Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Integration of Algae to Improve Nitrogenous Waste Management in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems : A Review
    Ramli, Norulhuda Mohamed ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Yusoff, Fatimah M. ; Nurulhuda, K. ; Nagao, N. ; Verdegem, Marc C.J. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 8 (2020). - ISSN 2296-4185
    algal cultivation - ammonia - HRT - nitrate - nitrogen - recirculating aquaculture system - removal rates

    This review investigates the performance and the feasibility of the integration of an algal reactor in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The number of studies related to this topic is limited, despite the apparent benefit of algae that can assimilate part of the inorganic waste in RAS. We identified two major challenges related to algal integration in RAS: first, the practical feasibility for improving nitrogen removal performance by algae in RAS; second, the economic feasibility of integrating an algal reactor in RAS. The main factors that determine high algal nitrogen removal rates are light and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Besides these factors, nitrogen-loading rates and RAS configuration could be important to ensure algal performance in nitrogen removal. Since nitrogen removal rate by algae is determined by HRT, this will affect the size (area or volume) of the algal reactor due to the time required for nutrient uptake by algae and large surface area needed to capture enough light. Constraints related to design, space, light capture, and reactor management could incur additional cost for aquaculture production. However, the increased purification of RAS wastewater could reduce the cost of water discharge in places where this is subject to levees. We believe that an improved understanding of how to manage the algal reactor and technological advancement of culturing algae, such as improved algal reactor design and low-cost artificial light, will increase the practical and economic feasibility of algal integration in RAS, thus improving the potential of mass cultivation of algae in RAS.

    Next-generation biological control: the need for integrating genetics and genomics
    Leung, Kelley ; Ras, Erica ; Ferguson, Kim B. ; Ariëns, Simone ; Babendreier, Dirk ; Bijma, Piter ; Bourtzis, Kostas ; Brodeur, Jacques ; Bruins, Margreet A. ; Centurión, Alejandra ; Chattington, Sophie R. ; Chinchilla-Ramírez, Milena ; Dicke, Marcel ; Fatouros, Nina E. ; González-Cabrera, Joel ; Groot, Thomas V.M. ; Haye, Tim ; Knapp, Markus ; Koskinioti, Panagiota ; Hesran, Sophie Le; Lyrakis, Manolis ; Paspati, Angeliki ; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell ; Plouvier, Wouter N. ; Schlötterer, Christian ; Stahl, Judith M. ; Thiel, Andra ; Urbaneja, Alberto ; Zande, Louis van de; Verhulst, Eveline C. ; Vet, Louise E.M. ; Visser, Sander ; Werren, John H. ; Xia, Shuwen ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Magalhães, Sara ; Beukeboom, Leo W. ; Pannebakker, Bart A. - \ 2020
    Biological Reviews (2020). - ISSN 1464-7931
    artificial selection - biological control - genetics - genome assembly - genomics - insect breeding - microbiome - modelling

    Biological control is widely successful at controlling pests, but effective biocontrol agents are now more difficult to import from countries of origin due to more restrictive international trade laws (the Nagoya Protocol). Coupled with increasing demand, the efficacy of existing and new biocontrol agents needs to be improved with genetic and genomic approaches. Although they have been underutilised in the past, application of genetic and genomic techniques is becoming more feasible from both technological and economic perspectives. We review current methods and provide a framework for using them. First, it is necessary to identify which biocontrol trait to select and in what direction. Next, the genes or markers linked to these traits need be determined, including how to implement this information into a selective breeding program. Choosing a trait can be assisted by modelling to account for the proper agro-ecological context, and by knowing which traits have sufficiently high heritability values. We provide guidelines for designing genomic strategies in biocontrol programs, which depend on the organism, budget, and desired objective. Genomic approaches start with genome sequencing and assembly. We provide a guide for deciding the most successful sequencing strategy for biocontrol agents. Gene discovery involves quantitative trait loci analyses, transcriptomic and proteomic studies, and gene editing. Improving biocontrol practices includes marker-assisted selection, genomic selection and microbiome manipulation of biocontrol agents, and monitoring for genetic variation during rearing and post-release. We conclude by identifying the most promising applications of genetic and genomic methods to improve biological control efficacy.

