Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Agriculture in land reform farms: Impact on livelihoods of beneficiaries in the Waterberg district, South Africa
    Netshipale, Avhafunani J. ; Oosting, Simon J. ; Mashiloane, Majela L. ; Reenen, C.G. Van; Boer, Imke J.M. De; Raidimi, Edzisani N. - \ 2020
    Land Use Policy 97 (2020). - ISSN 0264-8377
    Countries have pursued land reform (LR) to contribute towards equity, poverty alleviation and job creation. Land confiscation and market-assisted approaches are used the most in expediting LR. The approach adopted in each of the countries will depend on the prevailing circumstances and priorities of those advocating for LR. South Africa implemented LR for the past two decades aimed to provide meaningful contribution to the livelihood of beneficiaries, among others. However, economic quantification of livelihood gains attained by households (hhs) from LR farms is unknown. The present paper aimed to quantify the economic contributions to livelihoods of various activities at LR farms, and to analyse factors underlying these contributions. We surveyed 87 hhs who were active in 43 LR farms in the Waterberg District, Limpopo Province. Five LR farm types were distinguished: Restitution (Rest), settlement/land acquisition grant (SLAG), land redistribution for agricultural development phases 1 and 2 (LRAD1 and LRAD2) and proactive land acquisition strategy (PLAS) farms. We used a stepwise approach for data collection, which included focus group discussions, household (hh) surveys and livelihood pie charts. On-farm contributions were higher (±49.5%) in LRAD1, LRAD2 and PLAS, compared to on-farm contributions of hhs in Rest and SLAG (±15.5%), because most of the hh heads (±68.3%) were younger (≤59 years), and hhs were physical capital endowed and farmed in physical capital endowed farms. Livestock farming was a key land use activity because of the prevailing agroecological conditions. The LR policy should prioritise provision of farm physical capital and livestock production to improve on-farm livelihood contributions in physical capital poor farms.
    Transport of young veal calves: effects of pre-transport diet, transport duration and condition on clinical health, behaviour and antibiotic treatments
    Marcato, F. ; Brand, H. van den; Engel, B. ; Kemp, B. ; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2020
    In: WIAS Annual Conference 2020. - Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - p. 20 - 20.
    The effect of Kurzrasen and strip-grazing on grassland performance and soil quality of a Peat Meadow
    Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Schils, René ; Philipsen, Bert ; Reenen, Kees van; Houwelingen, Karel van; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)22. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Grazing systems - Load bearing capacity - Nutritional value - Root density - Swards

    Due to the increased herd size in the Netherlands, there is need to assess the performance of different grazing systems at high stocking densities. The objective of the current experiment was to assess the effect of two extreme grazing systems, kurzrasen (continuous grazing at 3-5 cm sward height) and strip-grazing at a high stocking rate, on grass production and quality, grass morphology and sward density, root development and load bearing capacity on peat soil. To this end, a two-year grazing trial with four herds of 15 cows on 2 ha each was conducted. Kurzrasen showed 18% lower herbage dry matter production on average compared to strip-grazing. The yield penalty of using a shorter regrowth period under kurzrasen was limited due to the strong response in grass morphology, resulting in a dense and lamina-rich sward. There was a small decline in root density at 10 cm soil depth, but no evidence of a lower root density at 20 cm soil depth for kurzrasen compared to strip-grazing. Sward density was higher for kurzrasen compared to strip-grazing, which had a positive impact on load bearing capacity. This is an important feature on peat soils, where load bearing capacity is often limited.

    Amazing grazing: A public and private partnership to stimulate grazing practices in intensive dairy systems
    Schils, René ; Philipsen, Bert ; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Zom, Ronald ; Hoving, Idse ; Reenen, Kees van; Stienezen, Marcia ; Klootwijk, Cindy ; Werf, Joop van der; Sebek, Léon ; Eekeren, Nick van; Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes van den - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)20. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Agricultural innovation system - Dairy sector - Grassland - Interdisciplinary research - Stakeholders

    In many intensive dairy regions in northwest Europe, a decline in grazing is observed. In the Netherlands, the proportion of dairy cows with access to pasture is declining, as well as the time spent grazing per cow. The decline in grazing is seen as an unwanted trend by many stakeholders and is, thus, under debate amongst dairy farmers, the dairy chain, and society. Therefore, a public-private partnership was initiated to encourage grazing by providing farmers with usable means of improving their grazing systems. The partnership involved stakeholders from the dairy farming community, dairy and feed industry, agrotechnical industries, advisory services, and research. The objective of this partnership was to develop and stimulate technological innovations and management measures that increase fresh grass intake at pasture. The innovation network combined an integrated research approach with farmer working groups and broader stakeholder interactive meetings. The project started with a comprehensive grass intake framework, which was the foundation for exploration of innovations. The framework consisted of six interlinked components: soil, grass growth, grass supply, grass intake, feed supplementation, and cow behavior. In a continuous interactive cycle, strategic choices were made to focus on potentially effective innovations. The use of a public-private partnership to develop usable innovations that encourage grazing practices proven to be a good approach to develop a shared vision among stakeholders. It provided a basis to work together toward innovative practices and to disseminate the outcomes to the foreseen users. The approach succeeded in design concepts for two specific innovations, i.e., weekly grass growth predictions and daily fresh grass intake tracking. We demonstrated that meaningful grazing and fresh grass intake are possible in intensive dairy systems with high stocking rates and high levels of supplementary feeding.

