Global distribution of earthworm diversity
Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.
Effects of long-term chlorpyrifos exposure on mortality and reproductive tissues of Banded Gourami (Trichogaster fasciata)
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Yesmin, Most Farzana ; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Bosma, Roel H. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Rashid, Harunur - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides Food Contaminants, and agricultural wastes 54 (2019)7. - ISSN 0360-1234 - p. 549 - 559.
Aquatic environment - fish - histopathology - organophosphate pesticide - reproductive toxicity
This study assessed the long-term toxicity of chlorpyrifos on survival and reproduction of Banded Gourami by using mortality, gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histopathological observations as endpoints. Adult fish were exposed to five different concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0, 15, 50, 150, 500 µg/L) in 15 PVC tanks for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days. Results showed that all male and female fish died after 15 days of 500 µg/L chlorpyrifos exposure. No consistent significant effect was observed for both male and female GSI. Furthermore, results showed dose- and time-dependent histopathological alterations for both ovary and testes. The 60-d No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) for most histopathological alterations of Banded Gourami ovary and testes was 50 μg/L, while 60-d NOEC for mortality of both male and female fish was < 15 μg/L. The results show that the long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos not only affect the reproductive tissues of Banded Gourami at exposure concentrations but also cause their mortality. Future studies should evaluate effects at lower concentrations.
Effects of insecticides on aquatic ecosystems in Bangladesh
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.J. Brink, co-promotor(en): R.H. Bosma; E.T.H.M. Peeters; H. Rashid. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434737 - 153
In Bangladesh, the intensification of agriculture is indispensable due to its ever increasing population, the food security needs, and land scarcity. Severe agro-climatic events (e.g. flash floods, seasonal water scarcity and salinity intrusion in coastal land) pose further difficulties to crop production. To meet the growing demand of food under these harsh conditions, farmers are using a variety of pesticides indiscriminately; a sharp increase of their use was observed during the last decades. Residues of pesticide applied on agricultural land may enter into the aquatic environment through drain, runoff and spray drift, thereby contaminating this environment. Hence, this PhD thesis aimed to investigate the human health issues and ecological risks on aquatic ecosystems posed by the large scale use of pesticides in Bangladesh.
In Chapter 1 the current status of pesticide use in intensive agriculture in Bangladesh is described together with their associated potential risks on the aquatic environments posed by pesticides. The available studies on assessing the fate and effects of pesticides for the (sub-) tropical aquatic ecosystems are reported. Chapter 1 describes the knowledge gap regarding the environmental risks of pesticides in the context of Bangladesh and discusses the tired-based approach to take into account for the risk assessment in Bangladesh.
Chapter 2 outlines the information on the current status of pesticide use in rice-prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and human health issues posed by the application of pesticides. The ecological risks of 10 pesticides for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were assessed using exposure and effect models. The TOXSWA model calculated pesticide exposure (peak and time-weighted average concentrations) in surface waters of rice-prawn systems for different spray drift scenarios. The simple first-tier risk assessment for these 10 pesticides were performed using a risk quotient (RQ) method. The results of RQ method indicated that chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin and malathion may pose a high to moderate acute and chronic risks for invertebrates and fish for all spray drift scenarios. The higher-tier PERPEST effect model confirmed the high risks of cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos for insects and macro- and micro-crustaceans, which were previously derived by the RQ-based risk assessment approach.
Chapter 3 presents the results of a chemical monitoring in surface water and sediment samples of north-west Bangladesh. The residues of the 10 most commonly used organophosphate insecticides in surface water and sediment samples were measured in that region. Like Chapter 2 of this thesis, the risk assessment of the concentrations of these 10 insecticides for fish, Daphnia and algae was started with a deterministic RQ method based on measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and the threshold concentrations derived from single species toxicity tests. The results showed high acute and/or chronic RQs (RQ > 1) in surface water and sediment for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, quinalphos, malathion and fenitrothion. The higher-tier PERPEST effect model also confirmed the risks of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, quinalphos and fenitrothion for aquatic insects, micro- and macro-crustaceans.
Chapter 4 describes the fate and effects of imidacloprid on several structural and functional endpoints of freshwater ecosystems in Bangladesh as evaluated in freshwater outdoor microcosms. The safe threshold values (i.e. NOECs) of imidacloprid for the individual taxa, community and water quality variables were derived for (sub-)tropical Bangladesh. Single species toxicity tests were also performed using the two most responding species (e.g. Cloeon sp. and Diaptomus sp.) of the microcosm study. The sensitivity of several arthropod species to imidacloprid was much higher in sub-tropical country Bangladesh compared to their temperate counterparts.
