Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    After the facts: Producing, using and contesting knowledge in two spatial-environmental conflicts in the Netherlands
    Roth, Dik ; Köhne, Michiel ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Winnubst, Madelinde - \ 2020
    Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space (2020). - ISSN 2399-6544
    Citizen protest - flood risk management - knowledge - knowledge actors - shale gas

    While the problematic role of knowledge in controversial policy processes is widely acknowledged, relatively little is known about how protesting citizen groups involved in such controversies construct, mobilize and use knowledge. This article explores these issues in two conflicts about planned interventions in the Netherlands. The first case, about energy policies, concerns protests against plans for shale gas extraction. In the second case, concerning flood risk management, citizens organized protests against a planned ‘bypass’ of the River Waal. To better understand the role of citizen groups as knowledge actors, we analyse how these groups organized and strategized their protests and produced, used and contested knowledge to claim voice in decision-making. The study shows the key role of citizen groups as knowledge actors in contested planning processes, and of their knowledge strategies in internally divided communities. It also shows the importance of the source and type of knowledge and how it is constructed, mobilized and used in various stages of resistance against policy plans.

    “It’s Not in the Course Guide!” Reflections from a Dutch Field School on How Students Learn to Do Fieldwork
    Rasch, Elisabet ; Verschuuren, Bas ; Thomas, Marc Simon ; Cremers, Gijs - \ 2020
    Anthropology & Education 51 (2020)3. - ISSN 0161-7761 - p. 376 - 386.
    In this reflection we unpack students’ first fieldwork experiences and how this parallels a rite de passage. We do so in two domains: (1) students' first fieldwork with a focus on entering the field, staying in the field, and researcher identity; and (2) the impact of fieldwork experiences on students’ professional skills. Two struggles are prominent: letting go of the idea of “objectivity” and learning to deal with the whimsicalities of doing fieldwork.
    Becoming a maya woman: Beauty pageants at the intersection of indigeneity, gender and class in quetzaltenango, Guatemala
    Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2020
    Journal of Latin American Studies 52 (2020)1. - ISSN 0022-216X - p. 133 - 156.
    Agency - Beauty pageants - Gender - Guatemala - Indigenous identity

    Indigenous beauty pageants can be seen as a way of re-appropriating indigenous identity. This article approaches beauty pageants as being situated in multiple systems of power at four levels of contestation: (1) reproducing gender relations and creating new professional and political opportunities; (2) constituting a site for cultural and political agency and delimiting the ways to 'be a Maya woman'; (3) reproducing class relations in terms of access to the event and contributing to social awareness of beauty queens; (4) as a social event consolidating (gender) relations within the family. The findings are based on longitudinal (2002-14) ethnographic fieldwork in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Hydraulic fracturing in rural communities : Local realities and resistance
    Köhne, Michiel ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2019
    In: The Routledge Companion to Rural Planning Taylor and Francis Inc. - ISBN 9781138104051 - p. 557 - 565.
    This chapter examines the impacts of hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’), a form of unconventional gas extraction, on rural communities. While some potential in terms of employment growth and the construction sector are considered, as well as the rationale behind such approaches to development, this chapter focuses mostly on the increasing resistance against fracking. Such conflicts are often rooted in varying ideas about land and land-use and differing meanings of natural resources in general. The analysis of contemporary fracking and land use conflicts draws on examples from the fast-growing literature on the impacts of fracking in Australia, the United States and Europe, as well as our own research. In addition, the ways environmental conflicts evolve in the domain of hydraulic fracturing are examined drawing parallels with wind energy and mineral extraction debates.
    Energy practices and the construction of energy democracy in the noordoostpolder the Netherlands
    Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Köhne, Michiel - \ 2018
    In: Energy, Resource Extraction and Society Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9780815380153 - p. 70 - 87.

    This chapter analyses how energy democracy is constructed through past and present energy practices. We do so by way of a case study of a Dutch municipality, the Noordoostpolder, where residents successfully resisted a nuclear power plant and the extraction of shale gas and today work towards a local transition to renewable energy. We argue that energy practices can be transformative and that they mediate and produce new norms and practices of energy production that come together in the construction of energy democracy from below. We argue that contemporary renewable energy practices are rooted in local energy histories, rather than in ideological considerations about sustainability. It is through these energy practices that “sustainable” and “local ownership” are rendered key elements of energy democracy and imaginations of new energy futures. Economic viability, options for creating universal access, alignment with sustainable lifestyles, technological innovations and possibilities for maintaining a comfortable lifestyle are all important considerations in the construction of energy democracy in the Noordoostpolder, discursively and in practice.

