrated catchment water quality modelling, as encountered in this project, are discussed and recommendations for future research areas are highlighted.

Long-term effects of wild ungulates on the structure, composition and succession of temperate forests
Ramirez Chiriboga, J.I. ; Jansen, P.A. ; Ouden, J. den; Goudzwaard, L. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2019
Forest Ecology and Management 432 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 478 - 488.
Ungulates in temperate regions are increasing in range and abundance, leading to concerns that browsing and trampling reach levels that hamper tree recruitment and forest regeneration. However, studies that actually quantify the long-term effects of ungulates on forest succession are scarce. Here, we use a chronosequence of ungulate exclosures (fenced) and control (unfenced) plots to assess the long-term effects of ungulates on forest structure, diversity and litter depth in forests on poor sandy soils at the Veluwe, the Netherlands, which have moderate ungulate densities ( = 13.6 ungulates km−2). We surveyed the vegetation in 27 paired fenced and unfenced plots that ranged from 1 to 33 years old, and measured seven variables to characterize forest structure (stem density, canopy cover and understory vegetation cover), composition (Shannon diversity, species richness and conifer proportion) and leaf litter depth. We found on average that fencing compared to unfencing reduced understory vegetation cover (fenced = 64.3 ± 20.2%, unfenced = 80.3 ± 19.4%), increased canopy cover (fenced = 47.4 ± 30.1%, unfenced = 29.3 ± 21.1%), tree species richness (fenced = 4.5 ± 1.3 spp., unfenced = 2.7 ± 1.2 spp.), tree Shannon diversity (fenced = 1.1 ± 0.3 index, unfenced = 0.7 ± 0.3 index) and litter layer depth (fenced = 4.4 ± 1.4 cm, unfenced = 2.4 ± 1.1 cm). While fenced plots developed woody vegetation with palatable broadleaved species such as Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Prunus serotina, and Quercus robur, unfenced plots were not associated with any particular tree species. Our results show that current ungulate densities in this system have pronounced long-term effects on forest structure, composition and litter depth, implying that ungulates can slow down natural succession of temperate forest, from light demanding to shade tolerant species, by keeping the system in an arrested state consisting of light demanding species.
Small Fish and Food Security : Towards innovative integration of small fish in African food systems to improve nutrition
Kolding, Jeppe ; Overa, Ragnhild ; Kjellevold, Marian ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Pucher, Johannes ; Yaro, Joseph ; Njiru, James ; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony - \ 2018
In: WSFC 3rd world small-scale fisheries congress, Chiang Mai, Thailand, October 22-26, 2018. - - p. 57 - 57.
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