Chapter 5 elucidates the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the developmental stages of Banded Gourami (Trichogaster fasciata), which is a local freshwater fish species in Bangladesh. In this chapter, the effects of chlorpyrifos on the incubation period of embryo, hatching success, mortality of embryos and two-day old larvae of Banded Gourami are discussed. Several malformations of larvae including irregular head and eye shape, lordosis, body arcuation, notochordal abnormality and caudal fin damage when exposed to 10 and 100 μg/L chlorpyrifos were also demonstrated.
Chapter 6 investigates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the mortality and the reproductive tissues of male and female Banded Gourami (Trichogaster fasciata) over a period of 75 days. The threshold values (NOECs) for male and female mortality, GSI, histopathological alterations of ovary and testis for different time interval were derived in this chapter. The results show that the long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos affect the reproductive tissues of Banded Gourami at exposure concentrations that cause mortality also.
In chapter 7 the major findings of different studies are discussed and after an overview of the conclusions, this thesis recommends: (1) to promote the suitable averting behaviour by farmers during pesticide application, (2) to conduct future experimental, monitoring and model validation studies nationwide, in order to better characterize the risks posed by pesticides for Bangladeshi aquatic ecosystems, (3) to improve the technical facilities (i.e. analytical verification) for future laboratory studies, (4) to reduce the pesticide use based on the recommended dosage by agricultural extension officers, and (5) to seek alternatives of pesticide use through the adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) practices to avoid the risks posed by pesticides.
Environmental monitoring and risk assessment of organophosphate pesticides in aquatic ecosystems of north-west Bangladesh
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Rashid, Harunur ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Bosma, Roel H. ; Brink, Paul J. Van Den - \ 2018
Chemosphere 206 (2018). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 92 - 100.
The use of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) to protect a variety of crops has increased in Bangladesh. OPPs may contaminate surrounding aquatic environments through several routes including spray drift, surface runoff and groundwater leaching. Since it is unknown how much OPP end ups in aquatic environment in Bangladesh, the objectives of the present study were to quantify the residues of ten most commonly used OPPs in water and sediment of water bodies of north-west Bangladesh and to assess their ecological risks for aquatic organisms. The risks of the pesticides in surface water and sediment were assessed using a first-tier risk quotient (RQ) approach. The higher-tier PERPEST model was used to refine the ecological risks of pesticides when RQ indicated a potential risk. Results showed the most frequently detected pesticides that appeared in high concentrations were chlorpyrifos, diazinon and quinalphos in surface water and sediment. The highest concentration of OPPs measured in water was 9.1 mg chlorpyrifos/L (median of 1.95 mg/L), while this was 51 mg diazinon/kg dw (median of 11 mg/kg dw) for sediment. Furthermore, results showed high acute and/or chronic RQs (RQ > 1) in surface water and sediment for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, quinalphos, malathion and fenitrothion. The higher-tier PERPEST model confirmed risks of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, quinalphos and fenitrothion for aquatic insects, microand macro-crustaceans which were previously derived by RQ-based risk assessment for aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the results of the PERPEST model also indicated possible indirect effects of these pesticides on algae and macrophytes, community metabolism, rotifers and other macro-invertebrates
Effects of imidacloprid on the ecology of sub-tropical freshwater microcosms
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Ritika, Afifat Khanam ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Rashid, Harunur ; Bosma, Roel H. ; Rahman, Md Shahidur ; Fatema, Mst Kaniz ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2018
Environmental Pollution 236 (2018). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 432 - 441.
Bangladesh - Freshwater ecosystem - Insecticide - Neonicotinoid
The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid is used in Bangladesh for a variety of crop protection purposes. Imidacloprid may contaminate aquatic ecosystems via spray drift, surface runoff and ground water leaching. The present study aimed at assessing the fate and effects of imidacloprid on structural (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and periphyton) and functional (organic matter decomposition) endpoints of freshwater, sub-tropical ecosystems in Bangladesh. Imidacloprid was applied weekly to 16 freshwater microcosms (PVC tanks containing 400 L de-chlorinated tap water) at nominal concentrations of 0, 30, 300, 3000 ng/L over a period of 4 weeks. Results indicated that imidacloprid concentrations from the microcosm water column declined rapidly. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed significant effects of imidacloprid on the zooplankton and macroinvertebrate community, some individual phytoplankton taxa, and water quality variables (i.e. DO, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate), with Cloeon sp., Diaptomus sp. and Keratella sp. being the most affected species, i.e. showing lower abundance values in all treatments compared to the control. The observed high sensitivity of Cloeon sp. and Diaptomus sp. was confirmed by the results of single species tests. No significant effects were observed on the species composition of the phytoplankton, periphyton biomass and organic matter decomposition for any of the sampling days. Our study indicates that (sub-)tropical aquatic ecosystems can be much more sensitive to imidacloprid compared to temperate ones.
