Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Utilization of geometrci light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments
    Jong, M.M. de; Sonneveld, P.J. ; Baggerman, J. ; Rijn, C.J.M. van; Rath, J.K. ; Schropp, R.E.I. - \ 2014
    Progress in Photovoltaics 22 (2014)5. - ISSN 1062-7995 - p. 540 - 547.
    microcrystalline silicon - amorphous polymers - temperature - deposition - substrate - growth
    In this study, we present a new light absorption enhancement method for p-i-n thin film silicon solar cells using pyramidal surface structures, larger than the wavelength of visible light. Calculations show a maximum possible current enhancement of 45% compared with cells on a flat substrate. We deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film solar cells directly onto periodically pyramidal-structured polycarbonate (PC) substrates, which show a significant increase (30%) in short-circuit current over reference cells deposited on flat glass substrates. The current of the cells on our pyramidal structures on PC is only slightly lower than that of cells on Asahi U-type TCO glass (Asahi Glass Co., Tokyo, Japan), but suffer from a somewhat lower open circuit voltage and fill factor. Because the used substrates have a locally flat surface area due to the fabrication process, we believe that the current enhancement in the cells on structured PC can be increased using larger or more closely spaced pyramids, which can have a smaller flat surface area.
    Ultra-energiezuinige kassystemen met Supertransparante Micro-V Gestructureerde materialen: Rapportage in het kader van het EOS-LT programma van Agentschap NL (Openbare versie)
    Gieling, T.H. ; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Mohammadkhani, V. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Rijn, C.J.M. van; Baggerman, J. ; Rath, J.K. ; Jong, M. de; Schropp, R.E.I. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw 1277) - 100
    teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - materialen - innovaties - lichtrelaties - optische eigenschappen - milieufactoren - schermen - kastechniek - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - materials - innovations - light relations - optical properties - environmental factors - blinds - greenhouse technology
    Doel van het in dit rapport beschreven onderzoek is het gebruiken van micro- en nanostructuren uit de PV-industrie om te komen tot een diffuus kasdekmateriaal met een hoge hemisferische transmissie. Hierbij wordt gebruik gemaakt van de kennis die in het verleden is opgedaan in het ontwikkelen van het zigzag kasdekmateriaal. Met de ontwikkelde kennis kan energiebesparing gerealiseerd worden door het toepassen van de structuren op dubbel glas, waardoor materiaal gemaakt kan worden met een hoge hemisferische transmissie, diffuse eigenschappen en een hoge isolatiewaarde. Randvoorwaarde hierin is dat het ontwikkelde kasdekmateriaal toepasbaar is in een glastuinbouwmilieu. Dit betekent dat het materiaal niet mag verouderen, condensatie de transmissie niet mag verminderen en extra vervuiling niet mag optreden. Hierbij wordt de Nederlandse situatie als uitgangspunt genomen, maar interessante structuren voor andere klimaten zullen niet worden uitgesloten.
    Semiconductors (ICANS)
    Jong, M.M. de; Rath, J.K. ; Schropp, R.E.I. ; Sonneveld, P.J. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Baggerman, J. ; Rijn, C.J.M. ; Hamers, E.A.G. - \ 2012
    Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 358 (2012)17. - ISSN 0022-3093 - p. 2308 - 2312.
    We present a novel method to achieve light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells. Unlike the commonly used surface textures, such as Asahi U-type TCO, that rely on light scattering phenomena, we employ embossed periodically arranged micro-pyramidal structures with feature sizes much larger than the wavelength of visible light. Angular resolved transmission of light through these substrates indeed showed diffraction patterns. unlike in the case of Asahi U-type substrates, which show angular resolved scattering. Single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells made at 125 degrees C on the embossed structured polycarbonate (PC) substrates showed an increase in current density by 24% compared to a similar solar cell on a flat substrate. The band gap and thickness of the i-layer made by VHF PECVD are 1.9 eV and 270 nm respectively. A double p-layer (nc-Si:H/a-Si:H) was used to make proper contact with ZnO:Al TCO. Numerical modeling, called DokterDEP was performed to fit the dark and light current-voltage parameters and understand the characteristics of the cell. The output parameters from the modeling suggest that the cells have excellent built-in potential (V-bi). However, a rather high recombination voltage, V-mu affects the FF and short circuit current density (J(sc)) for the cells on Asahi as well as for the cells on PC. A rather high parallel resistance >> M Omega cm(2) (obtained from the modeling) infers that there is no significant shunt leakage, which is often observed for solar cells made at low temperatures on rough substrates. An efficiency of more than 6% for a cell on PC shows enormous potential of this type of light trapping structures.