    Ook dressuurpaarden hebben recht op de warmte van een kudde
    Hopster, Hans ; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2019
    Effect of cow-calf contact on motivation of dairy cows to access their calf
    Wenker, M.L. ; Keyserlingk, M.A.G. von; Bokkers, Eddie ; Lecorps, Benjamin ; Reenen, C.G. van; Verwer, Cynthia ; Weary, D.M. - \ 2019
    In: Animal lives worth living. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863389 - p. 259 - 259.
    Effects of pre-transport diet, transport duration and type of vehicle on metabolism and immunity of young veal calves
    Marcato, F. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. ; Engel, B. ; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals. - Bern, Switserland : University of Bern - ISBN 9783906813936 - p. 97 - 97.
    Transport is one of the largest challenges faced by veal calves. The first transport occurs when calves are transported from the dairy farms to a collection center at 14-20 days of age. Then, with a second transport, calves are brought to the veal farms. During transport and at the collection center, calves are mixed and exposed to new environmental conditions and microorganisms. Consequently, transport is associated with a high level of stress and an increase in infectious disease incidence. As a consequence of stress, the metabolism, immunity and health of calves might be compromised. Previous studies explored effects of transport on hematological, metabolic and immunological variables of calves. However, these studies focused just on one single factor (e.g. transport duration or pre-transport nutrition) and not on a combination of multiple factors associated with transport. The current research aimed to investigate effects of a pre-transport diet, transport duration and type of vehicle on metabolic and immunological variables of young calves upon arrival at the veal farm.
    Bouwstenen beweiding
    Schils, René ; Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Eekeren, Nick van; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Hoving, Idse ; Klootwijk, Cindy ; Philipsen, Bert ; Reenen, Kees van; Şebek, Leon ; Stienezen, Macia ; Top, Marry van den; Werf, Joop van der; Zom, Ronald - \ 2019
    Netherlands : Amazing Grazing - 61
    Effect of cow-calf contact on motivation of dairy cows to access their calf
    Wenker, M.L. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Reenen, C.G. van; Keyserlingk, M.A.G. von; Weary, D.M. - \ 2019
    In: Trade-Offs in Science - Keeping the balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 47 - 47.
    In modern dairy husbandry it is common practice to separate cow and calf within a few hours after parturition. When cow-calf contact is allowed a bond develops, even in absence of suckling. To date no research examined the strength of this bond. The aim of this study was to assess the motivation of dairy cows with different levels of cow-calf contact to access their calf. Thirty-four Holstein Friesian cows were either i) directly separated from their calf within 2 hours postpartum, ii) allowed to spend the nights with their calf but fitted with an udder net to prevent any suckling, or iii) allowed to spend the nights with their calf and the calf was able to suckle. Cows were trained to push a weighted gate to get access to their calf for 2 minutes and tested once a day after the afternoon milking. The weight on the gate was increased by 9 kg each day until the cow failed to open it. The final weight each cow was willing to push was measured and analysed using Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Directly separated cows worked as hard as cows with an udder net (p = 0.32) to get access to their calf, but worked less hard than suckled cows (p = 0.01). These results indicate that the calf is a valuable resource that dairy cows are motivated to work for, and that being suckled increases the motivation to access the calf.
    Effects of pre-transport diet, transport duration and conditions on performance of calves at the veal farm
    Marcato, F. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. ; Engel, B. ; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2019
    In: Trade-offs in science – keeping the Balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 29 - 29.
    Can access to an automated grooming brush and/or a mirror reduce stress of dairy cows kept in social isolation?
    Mandel, Roi ; Wenker, Margret L. ; Reenen, Kees van; Keil, Nina M. ; Hillmann, Edna - \ 2019
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 211 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 1 - 8.
    Brush - Environmental enrichment - Mirror - Social isolation - Social separation