Bedding additives reduce ammonia emission and improve crop N uptake after soil application of solid cattle manure
Shah, Ghulam Abbas ; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Traore, Bouba ; Lantinga, Egbert A. - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Management 209 (2018). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 195 - 204.
Bedding additives - Lava meal - Organic farming - Solid cattle manure - Waste recycling - Zeolite
This study examined the influences of three potential additives, i.e., lava meal, sandy soil top-layer and zeolite (used in animal bedding) amended solid cattle manures on (i) ammonia (NH3), dinitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and (ii) maize crop or grassland apparent N recovery (ANR). Diffusion samplers were installed at 20 cm height on grassland surface to measure the concentrations of NH3 from the manures. A photoacoustic gas monitor was used to quantitate the fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 after manures’ incorporation into the maize-field. Herbage ANR was calculated from dry matter yield and N uptake of three successive harvests, while maize crop ANR was determined at cusp of juvenile stage, outset of grain filling as well as physiological maturity stages. Use of additives decreased the NH3 emission rates by about two-third from the manures applied on grassland surface than control untreated-manure. Total herbage ANR was more than doubled in treated manures and was 25% from manure amended with farm soil, 26% and 28% from zeolite and lava meal, respectively compared to 11% from control manure. In maize experiment, mean N2O and CO2 emission rates were the highest from the latter treatment but these rates were not differed from zero control in case of manures amended with farm soil or zeolite. However, mean CH4 emissions was not differed among all treatments during the whole measuring period. The highest maize crop ANR was obtained at the beginning of grain filling stage (11–40%), however ample lower crop recoveries (8–14%) were achieved at the final physiological maturity stage. This phenomenon was occurred due to leaf senescence N losses from maize crop during the period of grains filling. The lowest losses were observed from control manure at this stage. Hence, all additives decreased the N losses from animal manure and enhanced crop N uptake thus improved the agro-environmental worth of animal manure.
Toxicity of cypermethrin on the embryo and larvae of Gangetic mystus, Mystus cavasius
Ali, Md Haider ; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Sultana, Marin ; Rashid, Harunur - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (2018)4. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 3193 - 3199.
Aquatic ecosystem - Early-stage toxicity - Gangetic mystus - Malformation - Pyrethroid insecticide
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effects of cypermethrin on the embryo and the larvae of Gangetic mystus, Mystus cavasius. Therefore, fertilized eggs (n = 100) and 1-day-old larvae (n = 100) were exposed to six different concentrations of cypermethrin (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 μg L−1) in each of the 18 plastic bowls. Each of the treatment and control was maintained in three replicates. The LC10 and LC50 values for Gangetic mystus embryos and larvae were calculated using probit analysis. Results showed the mortality of embryos significantly increased with increasing cypermethrin concentrations. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 (with 95% confidence interval) values of cypermethrin for embryo were 0.42 (0.14–0.81) and 5.60 (4.16–7.19) μg L−1, respectively. Hatching success decreased and mortality of larvae increased significantly with increasing cypermethrin concentrations. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of cypermethrin for larvae were 1.72 (1.24–2.20) and 11.57 (10.09–13.42) μg L−1, respectively; the 48-h LC10 and LC50 for larvae were 1.34 (0.83–1.89) and 8.25 (6.87–9.91) μg L−1, respectively; the 72-h LC10 and LC50 for larvae were 1.13 (0.63–1.66) and 6.12 (4.91–7.47) μg L−1, respectively. Furthermore, results showed several malformations in embryos and larvae when exposed to the two highest concentrations of cypermethrin. The findings of the study suggest that 2 μg L−1 cypermethrin concentration in the aquatic environment may have deleterious effects on the development and the reproduction of Gangetic mystus.
Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand?
Timsina, J. ; Wolf, J. ; Guilpart, N. ; Bussel, L.G.J. van; Grassini, P. ; Wart, J. van; Hossain, A. ; Rashid, H. ; Islam, S. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 163 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 36 - 44.