    Second litter syndrome in sows
    Soede, N.M. - \ 2012
    In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction (ESDAR), Dublin, Ireland, 29 August - 1 September 2012. - Wiley-Blackwell - p. 63 - 63.
    Relations between luteinizing hormone pulsatility and vena cava and jugular progesterone concentrations on day 14 after insemination in sows
    Hoving, L.L. ; Soede, N.M. ; Peltoniemi, O. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
    In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction (ESDAR), Dublin, Ireland, 29 August - 1 September 2012. - Wiley-Blackwell - p. 89 - 89.
    Geometric Light Confinement in a-Si Thin Film Solar Cells on Micro-Structured Substrates
    Jong, M.M. de; Rath, J.K. ; Schropp, R.E.I. ; Sonneveld, P.J. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Baggerman, J. ; Rijn, C.J.M. van - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 05-09 Sept. 2011, Hamburg, Germany. - - p. 370 - 372.
    In this work we propose and study a light trapping scheme for thin film silicon solar cells that is based on geometrical light trapping (instead of textures optimized for light scattering), using periodically arranged pyramidal structures with dimensions larger than the effective wavelength of light. We studied the absorption behavior of amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers on such a pyramidal structured substrate using ray tracing calculations. According to the calculations, for pyramids on a square base, the maximum relative light absorption enhancement for normal incident light occurs at pyramid angles between 40° to 45°, which results in an increase of the weighted absorption of 45%. For diffuse light a maximum in light trapping yields an absorption increase of 40% compared to a flat structure. a-Si solar cells in a p-i-n configuration deposited at low temperature (125°C) on a micro-pyramidal structured polycarbonate substrate were used as proof-of-concept of this new light trapping scheme for the current enhancement. The cells deposited on the structured substrates showed an increase in short-circuit current density of 24% compared to the reference solar cell structures on flat glass substrates.
    Living Amsterdam: tangible homes behind Amsterdam's facades
    Horst, H.M. van der - \ 2009
    In: Ethnic Amsterdam - Immigrants and Urban Change in the Twentieth Century / Nell, L., Rath, J.C., Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press (Solidarity and Identity Series ) - ISBN 9789089641687 - p. 61 - 74.
    Chain models as a tool to quantify the relation between soil, crop quality and human exposure
    Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jaeger, L. de; Thielen, M. ; Bosshammer, K. ; Leisner-Saaber, J. ; Rath, C. ; Hamer, M. - \ 2008
    In: Stable tot Table - Geoquality - Part I. - - p. 198 - 218.
    Boekbespreking van Tourism, Ethnic Diversity and the City van Jan Rath (red.)
    Peters, K.B.M. - \ 2007
    Stedebouw en Ruimtelijke Ordening 88 (2007). - ISSN 1384-6531 - p. 59 - 60.
    Van Probleemwijk naar Prachtwijk: Het belang van vrijetijdsmogelijkheden
    Peters, K.B.M. ; Gadet, J. - \ 2007
    Vrijetijdstudies 25 (2007)3. - ISSN 1384-2439 - p. 42 - 50.
    woonwijken - minder bevoorrechte klasse - sociaal welzijn - sociale ontwikkeling - stadsontwikkeling - stedelijke planning - residential areas - disadvantaged - social welfare - social development - urban development - urban planning
    De aandacht voor buurten en wijken flakkert op. Met het project ‘van probleemwijk naar prachtwijk’ van VROM-minister Ella Vogelaar (met de 40 wijkenlijst), heeft de politieke aandacht voor achterstandswijken vorm gekregen. Aandacht, die met de troubles in de Utrechtse wijk Ondiep ook mediageniek werd. Aandacht, die bij stadsgeografen en –sociologen al eerder een moderne injectie kreeg door de maatschappelijke explosies in de Franse banlieus. In dit Forum wordt door verschillende auteurs uiteengezet hoe vrijetijdsmogelijkheden van invloed zijn op de ontwikkeling van wijken. We beginnen met een korte inleiding op deze thematiek. Vervolgens komen drie deskundigen aan het woordn. Mariette van Baaren (gemeente Amsterdam), Jan Rath (UvA) en Peter van der Gugten (Proper-Stock Groep B.V.) Aan het eind van deze Forum discussie trekken we een conclusie: gaan we naar prachtwijken toe, of houden we probleemwijken
    Towards a control strategy for banned antibiotics and growth promoters in feed: the SIMBAG-FEED project
    Jong, J. de; Tomassen, M.J.H. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Rhijn, J.A. van; Zuidema, T. ; Michard, J. ; Genouel, C. ; Brambilla, G. ; Nunes da Costa, J.M.G. ; Nordkvist, E. ; Wagner, W. ; Thalmann, A. ; Plöger, A. ; Rath, G. ; Holst, C. von - \ 2006
    In: Antimicrobial growth promoters / de Jong, J., Barug, D., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789076998879 - p. 211 - 247.