    Rassenbulletin Voederbieten Klei 2020
    Brink, L. van den - \ 2020
    Lelystad : Wageningen University & Research, Open Teelten - 2 p.
    In dit Rassenbulletin worden de resultaten van het Rassenonderzoek Voederbieten weergegeven dat in 2017, 2018 en 2019 is uitgevoerd. De rassen zijn alle drie jaren onderzocht op één proef op zand (Vredepeel) en op één proef op klei (Lelystad). Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd door WUR Open Teelten. Een aantal waarnemingen is uitgevoerd door Delphy. Het was niet mogelijk om de rassen te testen op ziekteresistenties. Omdat het voor veel percelen in Nederland nodig is om te weten of een ras tolerant moet zijn voor rhizoctonia en/of rhizomanie is in een aparte kolom aangegeven welke tolerantie het ras volgens de kweker heeft. Per grondsoort is een rassenbulletin opgesteld. Het rassensortiment is ingedeeld in drogestofgehaltegroepen, waarbij per groep een aparte 100= is berekend. Bij de rassenkeuze is het van belang om eerst te bepalen of men een gemiddeld of een hoog drogestofgehalte wil. Vervolgens kan het gewenste ras gekozen worden.
    GeoFood: An example of circular economy by using geothermal heat, RAS and horticulture to produce fish and vegetables.
    Boedijn, Alexander - \ 2020
    Welfare of Farmed Fish in Different Production Systems and Operations
    Vis, J.W. van de; Kolarevic, Jelena ; Stien, L.H. ; Kristiansen, T.S. ; Gerritzen, M.A. ; Braak, Karin van de; Abbink, W. ; Saether, B.S. ; Noble, C. - \ 2020
    In: The welfare of fish / Kristiansen, T.S., Fernö, A., Pavlidis, M.A., van de Vis, H., Cham : Springer (Animal Welfare ) - ISBN 9783030416744 - p. 323 - 361.
    When fish are reared for food production in aquaculture, they can be held in different types of rearing systems and subjected to various husbandry routines and operations. Each of these systems or operations can present different welfare risks to the fish, which in turn are dependent upon both the species and its life stage. In this chapter, we address and outline potential welfare hazards the fish may encounter in a wide range of existing and emerging rearing systems used for on-growing. These systems include: (1) pond-based aquaculture, (2) flow-through systems, (3) semi-closed containment systems, (4) RAS, (5) net cages and (6) farming offshore using sea cages in exposed conditions. We also outline potential welfare hazards for two key farming operations: transport and slaughter. We present the tools the farmer can use to assess fish welfare during on-growing and also outline relevant welfare actions that can be taken to militate against welfare hazards.
    GEOFOOD – RAS and heating installation in The Netherlands : Half-yearly update report no. 2 – November 2019
    Boedijn, Alexander ; Poot, Eric de; Espinal, Carlos ; Ven, Rob van de - \ 2020
    Bleiswijk : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Greenhouse Horticulture (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Greenhouse Horticulture WPR-946) - 23
    Denitrification performance and microbial communities of solid-phase denitrifying reactors using poly (butylene succinate)/bamboo powder composite
    Qi, Wanhe ; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. ; Ruan, Yunjie ; Deng, Yale ; Chen, Ji Shuang ; Lu, Hui Feng ; Xu, Xiang Yang - \ 2020
    Bioresource Technology 305 (2020). - ISSN 0960-8524
    Bacterial community - Fungal community - PBS/Bamboo composite - RAS effluent treatment - Solid-phase denitrification