Cropland area - Food security - Land use change scenarios - Self-sufficiency ratio - Yield gap - Yield potential
Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and wheat production by the years 2030 and 2050 by closing the existing gap (Yg) between yield potential (Yp) and actual farm yield (Ya), accounting for possible changes in cropland area. Yield potential and yield gaps were calculated for the three crops using well-validated crop models and site-specific weather, management and soil data, and upscaled to the whole country. We assessed potential grain production in the years 2030 and 2050 for six land use change scenarios (general decrease in arable land; declining ground water tables in the north; cropping of fallow areas in the south; effect of sea level rise; increased cropping intensity; and larger share of cash crops) and three levels of Yg closure (1: no yield increase; 2: Yg closure at a level equivalent to 50% (50% Yg closure); 3: Yg closure to a level of 85% of Yp (irrigated crops) and 80% of water-limited yield potential or Yw (rainfed crops) (full Yg closure)). In addition, changes in demand with low and high population growth rates, and substitution of rice by maize in future diets were also examined. Total aggregated demand of the three cereals (in milled rice equivalents) in 2030 and 2050, based on the UN median population variant, is projected to be 21 and 24% higher than in 2010. Current Yg represent 50% (irrigated rice), 48-63% (rainfed rice), 49% (irrigated wheat), 40% (rainfed wheat), 46% (irrigated maize), and 44% (rainfed maize) of their Yp or Yw. With 50% Yg closure and for various land use changes, self-sufficiency ratio will be >. 1 for rice in 2030 and about one in 2050 but well below one for maize and wheat in both 2030 and 2050. With full Yg closure, self-sufficiency ratios will be well above one for rice and all three cereals jointly but below one for maize and wheat for all scenarios, except for the scenario with drastic decrease in boro rice area to allow for area expansion for cash crops. Full Yg closure of all cereals is needed to compensate for area decreases and demand increases, and then even some maize and large amounts of wheat imports will be required to satisfy demand in future. The results of this analysis have important implications for Bangladesh and other countries with high population growth rate, shrinking arable land due to rapid urbanization, and highly vulnerable to climate change.
Visions for nature and nature’s contributions to people for the 21st century : Report from an IPBES visioning workshop held on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand
Lundquist, Carolyn J. ; Pereira, H.M. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Belder, E. den; Carvalho Ribeiro, Sonja ; Davies, Kate ; Greenaway, Alison ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Kim, H. ; Lazarova, Tanya ; Pereira, Laura ; Peterson, G. ; Ravera, Federica ; Brink, Thelma van den; Argumedo, Alejandro ; Arida, Clarissa ; Armenteras, Dolors ; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle ; Baptiste, Brigitte ; Belanger, Julie ; Bingham, Kelly ; Bowden-Kerby, Austin ; Cao, Mingchang ; Nettleton-Carino, Jocelyn ; Damme, Paul Andre Van; Devivo, R. ; Dickson, Fiona ; Dushimumuremyi, Jean Paul ; Ferrier, S. ; Flores-Díaz, Adriana ; Foley, Melissa ; Garcia Marquez, Jaime ; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina ; Greenhalgh, Suzie ; Hamilton, D.J. ; Hardison, Preston ; Hicks, Geoff ; Hughey, Ken ; Kahui-McConnell, Richelle ; Wangechi Karuri-Sebina, Geci ; Kock, M. de; Leadley, Paul ; Lemaitre, Frederic ; Maltseva, Elina ; Mattos Scaramuzza, Carlos A. de; Metwaly, Mona ; Nelson, W. ; Ngo, Hien ; Neumann, Christian ; Norrie, Craig ; Perry, Joanne ; Quintana, Rodrigo ; Rodriguez Osuna, Vanesa Eliana ; Röhrl, Richard ; Seager, J. ; Sharpe, Helen ; Shortland, Tui ; Shulbaeva, Polina ; Rashid Sumaila, U. ; Takahashi, Yasuo ; Titeux, Titeux ; Tiwari, Sunandan ; Trisos, Christopher ; Ursache, Andrei ; Wheatley, Amanda ; Wilson, David ; Wood, S. ; Wyk, Ernita van; Yue, Tian Xiang ; Zulfikar, Dina - \ 2017
NIWA Science and Technology (NIWA Science and Technology Series 83) - ISBN 9780473426101 - 123 p.
Existing scenarios of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) have important limitations and gaps that constrain their usefulness for the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Specifically, they fail to incorporate policy objectives related to nature conservation and social-ecological feedbacks, they do not address the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem services, and they are typically relevant at only a particular spatial scale. In addition, nature and its benefits are treated as the consequence of human decisions, but are not at the centre of the analysis. To address these issues, the IPBES Scenarios and Models Expert Group initiated the development of a set of Multiscale Scenarios for Nature Futures based on positive visions for human relationships with nature.