    Voor lichttransmissie geoptimaliseerd afdekmateriaal voor zonnecollectoren en zonnecellen : eindrapportage
    Sonneveld, P.J. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Rath, J.K. ; Bot, G.P.A. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 485) - ISBN 9789067549387 - 40
    zonnecollectoren - fotovoltaïsche cellen - kassen - bouwmaterialen - kunststofbekleding - lichtdoorlating - energiebehoud - isolatie (insulation) - solar collectors - photovoltaic cells - greenhouses - building materials - plastic cladding - light transmission - energy conservation - insulation
    Accuracy of predicting milk yield from alternative recording schemes
    Berry, D.P. ; Olori, V.E. ; Cromie, A.R. ; Rath, M. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Dilon, P. - \ 2005
    Animal Science 80 (2005)1. - ISSN 1357-7298 - p. 53 - 60.
    estimating lactation yields - dairy-cattle - interval
    The effect of reducing the frequency of official milk recording and the number of recorded samples per test-day on the accuracy of predicting daily yield and cumulative 305-day yield was investigated. A control data set consisting of 58 210 primiparous cows with milk test-day records every 4 weeks was used to investigate the influence of reduced milk recording frequencies. The accuracy of prediction of daily yield with one milk sample per test-day was investigated using 41 874 test-day records from 683 cows. Results show that five or more test-day records taken at 8-weekly intervals (A8) predicted 305-day yield with a high level of accuracy. Correlations between 305-day yield predicted from 4-weekly recording intervals (A4) and from 8-weekly intervals were 0·99, 0·98 and 0·98 for milk, fat and protein, respectively. The mean error in estimating 305-day yield from the A8 scheme was 6·8 kg (s.d. 191 kg) for milk yield, 0·3 kg (s.d. 10 kg) for fat yield, and -0·3 kg (s.d. 7 kg) for protein yield, compared with the A4 scheme. Milk yield and composition taken during either morning (AM) or evening (PM) milking predicted 24-h yield with a high degree of accuracy. Alternating between AM and PM sampling every 4 weeks predicted 305-day yield with a higher degree of accuracy than either all AM or all PM sampling. Alternate AM-PM recording every 4 weeks and AM + PM recording every 8 weeks produced very similar accuracies in predicting 305-day yield compared with the official AM + PM recording every 4 weeks
    Control strategy to detect banned antibiotics and growth promoters in feeds
    Tomassen, M.J.H. ; Jong, J. de; Egmond, H.J. van; Rhijn, J.A. van; Rath, G. ; Michard, J. ; Genouel, C. ; Brambilla, G. ; Nunes da Costa, J.M.G. ; Nordkvist, E. ; Wagner, W. ; Thalmann, A. ; Plöger, A. ; Holst, C. von - \ 2004
    In: Euroresidue V : conference on residues of veterinary drugs in food, Noordwijkerhout 10-12 May, 2004 Utrecht : S.n. - p. 952 - 959.
    Estimation of genotype X environment interactions, in a grassbased system, for milk yield, body condition score,and body weight using random regression models
    Berry, D.P. ; Buckley, F. ; Dillon, P. ; Evans, R.D. ; Rath, M. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2003
    Livestock Production Science 83 (2003)2-3. - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 191 - 203.
    dairy-cows - covariance functions - genetic evaluation - live-weight - feed-intake - holstein - cattle - traits - efficiency - level
    (Co)variance components for milk yield, body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change and BW change over different herd-year mean milk yields (HMY) and nutritional environments (concentrate feeding level, grazing severity and silage quality) were estimated using a random regression model. The data analysed included records from 7478 multiparous upgraded Holstein–Friesian dairy cows. There were G×E interactions for BCS across all environments and for BW change across different concentrate levels and silage quality environments. There was a three-fold increase in the genetic standard deviation (S.D.) for BCS change to day 60 of lactation (CS60-5) and a doubling of the genetic S.D. for BCS at day 5 (CS5) as silage quality improved. The genetic variance for CS60-5 increased as concentrate level increased and as grazing severity became tighter. There was significant re-ranking of animals for milk yield, CS5 and CS60-5 over the different HMY environments; genetic correlations fell to -0.60 between extreme HMY environments for CS60-5 and were as low as 0.41 for CS5 across different HMY environments.
    Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows
    Berry, D.P. ; Buckley, F. ; Dillon, P. ; Evans, R.D. ; Rath, M. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2003
    Journal of Dairy Science 86 (2003)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2193 - 2204.
    linear type traits - reproductive-performance - calving interval - breeding objectives - female fertility - luteal activity - energy-balance - holstein cows - feed-intake - cattle
    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the study. Genetic correlations between level of BCS at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were negative (-0.51 to -0.14). Genetic correlations between BW at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were all close to zero but became positive (0.01 to 0.39) after adjusting BW for differences in BCS. Body condition score at different stages of lactation correlated favorably with improved fertility; genetic correlations between BCS and pregnant 63 d after the start of breeding season ranged from 0.29 to 0.42. Both BW at different stages of lactation and milk production tended to exhibit negative genetic correlations with pregnant to first service and pregnant 63 d after the start of the breeding season and positive genetic correlations with number of services and the interval from first service to conception. Selection indexes investigated illustrate the possibility of continued selection for increased milk production without any deleterious effects on fertility or average BCS, albeit, genetic merit for milk production would increase at a slower rate
    Genetic Parameters for Body condition score, Body weigth, Milk yield and Fertility estimated using random regression models
    Berry, D.P. ; Buckley, F. ; Dillon, P. ; Evans, R.D. ; Rath, M. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2003
    Journal of Dairy Science 86 (2003)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3704 - 3717.
    friesian dairy-cattle - linear type traits - energy-balance - reproductive-performance - covariance functions - live weight - calving interval - luteal activity - feed-intake - cows
    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields from 8725 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. A cubic random regression was sufficient to model the changing genetic variances for BCS, BW, and milk across different days in milk. The genetic correlations between BCS and fertility changed little over the lactation; genetic correlations between BCS and interval to first service and between BCS and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.47 to -0.31, and from 0.15 to 0.38, respectively. This suggests that maximum genetic gain in fertility from indirect selection on BCS should be based on measurements taken in midlactation when the genetic variance for BCS is largest. Selection for increased BW resulted in shorter intervals to first service, but more services and poorer pregnancy rates; genetic correlations between BW and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.52 to -0.45. Genetic selection for higher lactation milk yield alone through selection on increased milk yield in early lactation is likely to have a more deleterious effect on genetic merit for fertility than selection on higher milk yield in late lactation
    Image processing for plant determination using the Hough transform and clustering methods.
    Hemming, J. ; Rath, T. - \ 2002
    Gartenbauwissenschaft 67 (2002)1. - ISSN 0016-478X - p. 1 - 10.
    One important goal of future crop production is to reduce the usage of herbicides. In many circumstances automatic detection and determination of weeds and crops is necessary for feasible weed control. Previous approaches in the area of computer vision based plant classification in a natural environment have only limited success, especially under variable field conditions with overlapping plants. The objective of this study was to apply a technique to cluster objects classified by a computer vision system in order to recognise not only single leaves but also whole plants. Images of the crop were obtained using a device that blocked out the natural light to provide controlled artificial lighting conditions. The crop rows were calculated from the determined plant positions. Plants which were not located in the row were labelled as weeds. It has been investigated, whether information on the row position can be used to reduce the classification errors. With this approach plant classification under field conditions can be improved and a plant classification accuracy of over 90 % for cabbage and 70 % for carrots has been obtained. The results clearly depended on the growing stage of the crop, on specific parameters of the row identification process and on the question whether the type 1 error (not identified crops) or the type 2 error (weed classified as crop) should be minimised.
    Genetic parameters for level and change of body condition score and body weight in dairy cows
    Berry, D.P. ; Buckley, F. ; Dillon, P. ; Evans, R.D. ; Rath, M. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2002
    Journal of Dairy Science 85 (2002)8. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2030 - 2039.
    (Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds throughout Southern Ireland. Heritability estimates for BCS ranged from 0.27 to 0.37, while those for BCS change ranged from 0.02 to 0.10. Heritability estimates for BW records varied from 0.39 to 0.50, while heritabilities for BW change were similar to those observed for BCS change (0.03 to 0.09). The genetic correlations between BCS and BW at the same days in milk deviated little from 0.50, and the genetic correlations between BCS change and BW change over the same period ranged from 0.42 to 0.55. BCS and BW directly postpartum were both phenotypically and genetically negatively correlated with both BW change and BCS change in early lactation. The genetic correlations between BCS and milk yield were negative. The results of the present study show that animals that lose most BCS in early lactation tend to gain most BCS in late lactation, a trend also exhibited by BW.
    The relationship between genetic merit for yield and live weight, condition score and energy balance of Holstein Friesian dairy cows on grass based systems of milk production
    Buckley, F. ; Dillon, P. ; Rath, M. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2001
    Occasional publication of the British society of animal science 26 (2001). - p. 297 - 303.
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