    Is ‘activist’ a dirty word? Place identity, activism and unconventional gas development across three continents
    Luke, Hanabeth ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Evensen, Darrick ; Köhne, Michiel - \ 2018
    The Extractive Industries and Society 5 (2018)4. - ISSN 2214-790X - p. 524 - 534.
    Activism - Coal seam gas - Fracking - Place identity - Shale gas - Social identity

    Communities respond to unconventional gas in a variety of ways. In some communities, industry has held a social license, while in other areas, industrial development has been slowed, halted, or prevented by social resistance. Repeatedly, across multiple nations and communities, we have observed that social identities that either incorporate or eschew activism intersect with perceptions of this development's effect on place identity to either foster or discourage opposition. Particularly interesting are cases in which fracking is perceived to threaten local place identity, but where activism conflicts with social identity. To mobilise different sectors of the population, it often appears important for local residents to be perceived as ‘regular citizens’ and not as activists. We explore how intersection of social identities and place identity shaped the different ways in which communities in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United States have responded to unconventional gas development. Communities resisting development often see ‘activism’ as something that ‘outsiders’ do and that must be rejected as insufficiently objective and neutral. This view of activism and activists produces specific forms of resistance that differ from typical ‘activist’ actions, in which ‘knowledge’, ‘information’, neutrality, and objectivity are particularly important.

    Internationalized Framing in Social Movements against Mining in India and the Philippines
    Borde, Radhika ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2018
    Journal of Developing Societies 34 (2018)2. - ISSN 0169-796X - p. 195 - 218.
    framing - India - Indigenous peoples - mining - Philippines - social movements
    There are several documented cases of indigenous peoples’ conflicts with mining companies, often for the reason that the land planned for mining is sacred or culturally significant to them. This article presents a comparative analysis of two specific anti-mining social movements in India and the Philippines that combined an emphasis on environmental protection with an emphasis on indigenous cultural rights. We show how the emphasis on indigeneity in these social movements played itself out in relation to globalized frames, as well as the other frames within which the movements were also situated.
    Belonging to and in the Shale Gas Fields. A Case-Study of the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands
    Köhne, Michiel ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2018
    Sociologia Ruralis 58 (2018)3. - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 604 - 624.
    This article analyses how belonging becomes articulated in relation to large-scale extractive projects. It does so through an ethnographic analysis of the construction of belonging expressed in languages of valuation (the meanings that people give to natural resources discursively and in practice) in the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands. Belonging is understood to encompass ‘feeling at home in a place’ and the political processes through which belonging becomes a discursive resource (the politics of belonging). We conclude that the ways people position themselves toward shale gas extraction are both rooted in how they give meaning to and interact with their environment and embedded in local history and ideas of political agency and voice. Only those elements of belonging that are considered objective or useful as a policy solution are used as a discursive resource in mobilisation against shale gas. The article is based on 2,5 years of ethnographic fieldwork.
    Citizens, criminalization and violence in natural resource conflicts in Latin America
    Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2017
    European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies = Revista Europea de estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe (2017)103. - ISSN 0924-0608 - p. 131 - 142.
    In Latin America grassroots organizing against megaprojects such as open pit mining, oil extraction, hydro dams and large plantations goes hand in hand with increased criminalization of social protest and violations of the human rights of activists. This results in numerous communities demanding a clean environment, participation, and justice - all at the same time. They not only face foreign companies, but are also caught in the middle of armed and non-armed actors that contest the same territory and its natural resources. Their resistance is considered as a threat to internal security; citizens are increasingly viewed as criminals. This paper suggests new avenues for research that is located at the nexus of local resistance towards megaprojects and the increase of human rights violations and criminalization in natural resource conflicts. It proposes, first, to approach natural resource conflicts as hybrid spaces where citizenship is constructed in relation to multiple actors that engage in processes of providing, protecting and violating citizenship rights, and second, to study such processes by way of slow ethnography. Such an approach to natural resource conflicts paves the way not only for understanding how citizens engage in acts of resistance and experience violations of human rights, but also how such processes shape new subject-positions. Keywords: Latin America, extraction, citizenship, human rights, violence, engaged ethnography.
    Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa
    Shikuku, Kelvin M. ; Winowiecki, Leigh ; Twyman, Jennifer ; Eitzinger, Anton ; Perez, Juan G. ; Mwongera, Caroline ; Läderach, Peter - \ 2017
    Climate Risk Management 16 (2017). - ISSN 2212-0963 - p. 234 - 245.
    Climate risks - East Africa - Farmers’ attitudes - Livelihood-based adaptation - Rasch analysis