    This study explored the denitrification performance of solid-phase denitrification (SPD) systems packed with poly (butylene succinate)/bamboo powder composite to treat synthetic aquaculture wastewater under different salinity conditions (0‰ Vs. 25‰). The results showed composite could achieve the maximum denitrification rates of 0.22 kg (salinity, 0‰) and 0.34 kg NO3 -N m−3 d−1 (salinity, 25‰) over 200-day operation. No significant nitrite accumulation and less dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release (<15 mg/L) were found. The morphological and spectroscopic analyses demonstrated the mixture composites degradation. Microbial community analysis showed that Acidovorax, Simplicispira, Denitromonas, SM1A02, Marinicella and Formosa were the dominant genera for denitrifying bacteria, while Aspergillus was the major genus for denitrifying fungus. The co-network analysis also indicated the interactions between bacterial and fungal community played an important role in composite degradation and denitrification. The outcomes provided a potential strategy of DOC control and cost reduction for aquaculture nitrate removal by SPD.

    Modelling and dimensioning of circular food production systems fed by geothermal energy: Aquaponics
    Boedijn, A. ; Tsafaras, I. ; Ven, R. van den; Espinal, C.A. ; Thorarinsdottir, R. ; Turnšek, M. ; Baeza, E. - \ 2020
    Acta Horticulturae 1268 (2020). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 59 - 64.
    Hydroponics - Pike-perch - Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) - Thermal treatment network - Tomato

    The ongoing global push for sustainable food production has motivated both the greenhouse horticulture and aquaculture sectors to explore the potential of geothermal energy for heating as an alternative to fossil fuels. Greenhouses and fish farms experience distinct heat demand fluctuations throughout the year and therefore do not make consistent use of geothermal wells. Geothermal wells on the other hand, need to operate close to full capacity year-round to be profitable. An opportunity to improve the economic feasibility of geothermal heating infrastructure is to use circular food production systems, such as aquaponics, which can be operated as a thermal treatment network in order to increase heat extraction from geothermal well installations. The EU funded GEOFOOD project aims to analyze in detail how to optimise the design and operation of geothermal aquaponic facilities. To quantify the potential benefits, a predictive model was developed which simulates the heat balances present throughout the aquaponic-based thermal treatment network. The inputs include the relevant climate parameters of the location, the type of greenhouse/building for both facilities including climate control equipment, as well as crop and fish species. For a scenario considering a 5-ha Dutch tomato greenhouse it is found that geothermal heat extraction can be increased with 31% by combining it with an indoor pike-perch fish farm of 6544 m2, without the need of alternative energy sources during peak demands.

    Molecular and physiological responses to long-term carbon dioxide exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Mota, Vasco C. ; Nilsen, Tom Ole ; Gerwins, Jascha ; Gallo, Michele ; Kolarevic, Jelena ; Krasnov, Aleksei ; Terjesen, Bendik Fyhn - \ 2020
    Aquaculture 519 (2020). - ISSN 0044-8486
    CO - Differentially expressed genes - Hypercapnia - Recirculating aquaculture systems - Salmonids