The first step of this process was a visioning workshop with stakeholders and experts on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 73 participants from inter-governmental organisations, national government organisations, non-governmental organisations, academia and the private sector, from 31 countries, and with a range of sectoral expertise on biodiversity topics, from urban development to agriculture to fisheries, worked together in a visioning exercise. This report documents the results from this visioning workshop to inform further stakeholder consultation and the development of the associated multiscale scenarios by modelers and experts.
This creative visioning exercise was carried out in four steps based on a suite of participatory methods that were used to develop visions of alternative futures. First the participants identified important themes to develop the visions. Next, thematic groups identified the main trends for BES in each theme and a set of “Seeds” of emerging initiatives leading to positive futures for our relationship with nature. Implications of what would happen across a range of sectors were identified for each seed. Then a pathway analysis of how the current regime in each theme may be transformed into the future desirable regime was carried
out. Narratives were then built for the visions emerging from each group. Finally, commonalities of visions across the groups were identified, and the regional relevance of each vision for different parts of the world was assessed.
Metabolomic analysis of tomato seed germination
Kazmi, Rashid H. ; Willems, Leo A.J. ; Joosen, Ronny V.L. ; Khan, Noorullah ; Ligterink, Wilco ; Hilhorst, Henk W.M. - \ 2017
Metabolomics 13 (2017)12. - ISSN 1573-3882 - 17 p.
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) - GC-TOF/MS - Generalized genetical genomics (GGG) - Metabolomics - mQTL analysis - Seed performance - Solanum lycopersicum - Solanum pimpinellifolium - Tomato
Introduction: Seed germination is inherently related to seed metabolism, which changes throughout its maturation, desiccation and germination processes. The metabolite content of a seed and its ability to germinate are determined by underlying genetic architecture and environmental effects during development. Objective: This study aimed to assess an integrative approach to explore genetics modulating seed metabolism in different developmental stages and the link between seed metabolic- and germination traits. Methods: We have utilized gas chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) metabolite profiling to characterize tomato seeds during dry and imbibed stages. We describe, for the first time in tomato, the use of a so-called generalized genetical genomics (GGG) model to study the interaction between genetics, environment and seed metabolism using 100 tomato recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum pimpinellifolium. Results: QTLs were found for over two-thirds of the metabolites within several QTL hotspots. The transition from dry to 6 h imbibed seeds was associated with programmed metabolic switches. Significant correlations varied among individual metabolites and the obtained clusters were significantly enriched for metabolites involved in specific biochemical pathways. Conclusions: Extensive genetic variation in metabolite abundance was uncovered. Numerous identified genetic regions that coordinate groups of metabolites were detected and these will contain plausible candidate genes. The combined analysis of germination phenotypes and metabolite profiles provides a strong indication for the hypothesis that metabolic composition is related to germination phenotypes and thus to seed performance.
Erratum to : Performance evaluation of operational atmospheric correction algorithms over the East China Seas (Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, (2017), 35, 1, (1-22), 10.1007/s00343-016-5170-6)
He, Shuangyan ; He, Mingxia ; Fischer, Jürgen ; Yuan, Dongliang ; Xu, Peng ; Xu, Tengfei ; Yang, Xianping ; Sokoletsky, Leonid ; Wei, Xiaodao ; Shen, Fang ; Zou, Juhong ; Guo, Maohua ; Cui, Songxue ; Zhou, Wu ; Gao, Dalu ; Jin, Guangzhen ; Lü, Xianqing ; Qiu, Fuwen ; Fang, Wendong ; Pan, Aijun ; Cha, Jing ; Zhang, Shanwu ; Huang, Jiang ; Wang, Tao ; Cheng, Yongzhou ; Chen, Xiaoyan ; Liu, Zhaopu ; Long, Xiaohua ; Hou, Zhishuai ; Wen, Haishen ; Li, Jifang ; He, Feng ; Liu, Qun ; Wang, Jinhuan ; Guan, Biao ; Wang, Qinglong ; Shahjahan, Md ; Kabir, Md Farajul ; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani ; Rashid, Harunur ; Li, Shu ; Yu, Kefu ; Zhao, Jianxin ; Feng, Yuexing ; Chen, Tianran ; Zhou, Shun ; Ren, Yichao ; Pearce, Christopher M. ; Dong, Shuanglin ; Tian, Xiangli ; Gao, Qinfeng ; Wang, Fang ; Liu, Liming ; Du, Rongbin ; Zhang, Xiaoling ; Dong, Shuanglin ; Sun, Shichun ; Feng, Song ; Lin, Jianing ; Sun, Song ; Zhang, Fang ; Zhang, Zhipeng ; Tang, Xuexi ; Tang, Haitian ; Song, Jingjing ; Zhou, Jian ; Liu, Hongjun ; Wang, Qixiang ; Qian, Kuimei ; Liu, Xia ; Chen, Yuwei ; Sun, Chengjun ; Jiang, Fenghua ; Gao, Wei ; Li, Xiaoyun ; Yu, Yanzhen ; Yin, Xiaofei ; Wang, Yong ; Ding, Haibing ; Sun, Zhongmin ; Wang, Yongqiang ; Yan, Pengcheng ; Guo, Hui ; Yao, Jianting ; Tanaka, Jiro ; Kawai, Hiroshi ; Song, Na ; Chen, Muyan ; Gao, Tianxiang ; Yanagimoto, Takashi ; Lu, Xia ; Luan, Sheng ; Kong, Jie ; Hu, Longyang ; Mao, Yong ; Zhong, Shengping ; Liu, Yan ; Zhao, Weihong ; Li, Caiyan ; Miao, Hui - \ 2017
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 35 (2017)2. - ISSN 0254-4059 - p. 466 - 467.