    In dairy farming, social isolation of cattle is commonly practiced for husbandry procedures such as artificial insemination, claw trimming and at times, for provision of medical treatment. When isolated, cows express physiological and behavioural signs of stress, such as elevated heart rate, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity and increased vocalisation rate. The aim of this study was to examine whether enriching the environment of the isolation pen using both tactile (i.e. an automated grooming brush) and visual (i.e. a mirror) stimulation could alleviate stress induced in socially isolated dairy cows. Eighteen cows (9 lactating and 9 dry cows) were subjected to four isolation conditions of 30 min each; isolation in the presence of a mirror, in the presence of an automated grooming brush, in the presence of both a mirror and an automated grooming brush, and in a non-enriched environment (without brush and mirror) that served as a control condition. Physiological (heart rate and heart rate variability) and behavioural indicators of stress (locomotion, vocalizations, attempts to escape the isolation pen and ear position of the cows) were measured during three phases throughout the isolation period (0–5 min, 10–15 min, 20–25 min). Our results show that, first, the heart rate of cows kept in social isolation, as well as the time cows spent in locomotion and exploration of the pen, decreased throughout the isolation period, regardless of treatment. Second, the presence of an automated grooming brush, a mirror or both an automated grooming brush and mirror in the isolation pen was not associated with reduced indicators of stress (physiological and behavioural measures) compared to the non-enriched environment. The results of our study are not in agreement with the findings of previous studies showing reduced levels of stress among socially isolated heifers/cows kept in the presence of visual enrichment (i.e. mirror/picture of a conspecific), and illustrate the need to further explore practices to reduce stress during social isolation.

    Implications of cow-calf contact for dairy calf health and welfare
    Wenker, M.L. ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Reenen, C.G. van; Boer, I.J.M. de; Bokkers, Eddie - \ 2018
    - 1 p.
    Implications of cow-calf contact for dairy calf health and welfare
    Wenker, M.L. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Reenen, C.G. van; Verwer, Cynthia ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
    - p. 42 - 43.
    Development of a valid judgment bias test for dairy cattle
    Kremer, L.A.M. ; Webb, L.E. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2018
    Development of a valid judgment bias lest for dairy cows
    Kremer, L.A.M. ; Webb, L.E. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2018
    Stikstof nekt het heischraal grasland
    Zee, Friso van der; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2018

    interview met Friso van der Zee door Kees van Reenen

    Verkennende studie naar hittestress bij melkvee tijdens weidegang in gematigde klimaatstreken
    Timmerman, M. ; Reenen, K. van; Holster, H. ; Evers, A. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1117) - 53
    An exploratory study has been conducted to gain insight into the effects of heat stress during grazing on milk production, health and welfare of dairy cows, and the economic consequences of this under Dutch climate conditions. Furthermore an exploration was carried out into options to reduce the effects of heat stress during grazing. The results of this study are described in this report.
    Indicators of resilience during the transition period in dairy cows : A case study
    Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Mol, R.M. de; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Mourik, S. van; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2018
    Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 10271 - 10282.
    behavior - dairy cow - dynamic indicator - resilience - transition period
    The transition period is a demanding phase in the life of dairy cows. Metabolic and infectious disorders frequently occur in the first weeks after calving. To identify cows that are less able to cope with the transition period, physiologic or behavioral signals acquired with sensors might be useful. However, it is not yet clear which signals or combination of signals and which signal properties are most informative with respect to disease severity after calving. Sensor data on activity and behavior measurements as well as rumen and ear temperature data from 22 dairy cows were collected during a period starting 2 wk before expected parturition until 6 wk after parturition. During this period, the health status of each cow was clinically scored daily. A total deficit score (TDS) was calculated based on the clinical assessment, summarizing disease length and intensity for each cow. Different sensor data properties recorded during the period before calving as well as the period after calving were tested as a predictor for TDS using univariate analysis of covariance. To select the model with the best combination of signals and signal properties, we quantified the prediction accuracy for TDS in a multivariate model. Prediction accuracy for TDS increased when sensors were combined, using static and dynamic signal properties. Statistically, the most optimal linear combination of predictors consisted of average eating time, variance of daily ear temperature, and regularity of daily behavior patterns in the dry period. Our research indicates that a combination of static and dynamic sensor data properties could be used as indicators of cow resilience.
    Tool voor nauwkeurig schatten van grasopname
    Reenen, C.G. van; Holshof, G. - \ 2018
    Amazing Grazing: science in support of future grass based dairy systems
    Schils, R.L.M. ; Philipsen, A.P. ; Holshof, G. ; Zom, R.L.G. ; Hoving, I.E. ; Reenen, C.G. van; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Galama, P.J. ; Sebek, L.B. ; Klootwijk, C.W. ; Eekeren, N. van; Hoekstra, N.J. ; Stienezen, M.W.J. ; Pol, A. van den - \ 2018
    In: Sustainable meat and milk production from grasslands. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Grassland Science in Europe ) - ISBN 9781841706436 - p. 336 - 338.
    The Amazing Grazing project addresses the challenges that Dutch farmers face in grazing systems with high feed supplementation and high stocking rates on available grazing area. The project consists of six interlinked components (soil, grass growth, grass supply, grass intake, supllementation and behaviour), that are arranged around two grazing and three cutting experiments, as well as three farmer consultation groups. The grazing experiment showed that fresh grass intakes of approximately 6 kg DM cow -1 d-1 are feasible in intensive grazing systems with high feed supplementation levels. Tools for grass monitoring and planning, as well as cow behaviour monitoring, are being developed to support farmer decisions.
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