    Optimal water quality is vital for the growth of Atlantic salmon aquaculture production. Recent data showed that Atlantic salmon feed intake and growth reduce linearly with increasing water carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, suggesting that even relatively low concentrations may impact fish performance. This study evaluated the molecular and physiological responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to long-term CO2 exposure. For this purpose, Atlantic salmon post-smolts (N = 900; 67 ± 8 g) were exposed to six CO2 treatments (5, 12, 19, 26, 33 and 40 mg/L) for 12-weeks (RAS phase) followed by non-CO2 exposure for a (<5 mg/L) period of 6-weeks (seawaterphase). Results from blood analysis of fish exposed to CO2 for 12 weeks showed that CO2 lead to significantly higher pH, K+, HCO3 and PCO2 and lower Na+ and Cl plasma concentrations. Whereas, haematocrit, Ca+, Mg2+, urea and glucose concentrations were similar among all CO2 treatments. After 6 weeks in the seawater phase, all the parameters that were previously altered, became similar among all CO2 treatments. Gill microarray results analysis showed 88 differentially expressed genes, resulting from the CO2 exposure. At the end of the RAS phase (week 12), fish exposed to high CO2 (40 mg/L) in comparison to fish exposed to low CO2 (5 mg/L), showed 60 down-regulated genes, including genes encoding proteins involved in immune responses, differentiation, and maintenance of tissue structure. There was no evidence for stress and metabolic changes directed to neutralization of disturbance caused with high CO2. After 6 weeks in the seawater phase, a switch of expression from down regulated to up-regulated was observed. In conclusion, the present study brings new insights on the molecular and physiological responses of Atlantic salmon post-smolts to long-term CO2 exposure. Several osmoregulation and acid-base balance parameters as well as gill gene expression levels were altered for as long as CO2 exposure persisted. Moreover, most of these parameters were linearly related with the environmental CO2 concentrations (5–40 mg/L range). The data from this study adds to recent findings that CO2 concentrations below the 15 mg/L threshold still have an impact on Atlantic salmon. This finding may be relevant for a better dimensioning and management of production systems where CO2 may accumulate in the water such as in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS).

    The effect of gas to liquid ratio on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss across a forced ventilated trickling filter
    Karimi, Davood ; Eding, Ep ; Aarnink, Andre J.A. ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter ; Verreth, Johan - \ 2020
    Aquacultural Engineering 88 (2020). - ISSN 0144-8609
    Carbon dioxide stripping - Degassing - Energy - Forced ventilation - Gas:Liquid ratio (GLR) - Heat - Nitrification - RAS - Trickling filter (TF)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the gas: liquid ratio (GLR) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss across a forced-ventilated trickling filter (TF) used as bioreactor. The effect of 8 different GLRs (1.2–15.7) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss from water passing a trickling filter were tested in random order. The TF was part of a pilot scale fresh water intensive recirculating aquaculture system and had a media bed height of 1.8 m, a diameter of 0.9 m, a specific surface area of 200 m2/m3 and was operated at a fixed hydraulic surface load of 9.42 m3/m2.h, a mean inlet water temperature of 27.0–27.5 °C, and a mean inlet pH ranging from 7.02–7.12. For each GLR, CO2 removal from water was calculated from CO2 measurements in the inlet and outlet air of the TF using an online infrared probe (developed for agriculture and greenhouses) and from 12 water measurements done once every 3 h during 2 subsequent days. The water inlet CO2 concentrations varied between 4.5–9.0 mg/L (calculated from total inorganic carbon and pH). The results showed that the CO2 removal from water to the air in a trickling filter increased from 3.1 mg/L at a GLR of 1 to 6.1 mg/L for a GLR of 15. The relationship between GLR and CO2 removal could be described as an asymptotic curve with the following equation [Formula presented]; (R2 = 0.91). A linear relation between total heat loss across the TF and the applied GLRs showed an average total heat loss of 33.2 kJ per cubic meter of air for all GLRs. Of the total heat loss on average 91 % was latent heat loss and 9 % sensible heat loss. This study showed that: (1) GLRs above 5 will not result in significant additional CO2 removal; (2) energy loss at a GLR of 5 is, under our experimental conditions with a mean inlet air temperature of 22.6 °C and an mean inlet air relative humidity of 66.9 %, 26.0 kJ per g CO2 removed.