Unfortunately for all articles of Vol. 35 No. 1 the future journal title “Journal of Oceanology and Limnology” was used instead of the current journal title “Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology”. All articles in the issue are aff ected. Please make sure to cite the articles with the following Vol. and No. info: Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, Vol. 35 No. 1, [page range].
The chemical convergence and decomposer control hypotheses explain solid cattle manure decomposition in production grasslands
Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Lantinga, Egbert A. ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Goede, Ron G.M. de - \ 2017
Applied Soil Ecology 113 (2017). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 107 - 116.
C:N ratio - Fertilisation - Litterbags - Macrofauna - Management history - Mesofauna - Microbiota - Nitrogen mineralisation
Recently, we reported for the first time that home field advantage (HFA) of litter decomposition also exists in agricultural production systems, in addition to earlier reports from natural ecosystems. Here, we provide evidence that adaptation of the soil decomposer community to differences in the chemical composition of solid cattle manure (SCM) explains the HFA. Two dairy farms were selected which differed in type of home-produced SCM (high-quality stacked or low-quality composted SCM) and soil type (sand or peat). Manure was exchanged between these two farms. Also, manure was incubated in fields of two neighbouring non-SCM farms. Using litterbags with three different mesh-sizes (125 μm, 1.5 mm, and 4 mm), we investigated the contribution of microbiota, mesofauna and macrofauna, to SCM dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) disappearance after 60, 120 and 240 days of litterbag placement. Home field advantage was estimated after accounting for effects related to structural differences in manure quality (quality index) and grassland soil biota communities (ability index). We found HFA in meso- (14–34%) and macro-mesh (19–31%) size litterbags. In micro-mesh litterbags, the HFA for dry matter and nitrogen disappearance was significant only after 120 days (18 and 26%, respectively). With time, trends of initial increase and then decrease in HFA of both aforementioned parameters were observed, but these were not significant. The quality index indicated that the composted manure had a lower dry matter and nitrogen disappearance rate compared to the stacked manure, irrespective of the location of incubation. The difference between the two manure types for N disappearance had vanished at day 240. Also, the chemical composition of the manure that remained in the litterbags changed over time. After 120 days, the C:N ratio of SCM at home was significantly higher compared to the translocated SCM (P
Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis
Shahjahan, M. ; Kabir, M.F. ; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani ; Rashid, Harunur - \ 2017
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 35 (2017)1. - ISSN 0254-4059 - p. 109 - 114.
environment - fish - organophosphorus pesticide - toxicity
Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.
Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos to embryo and larvae of banded gourami Trichogaster fasciata
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Saha, Sampa ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Bosma, Roel H. ; Rashid, Harunur - \ 2017
Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides Food Contaminants, and agricultural wastes 52 (2017)2. - ISSN 0360-1234 - p. 92 - 98.
aquatic environment - banded gourami - developmental toxicity - malformation - Organophosphorous pesticide
This study elucidated the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stages of banded gourami (Trichogaster fasciata). To determine the acute effects of chlorpyrifos on their survival and development, we exposedthe embryos and two-day-old larvae to six concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 100 µg L−1) of chlorpyrifos in plastic bowls. Log-logistic regression was used to calculate LC10 and LC50 values. Results showed that embryo mortality significantly increased with increasing chlorpyrifos concentrations. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of chlorpyrifos for embryos were 0.89 (0.50–1.58) and 11.8 (9.12–15.4) µg L−1, respectively. Hatching success decreased and mortality of larvae significantly increased with increasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of chlorpyrifos for larvae were 0.53 (0.27–1.06) and 21.7 (15.9–29.4) µg L−1, respectively; the 48-h LC10 and LC50 for larvae were 0.04 (0.02–0.09) and 5.47 (3.77–7.94) µg L−1, respectively. The results of this study suggest that 1 µg L−1 of chlorpyrifos in the aquatic environment may adversely affect the development and the reproduction of banded gourami. Our study also suggests that banded gourami fish can serve as an ideal model species for evaluating developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants.