    Adapting to climate risks is central to the goal of increasing food security and enhancing resilience of farming systems in East Africa. We examined farmers’ attitudes and assessed determinants of adaptation using data from a random sample of 500 households in Borana, Ethiopia; Nyando, Kenya; Hoima, Uganda; and Lushoto, Tanzania. Adaptation was measured using a livelihood-based index that assigned weights to different individual strategies based on their marginal contributions to a household's livelihood. Results showed that farmers’ attitudes across the four sites strongly favored introduction of new crops, changes in crop varieties, and changes in planting times. Farmers disfavored soil, land, and water management practices. At lower levels of adaptation (25% quantile), adaptation index correlated positively with membership to farmers’ groups, household size, sex of the household head, and number of months of food shortage. Farmer group membership enhanced adaptation at intermediate (50% quantile) level whereas access to credit increased adaptation at high (75% quantile) level. Food insecurity, however, correlated negatively with the likelihood to choose individual adaptation strategies suggesting that although households adapted to improve food security status of their households, hunger was a barrier to adaptation. Our findings suggest that providing climate information to inform timely planting, promoting crop diversification, and encouraging adoption of adapted varieties of crops might be successful to enhancing resilience of farming systems in the short-term. In the long-term, increased investment in reducing hunger, encouraging groups formation, and easing liquidity constraints will be required to promote adaptation through implementation of soil, water, and land management strategies.

    Practices and imaginations of energy justice in transition. A case study of the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands
    Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Kohne, Michiel - \ 2017
    Energy Policy 107 (2017). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 607 - 614.
    Energy justice - Energy transition - Environmental justice - Ethnography - Renewable energy - Shale gas

    Renewable energy technologies are often idealized as environmentally innocent alternatives to fossil fuels. Fossil fuel extraction is often considered as 'unjust' and renewable energy as the 'just' alternative. At the same time renewable energy projects, such as wind parks, are often resisted because of the uneven impacts of its infrastructure. This paper analyses such ambiguous meanings of energy justice (social justice issues related to energy) along the lines of its three tenets: distributional, procedural and recognition justice, aiming to understand how energy justice is constructed from below. It does so on the basis of a case study in the Noordoostpolder (the Netherlands) where plans for extracting shale gas went together with both large-scale and small-scale renewable energy practices. The paper analyses how energy justice is 'made' by how people resist shale gas and engage in 'renewable energy practices' and as such produce new imaginations and normativities of energy justice. Such an ethnographic approach helps to understand energy justice as a process of co-construction of activists, policy makers and scholars and as such responds to recent calls for a human-centred approach to the study of energy transitions. The paper is based on two and a half years of ethnographic fieldwork in the Noordoostpolder.

    Content Validity of a Short Calcium Intake List to Estimate Daily Dietary Calcium Intake of Patients with Osteoporosis
    Rasch, L.A. ; Schueren, M.A.E. de van der; Tuyl, L.H.D. van; Bultink, I.E.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Lems, W.F. - \ 2017
    Calcified Tissue International 100 (2017)3. - ISSN 0171-967X - p. 271 - 277.
    Calcium - Dietary history - Osteoporosis - Questionnaire - Supplementation - Validation
    Purpose: Calcium supplements are prescribed for prevention of osteoporotic fractures, but there is controversy whether excess of calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular events. While an accurate estimation of dietary calcium intake is a prerequisite to prescribe the adequate amount of supplementation, the most adequate tools for estimating intake are time-consuming. The aim of this study is to validate a short calcium intake list (SCaIL) that is feasible in daily clinical practice. Methods: Based on the food groups contributing most to daily dietary calcium intake and portion sizes determined in an earlier study, a three-item, 1-min SCaIL was designed. As a reference method, an extensive dietary history (DH) with specific focus on calcium-rich foods and extra attention for portion sizes was performed. Beforehand, a difference of ≥250 mg calcium between both methods was considered clinically relevant. Results: Sixty-six patients with either primary (n = 40) or secondary (n = 26) osteoporosis were included. On average, the SCaIL showed a small and clinically non-relevant difference in calcium intake with the DH: 24 ± 350 mg/day (1146 ± 440 vs. 1170 ± 485 mg, respectively; p = 0.568). Sensitivity and specificity of the SCaIL, compared to the DH, were 73 and 80%, respectively. However, in 50% of the individuals, a clinically relevant difference of ≥250 mg calcium was observed between both methods, while in 17% this was even ≥500 mg. Conclusions: The SCaIL is a quick and easy questionnaire to estimate dietary calcium intake at a group level, but is not sufficiently reliable for use in individual patients. Remarkably, the mean dietary calcium intake estimated by the DH of 1170 mg/day indicates that a large proportion of osteoporosis patients might not even need calcium supplementation, although more data are needed to confirm this finding.
    ‘There is no law that justifies the existence of the board of elders’. Community service and legal pluralism in Santa María, Guatemala
    Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm - \ 2016
    Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 48 (2016)1. - ISSN 0732-9113 - p. 41 - 57.
    community service - globalization of rights - Guatemala - indigenous authorities - indigenous rights - legal pluralism

    This article analyzes how indigenous peoples actively engage in the negotiation of international, national and local legal frameworks in Guatemala. The aim of the article is to explain paradoxical outcomes of global legal pluralism through an actor-oriented approach to the construction of legal frameworks and the meaning of rights. It does so by means of a case study of the dissolution of an indigenous social institution: the cargo system. The case study involves a multiplicity of power relations. It is argued that these power relations enable an understanding of the different ways in which local actors engage in processes of constructing legal frameworks ‘on the ground’. This article will provide insight into how new legal frameworks constitute social realities. In addition, it will show how personal identifications and experiences are translated into legal practices. Finally, the case study reveals how the struggle for rights both reflects and produces tensions among ethnic, national, social economic and religious identities.