    Next generation biological control – an introduction
    Hesran, Sophie Le; Ras, Erica ; Wajnberg, Eric ; Beukeboom, Leo W. - \ 2019
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 167 (2019)7. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 579 - 583.
    antagonistic micro-organisms - artificial selection - biocontrol - efficacy improvement - experimental evolution - genetic variation - induced plant resistance - molecular tools - natural enemies - parasitoids - pathogens - predators
    Hydroponic Technologies
    Maucieri, Carmelo ; Nicoletto, Carlo ; Os, Erik Van ; Anseeuw, Dieter ; Havermaet, Robin Van ; Junge, Ranka - \ 2019
    In: Aquaponics Food Production Systems / Goddek, Simon, Joyce, Alyssa, Kotzen, Benz, Burnell, Gavin M., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030159429 - p. 77 - 110.
    Hydroponics is a method to grow crops without soil, and as such, these systems are added to aquaculture components to create aquaponics systems. Thus, together with the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), hydroponic production forms a key part of the aqua-agricultural system of aquaponics. Many different existing hydroponic technologies can be applied when designing aquaponics systems. This depends on the environmental and financial circumstances, the type of crop that is cultivated and the available space. This chapter provides an overview of different hydroponic types, including substrates, nutrients and nutrient solutions, and disinfection methods of the recirculating nutrient solutions.
    Inzaaiverplichting vanggewas bepalend bij maisrassenkeuze
    Evers, A.G. - \ 2019
    Verantwoorde veehouderij
    Vanaf 1 januari 2019 is elke ondernemer op löss of zandgrond verplicht om zijn vanggewas voor 1 oktober in te zaaien. Bepaal nu of u dit gewas na de oogst zal inzaaien, onderzaaien of gelijktijdig met de mais gaat inzaaien. Maak op basis hiervan uw maisrassenkeuze. Houd hierbij ook rekening met een mogelijke droge zomer. Dat geldt zeker voor maisteelt op droge zandgronden. Een vroeg ras kan dan een goede optie zijn.
    DNA-test voor ras-identificatie van de zeldzame Nederlandse runderrassen
    Hulsegge, B. ; Schoon, Mira ; Windig, J.J. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Schurink, A. - \ 2019
    - p. 1 - 1.
    Risk assessment of exotic disease incursion and spread
    Cabral, M. ; Taylor, R. ; Vos, C.J. de - \ 2019
    EFSA Journal 17 (2019)S2. - ISSN 1831-4732
    generic model - Import risk assessment - introduction risk - livestock disease - validation

    This Technical Report describes the activities developed in the scope of the EU-FORA Fellowship, within the work programme of risk assessment (RA) of exotic disease incursion and spread, developed at Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR). The programme focused on the work carried out in the Generic risk assessment for introduction of animal diseases (G-RAID) project, which brings together a number of different generic RA tools from multiple European partners. The aim of the fellowship was to gain understanding of veterinary import risk assessment by using different RA tools and to learn how different algorithms can be used to calculate disease incursion risks. G-RAID's tools cover a wide range of RA methodologies; from purely qualitative, to semi-quantitative and fully stochastic quantitative methods, which allowed the fellow to understand a variety of algorithms used to produce the final risk estimate. The fellowship programme provided the fellow with the chance to learn in detail about how generic RAs are performed across Europe, understanding how to deal with the uncertainty and variability involved in RAs and the potential problems of data availability and reliability. The fellow made an inventory of publicly available databases on disease occurrence and international trade that could be used for import RA and assessed their quality and usefulness for the different generic RA tools. The programme also provided the fellow the opportunity to perform several import risk assessments using the RA tools of G-RAID. She completed a RA on African swine fever using the MINTRISK model developed by WBVR. Furthermore, she assessed the risk of foot and mouth disease introduction using the Rapid Risk Assessment Tool (RRAT) model developed by WBVR and the COMPARE model developed by the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). To this end, the fellow completed a short-term visit to APHA, enabling her to have additional training in quantitative RA and to expand her professional network in this area.