Remote sensing of land use/cover changes and its effect on wind erosion potential in southern Iran
Rezaei, Mahrooz ; Sameni, Abdolmajid ; Fallah Shamsi, Seyed Rashid ; Bartholomeus, Harm - \ 2016
PeerJ 2016 (2016)7. - ISSN 2167-8359
Wind erosion is a complex process influenced by different factors. Most of these factors are stable over time, but land use/cover and land management practices are changing gradually. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of changing land use/cover and land management on wind erosion potential in southern Iran. We used remote sensing data (Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8 imagery of 2004 and 2013) for land use/cover mapping and employed the Iran Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland (IRIFR) method to estimate changes in wind erosion potential. For an optimal mapping, the performance of different classification algorithms and input layers was tested. The amount of changes in wind erosion and land use/cover were quantified using cross-tabulation between the two years. To discriminate land use/cover related to wind erosion, the best results were obtained by combining the original spectral bands with synthetic bands and using Maximum Likelihood classification algorithm (Kappa Coefficient of 0.8 and 0.9 for Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8, respectively). The IRIFR modelling results indicate that the wind erosion potential has increased over the last decade. The areas with a very high sediment yield potential have increased, whereas the areas with a low, medium, and high sediment yield potential decreased. The area with a very low sediment yield potential have remained constant. When comparing the change in erosion potential with land use/cover change, it is evident that soil erosion potential has increased mostly in accordance with the increase of the area of agricultural practices. The conversion of rangeland to agricultural land was a major land-use change which lead to more agricultural practices and associated soil loss. Moreover, results indicate an increase in sandification in the study area which is also a clear evidence of increasing in soil erosion.
Risk assessment of pesticides used in rice-prawn concurrent systems in Bangladesh
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Rico, Andreu ; Horst, Mechteld M.S. Ter; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul ; Rashid, Harunur - \ 2016
Science of the Total Environment 568 (2016). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 498 - 506.
Environmental risk assessment - Macrobrachium rosenbergii - Occupational health hazards - PERPEST - Pesticides - TOXSWA
The objectives of the current study were to determine the occupational health hazards posed by the application of pesticides in rice-prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and to assess their potential risks for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Information on pesticide use in rice-prawn farming was collected through structured interviews with 38 farm owners held between January and May of 2012. The risks of the pesticide use to human health were assessed through structured interviews. The TOXSWA model was used to calculate pesticide exposure (peak and time-weighted average concentrations) in surface waters of rice-prawn systems for different spray drift scenarios and a simple first tier risk assessment based on threshold concentrations derived from single species toxicity tests were used to assess the ecological risk in the form of risk quotients. The PERPEST model was used to refine the ecological risks when the first tier assessment indicated a possible risk. Eleven synthetic insecticides and one fungicide (sulphur) were recorded as part of this investigation. The most commonly reported pesticide was sulphur (used by 29% of the interviewed farmers), followed by thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and phenthoate (21%). A large portion of the interviewed farmers described negative health symptoms after pesticide applications, including vomiting (51%), headache (18%) and eye irritation (12%). The results of the first tier risk assessment indicated that chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and malathion may pose a high to moderate acute and chronic risks for invertebrates and fish in all evaluated spray drift scenarios. The higher tier assessment using the PERPEST model confirmed the high risk of cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos for insects and macro- and micro-crustaceans thus indicating that these pesticides may have severe adverse consequences for the prawn production yields.
Delta Atelier : Hot spot Barind
Rooij, L.L. de; Goosen, H. ; Oliemans, W.J. ; Ruhul Alam, Mollah ; Rahman, Atiqur ; Rahman, Minhazur ; Boer, Michael de; Veerbeek, William ; Slager, Kymo ; Golam Shokat, Mirja ; Abdur Rashid, Mohammad ; Hossain Choudhury, Akram ; Hossain Sourav, Sharif ; Ahmed Mohiuddin, Faruq - \ 2015
Bangladesh Deltaplan 2100 - 81 p.
Thuisvoordeel voor mest van eigen bodem : door steeds op dezelfde manier te bemesten, maakt het bodemleven voedingsstoffen sneller beschikbaar
Oomen, Gerard ; Rashid, M.I. - \ 2014
Ekoland 34 (2014)3. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 20 - 22.
Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid kwam vanuit Pakistan naar Wageningen om te bestuderen hoe het gebruik van vaste mest de bodembiologie beïnvloedt. Hij ontdekte dat het bodemleven zich instelt op het type mest dat gegeven wordt en dat de mest hierdoor sneller verwerkt wordt. Bosecologen noemen dat het ‘thuisvoordeel’: dennennaalden verteren sneller in een dennenbos dan in een eikenbos. Dit speelt ook in de landbouw.
Production-ecological modelling explains the difference between potential soil N mineralisation and actual herbage N uptake
Rashid, M.I. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Brussaard, L. ; Bloem, J. ; Lantinga, E.A. - \ 2014
Applied Soil Ecology 84 (2014). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 83 - 92.
winter-wheat fields - nitrogen mineralization - organic-matter - food webs - grassland soils - forest soils - community - manure - earthworms - management
We studied two different grassland fertiliser management regimes on sand and peat soils: above-ground application of a combination of organic N-rich slurry manure and solid cattle manure (SCM) vs. slit-injected, mineral N-rich slurry manure, whether or not supplemented with chemical fertiliser (non-SCM). Measurements of field N mineralisation as estimated from herbage N uptake in unfertilised plots were compared with (i) potential N mineralisation as determined from a standard laboratory soil incubation, (ii) the contribution of groups of soil organisms to N mineralisation based on production-ecological model calculations, and (iii) N mineralisation calculated according to the Dutch fertilisation recommendation for grasslands. Density and biomass of soil biota (bacteria, fungi, enchytraeids, microarthropods and earthworms) as well as net plant N-uptake were higher in the SCM input grasslands compared to the non-SCM input grasslands. The currently used method in Dutch fertilisation recommendations underestimated actual soil N supply capacity by, on average, 102 kg N ha-1 (202 vs. 304 kg ha-1 = 34%). The summed production-ecological model estimate for N mineralisation by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and enchytraeids was 87–120% of the measured potential soil N mineralisation. Adding the modelled N mineralisation by earthworms to potential soil N mineralisation explained 98–107% of the measured herbage N uptake from soil. For all grasslands and soil biota groups together, the model estimated 105% of the measured net herbage N uptake from soil. Soil biota production-ecological modelling is a powerful tool to understand and predict N uptake in grassland, reflecting the effects of previous manure management and soil type. The results show that combining production ecological modelling to predict N supply with existing soil N tests using aerobic incubation methods, can add to a scientifically based improvement of the N fertilisation recommendations for production grasslands.
Fine mapping of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance gene Ty-2 on chromosome 11 of tomato
Yang, X. ; Caro Rios, C.M. ; Hutton, S.F. ; Scott, J.W. ; Guo, Y. ; Wang, Xiaoxuan ; Rashid, H. ; Szinay, D. ; Jong, J.H.S.G.M. de; Visser, R.G.F. ; Bai, Y. ; Du, Y. - \ 2014
Molecular Breeding 34 (2014)2. - ISSN 1380-3743 - p. 749 - 760.
cultivated tomato - rna - introgression - recombination - transcription - replication - encodes - locus
Resistances to begomoviruses, including bipartite tomato mottle virus and monopartite tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have been introgressed to cultivated tomato (Solanumlycopersicum) fromwild tomato accessions. A major gene, Ty-2 from S. habrochaites f. glabratum accession ‘‘B6013,’’ that confers resistance to TYLCV was previously mapped to a 19-cMregion on the long arm of chromosome 11. In the present study, approximately 11,000 plants were screened and nearly 157 recombination events were identified between the flankingmarkersC2_At1g07960 (82.5 cM, physical distance 51.387 Mb) and T0302 (89 cM, 51.878 Mb). Molecular marker analysis of recombinants and TYLCV evaluation of progeny from these recombinants localized Ty-2 to an approximately 300,000-bp interval between markers UP8 (51.344 Mb) and M1 (51.645 Mb). No recombinants were identified between TG36 and C2_At3g52090, a region of at least 115 kb, indicating severe recombination suppression in this region. Due to the small interval, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis failed to clarify whether recombination suppression is caused by chromosomal rearrangements. Candidate genes predicted based on tomato genome annotation were analyzed by RT-PCR and virus-induced gene silencing. Results indicate that the NBS gene family present in the Ty-2 region is likely not responsible for the Ty-2-conferred resistance and that two candidate genes might play a role in the Ty-2-conferred resistance. Severalmarkers very tightly linked to the Ty-2 locus are presented and useful for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs to introgress Ty-2 for begomovirus resistance.