    Two Engaged Academics in the Dutch Shale Gas Fields
    Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Köhne, Michiel - \ 2016
    Practicing Anthropology 38 (2016)3. - ISSN 0888-4552 - p. 60 - 61.
    Hydraulic fracturing, energy transition and political engagement in the Netherlands : The energetics of citizenship
    Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Köhne, Michiel - \ 2016
    Energy Research & Social Science 13 (2016). - ISSN 2214-6296 - p. 106 - 115.
    Citizenship - Energy transition - Hydraulic fracturing - Resistance

    This paper analyses how citizens (re)define their relation to the state in the contestation of hydraulic fracturing in the Noordoostpolder (the Netherlands) in the context of energy transition. It approaches citizenship as the negotiations between governments and citizens about in-and exclusion in decision-making processes and argues that these are also produced at the site of energy transition. It focuses on how residents of the Noordoostpolder construct their citizenship, resisting the advent of fracking in their environment while at the same time negotiating their own inclusion in decision-making processes. Our ethnographic material encompasses almost a year of these negotiations starting shortly after the announcement of the Noordoostpolder as a site for exploratory drilling, when people feel highly disempowered and excluded. We closely follow a process of gradual empowerment in the face of energy transition as inhabitants start to produce their own knowledge base and coalesce into unusual partnerships to negotiate their inclusion. Our main argument is that negotiations about hydraulic fracturing in relation to energy transition goes beyond energy issues. It is also -if not mostly -about who gets to decide on energy and land use.

    Advocacy for Development: Effectiveness, Monitoring and Evaluation
    Barrett, J.B. ; Wessel, M.G.J. van; Hilhorst, D.J.M. ; Arensman, B. ; Klaver, D.C. ; Richert, Wolfgang ; Bodegom, A.J. van; Waegeningh, C. van; Rasch, E.D. ; Wagemakers, A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - 98
    development - monitoring - evaluation - ontwikkeling - monitoring - evaluatie
    Monitoring and evaluation of advocacy for development is an emerging field. Many CSOs, donors and evaluators are now involved with advocacy. Questions of how to understand and assess programmes are urgent. This e-book seeks to contribute to practical capacity on this front on the basis of lessons learned during the largest evaluation of advocacy for development in history.
    Micropolitics in Resistance: The Micropolitics of Large-Scale Natural Resource Extraction in South East Asia
    Rasch, E.D. ; Kohne, F.M. - \ 2016
    Society & Natural Resources 29 (2016)4. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 479 - 492.
    Micropolitics - resistance - natural resources - extraction - south east asia - society
    This article analyzes Southeast Asian local communities’ resistance against the globalizing large-scale exploitation of natural resources using a micropolitical ecology approach. It focuses on how communities struggle for livelihoods, both resisting and appropriating globalized practices and narratives. Our ethnographic material encompasses natural resource conflicts in two communities: one on Sumatra (Indonesia) and one on Palawan (the Philippines). In both communities foreign and national companies have laid claims on community lands, transforming local power relations and wealth distribution as well as the relations of the communities vis-à-vis globalized production and the state. Communities often split over such transformations; some members negotiate a share in the globalized markets, while others organize resistance against these developments. The article argues that the specifics of this resistance against globalization can only be explained by taking into account the “micropolitics” within which they are produced, which calls for an ethnographic research approach to globalization.
    MFS II Joint Evaluation of International Lobbying and Advocacy : Endline Report
    Arensman, B. ; Barrett, J.B. ; Bodegom, A.J. van; Hilhorst, D.J.M. ; Klaver, D.C. ; Rasch, E.D. ; Richert, Wolfgang ; Waegeningh, Cornelie Van; Wagemakers, A. ; Wessel, M.G.J. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Social Sciences Group (MFS II ILA Endline Report ) - 668 p.
    On-line proceedings: Places of possibility? : Rural societies in a neoliberal world
    Duncan, J.A.B. ; Rasch, E.D. - \ 2015
    In: On-line proceedings: Places of possibility? Rural societies in a neoliberal world James Hutton Institute - ISBN 9780902701144 - 121 p.
    Feiten over boortorens en chemicaliën maken nog geen schaliegasbeleid
    Kohne, F.M. ; Rasch, E.D. - \ 2015
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