    Options to reuse sludge from striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878) ponds and recirculating systems
    Nhut, N. ; Hao, N.V. ; Bosma, R.H. ; Verreth, J.A.V. ; Eding, E.H. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. - \ 2019
    Aquacultural Engineering 87 (2019). - ISSN 0144-8609
    Biogas - Compost - Energy - Methane - Sludge - Striped catfish

    This paper compares the quantity and quality of solid waste obtained from traditional ponds and recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for striped catfish and evaluates methane and compost production from these wastes. Striped catfish sludge was collected from four commercial ponds along the Mekong river and from three indoor RAS. The amount of sludge dry matter produced per kilogram of fish in ponds was 6 times higher than that in RAS. However, the concentration of nutrients in solid waste from RAS was much higher, with better compost quality and higher methane yield than that of sludge from ponds. Out of the collected 381 L biogas, the methane yield of striped catfish's solid waste in RAS systems was 201 L per kg chemical oxygen demand (COD). In ponds, the collected 267 L biogas yielded 125 L CH4 per kg COD. The higher methane production from RAS sludge concurred with higher digestibility of COD: 58% for RAS versus 38% for ponds. The quality and quantity of methane from striped catfish sludge were lower than that for other animal manures, and the resulting electricity yield was low. Considering the higher nutrient concentration in RAS-sludge, we recommend the combination RAS and composting in reusing sludge, which is presently the best option for a more sustainable and cleaner striped catfish production system.

    Developing a stronger and better - tasting mushroom with unique features : An innovative multi-disciplinary approach
    Baars, Johan ; Mumm, Roland ; Stijger, Ineke ; Engel, Jasper ; Wehrens, Ron - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Plant Breeding (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Plant Breeding 2019-1) - 36
    Nederland is een van de grootste producenten van champignons in de wereld. Er zijn echter de laatste decennia slechts weinig nieuwe champignon-gebaseerde producten op de markt gekomen. Dit project beoogt een aanzet te leveren tot de ontwikkeling van champignonrassen die zich onderscheiden in smaak en die zich daarnaast zichtbaar onderscheiden van de huidige commercieel verkrijgbare champignons. Als eerste stap voor dergelijk toekomstig veredelingsonderzoek moeten metabolieten in champignons worden geïdentificeerd die voorspellende waarde hebben voor de smaak. Als dergelijke merker-moleculen betrouwbaar zijn geïdentificeerd, kan in een vervolgproject daadwerkelijk een veredelingstraject worden opgestart. Uit een collectie van ongeveer 250 wildisolaten van de champignons is een selectie gemaakt van 43 isolaten die de gehele genetische variatie van de collectie min of meer omvatten. Deze isolaten zijn opgekweekt in 6 verschillende teeltproeven en aangeboden aan een sensorisch panel dat verschillende aspecten van de smaak heeft beoordeeld. Statistische analyse van de resultaten laat zien dat hoewel voor de meeste isolaten de smaak erg lijkt op de commercieel beschikbare witte champignons, er een aantal isolaten zijn die anders smaken. Dezelfde champignons die zijn aangeboden aan het sensorisch panel zijn daarnaast onderzocht op metaboliet samenstelling. Het is nog niet mogelijk gebleken om de verschillen in smaak te koppelen aan specifieke metaboliet samenstellingen in de champignons. Een van de oorzaken is de grote variatie in beoordeling van smaakaspecten door het sensorisch panel. Daarnaast bleek bij vergelijking van de verschillende batches van controle ras A15, ook batch tot batch variatie op te treden in metabolietgehalten. Vervolgens is geprobeerd om de variatie in beoordeling door het sensorisch smaakpanel te verminderen door: • Veel minder rassen aanbieden aan het sensorisch panel • Rassen met grootst mogelijk verschil in smaak aanbieden • Interne herhalingen aanbieden als extra controle. Helaas bleek ook bij deze opzet het niet mogelijk om de beoordeling van de verschillende aspecten van champignonsmaak te koppelen aan merkermoleculen.
    Onderzaai: vroegrijp ras of tegelijk zaaien, wat zijn de opties?
    Verhoeven, J.T.W. - \ 2019
    Onderzaai: vroegrijp ras of tegelijk zaaien, wat zijn de opties?
    Verhoeven, J.T.W. - \ 2019
    Van der Veen houdt levend erfgoed Fries ras in stand
    Schurink, A. ; Windig, J.J. ; Sulkers, H. ; Hulsegge, B. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2019
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