Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Records 1 - 20 / 89

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export

    Export search results

  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: q=Reid
Check title to add to marked list
Balanced harvest: concept, policies, evidence, and management implications
Zhou, Shijie ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Garcia, Serge M. ; Plank, Michael J. ; Bundy, Alida ; Charles, Anthony ; Hansen, Cecilie ; Heino, Mikko ; Howell, Daniel ; Jacobsen, Nis S. ; Reid, David G. ; Rice, Jake C. ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van - \ 2019
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29 (2019)3. - ISSN 0960-3166 - p. 711 - 733.
Ecological effect - Ecosystem approach to fishery - Ecosystem structure - Fishing intensity - Production - Selectivity - Sustainability

Balanced harvest has been proposed to reduce fishing impact on ecosystems while simultaneously maintaining or even increasing fishery yield. The concept has attracted broad interest, but also received criticisms. In this paper, we examine the theory, modelling studies, empirical evidence, the legal and policy frameworks, and management implications of balanced harvest. The examination reveals unresolved issues and challenges from both scientific and management perspectives. We summarize current knowledge and address common questions relevant to the idea. Major conclusions include: balanced harvest can be expressed in several ways and implemented on multiple levels, and with different approaches e.g. métier based management; it explicitly bridges fisheries and conservation goals in accordance with international legal and policy frameworks; modelling studies and limited empirical evidence reveal that balanced harvest can reduce fishing impact on ecosystem structure and increase the aggregate yield; the extent of balanced harvest is not purely a scientific question, but also a legal and social choice; a transition to balanced harvest may incur short-term economic costs, while in the long-term, economic results will vary across individual fisheries and for society overall; for its application, balanced harvest can be adopted at both strategic and tactical levels and need not be a full implementation, but could aim for a “partially-balanced” harvest. Further objective discussions and research on this subject are needed to move balanced harvest toward supporting a practical ecosystem approach to fisheries.

Money talk : How relations between farmers and advisors around financial management are shaped
Hilkens, Aniek ; Reid, Janet I. ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Gray, David I. - \ 2018
Journal of Rural Studies 63 (2018). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 83 - 95.
Agricultural advice - Agricultural entrepreneurship - Agricultural finance - Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems (AKIS) - Dairy - Farm management - Farmer-advisor relationships - Financial management - Rural extension

The nature of interactions between farmers and advisors is the focus of a growing body of research. While many studies explore the potential role of advisors in facilitating farmers’ practice change in practices related to agricultural production such as soil, water, pest and animal health management, studies that specifically investigate how advisors support farmers with financial management (FM) are limited. The contribution this paper makes is to identify who farmers’ FM advisors are and to shed light on how farmer-advisor interactions about FM are shaped. Semi-structured interviews with both farmers and a range of advisors (bankers, accountants, farm management consultants, specialist financial advisors and industry funded advisors) were conducted. The main findings are that farm financial information and FM are considered to be sensitive topics and being good at FM is not central to farmers’ identity (relative to e.g. production management). Due to the sensitivity and taboo around the topic and the low level of interest in FM, most farmers do not actively seek to acquire financial advice. Farmers most openly discuss FM with their banker and accountant and some seek advice from farm management consultants. Advice seeking from other advisors was limited. Theoretical implications are that FM as a topic of advice introduces unique dynamics to interactions between farmer and advisor, which highlights the importance of better consideration of taboo and sensitive topics in advisory interactions. Furthermore, the findings on how the bankers’ authority impacts on the advisory relationship with farmers indicated that issues of power in view of such authoritative advisory relationships need to be better considered. To enhance effective provisioning on FM advice, policy could focus on improving the match between demand and supply, and help create awareness about the importance of discussing FM to reduce the sensitivity of the topic.

Moving beyond the MSY concept to reflect multidimensional fisheries management objectives
Rindorf, Anna ; Mumford, John ; Baranowski, Paul ; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe ; García, Dorleta ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Kempf, Alexander ; Leach, Adrian ; Levontin, Polina ; Mace, Pamela ; Mackinson, Steven ; Maravelias, Christos ; Prellezo, Raúl ; Quetglas, Antoni ; Tserpes, George ; Voss, Rüdiger ; Reid, David G. - \ 2017
Marine Policy 85 (2017). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 33 - 41.
Inclusive governance - Management objectives - MEY - MSOY - MSY - Sustainability pillars
Maximising the long term average catch of single stock fisheries as prescribed by the globally-legislated MSY objective is unlikely to ensure ecosystem, economic, social and governance sustainability unless an effort is made to explicitly include these considerations. We investigated how objectives to be maximised can be combined with sustainability constraints aiming specifically at one or more of these four sustainability pillars. The study was conducted as a three-year interactive process involving 290 participating science, industry, NGO and management representatives from six different European regions. Economic considerations and inclusive governance were generally preferred as the key objectives to be maximised in complex fisheries, recognising that ecosystem, social and governance constraints are also key aspects of sustainability in all regions. Relative preferences differed between regions and cases but were similar across a series of workshops, different levels of information provided and the form of elicitation methods used as long as major shifts in context or stakeholder composition did not occur. Maximising inclusiveness in governance, particularly the inclusiveness of affected stakeholders, was highly preferred by participants across the project. This suggests that advice incorporating flexibility in the interpretation of objectives to leave room for meaningful inclusiveness in decision-making processes is likely to be a prerequisite for stakeholder buy-in to management decisions.
A novel millet-based probiotic fermented food for the developing world
Stefano, Elisa Di; White, Jessica ; Seney, Shannon ; Hekmat, Sharareh ; McDowell, Tim ; Sumarah, Mark ; Reid, Gregor - \ 2017
Nutrients 9 (2017)5. - ISSN 2072-6643
Cereal - Fermentation - Millet - Probiotic - Sub-Saharan Africa - Yogurt

Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation capability of millet when one gram of the Fiti sachet consortium was added. An increase of 1.8 and 1.4 log CFU/mL was observed for S. thermophilus C106 and L. rhamnosus GR-1 when grown in 8% millet in water. Single cultures of L. rhamnosus GR-1 showed the highest _max when grown in the presence of dextrose, galactose and fructose. Single cultures of S. thermophilus C106 showed the highest _max when grown in the presence of sucrose and lactose. All tested recipes reached viable counts of the probiotic bacteria, with counts greater than 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Notably, a number of organic acids were quantified, in particular phytic acid, which was shown to decrease when fermentation time increased, thereby improving the bioavailability of specific micronutrients. Millet fermented in milk proved to be the most favorable, according to a sensory evaluation. In conclusion, this study has shown that sachets being provided to African communities to produce fermented milk, can also be used to produce fermented millet. This provides an option for when milk supplies are short, or if communities wish to utilize the nutrient-rich qualities of locally-grown millet.

Inclusion of ecological, economic, social, and institutional considerations when setting targets and limits for multispecies fisheries
Rindorf, Anna ; Dichmont, Catherine M. ; Thorson, James ; Charles, Anthony ; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe ; Degnbol, Poul ; Garcia, Dorleta ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Kempf, Alexander ; Levin, Phillip ; Mace, Pamela ; Maravelias, Christos ; Minto, Coilín ; Mumford, John ; Pascoe, Sean ; Prellezo, Raul ; Punt, André E. ; Reid, David G. ; Rockmann, Christine ; Stephenson, Robert L. ; Thebaud, Olivier ; Tserpes, George ; Voss, Rüdiger - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)2. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 453 - 463.
ecosystem-based fisheries management - multiple objectives - reference points - sustainability - variability
Targets and limits for long-term management are used in fisheries advice to operationalize the way management reflects societal priorities on ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects. This study reflects on the available published literature as well as new research presented at the international ICES/Myfish symposium on targets and limits for long term fisheries management. We examine the inclusion of ecological, economic, social and institutional objectives in fisheries management, with the aim of progressing towards including all four objectives when setting management targets or limits, or both, for multispecies fisheries. The topics covered include ecological, economic, social and governance objectives in fisheries management, consistent approaches to management, uncertainty and variability, and fisheries governance. We end by identifying ten ways to more effectively include multiple objectives in setting targets and limits in ecosystem based fisheries management.
When experts disagree : the need to rethink indicator selection for assessing sustainability of agriculture
Olde, Evelien M. de; Moller, Henrik ; Marchand, Fleur ; McDowell, Richard W. ; MacLeod, Catriona J. ; Sautier, Marion ; Halloy, Stephan ; Barber, Andrew ; Benge, Jayson ; Bockstaller, Christian ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Legun, Katharine A. ; Quellec, Isabelle Le; Merfield, Charles ; Oudshoorn, Frank W. ; Reid, John ; Schader, Christian ; Szymanski, Erika ; Sørensen, Claus A.G. ; Whitehead, Jay ; Manhire, Jon - \ 2017
Environment, Development and Sustainability 19 (2017)4. - ISSN 1387-585X - p. 1327 - 1342.
Indicator selection - Multi-criteria assessment - Ranking - Sustainability assessment - Temperate agriculture
Sustainability indicators are well recognized for their potential to assess and monitor sustainable development of agricultural systems. A large number of indicators are proposed in various sustainability assessment frameworks, which raises concerns regarding the validity of approaches, usefulness and trust in such frameworks. Selecting indicators requires transparent and well-defined procedures to ensure the relevance and validity of sustainability assessments. The objective of this study, therefore, was to determine whether experts agree on which criteria are most important in the selection of indicators and indicator sets for robust sustainability assessments. Two groups of experts (Temperate Agriculture Research Network and New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard) were asked to rank the relative importance of eleven criteria for selecting individual indicators and of nine criteria for balancing a collective set of indicators. Both ranking surveys reveal a startling lack of consensus amongst experts about how best to measure agricultural sustainability and call for a radical rethink about how complementary approaches to sustainability assessments are used alongside each other to ensure a plurality of views and maximum collaboration and trust amongst stakeholders. To improve the transparency, relevance and robustness of sustainable assessments, the context of the sustainability assessment, including prioritizations of selection criteria for indicator selection, must be accounted for. A collaborative design process will enhance the acceptance of diverse values and prioritizations embedded in sustainability assessments. The process by which indicators and sustainability frameworks are established may be a much more important determinant of their success than the final shape of the assessment tools. Such an emphasis on process would make assessments more transparent, transformative and enduring.
Discrete water quality sampling at open-water aquaculture sites: limitations and strategies
Jansen, H.M. ; Reid, G.K. ; Bannister, R.J. ; Husa, V. ; Robinson, S.M.C. ; Cooper, J.A. ; Quinton, C. ; Strand, Ø. - \ 2016
Aquaculture Environment Interactions 8 (2016). - ISSN 1869-215X - p. 463 - 480.
Sampling design - pelagic - IMTA - Nutrients - Cage aquaculture - Farm-scale
While environmental performance of cage-based aquaculture is most often monitored through benthic conditions, there may also be requirements that necessitate discrete, pelagic sampling. In the pelagic realm, adequately capturing the spatial and temporal dynamics of interest and attributing causality to aquaculture processes can be extremely challenging. Conditions are seldom ideal, and data adequacy concerns of discrete samples collected at open-water
aquaculture sites are not uncommon. Further exploration of these challenges is needed. Herein, we aim to explore considerations for study design, analysis, and data interpretation of discrete pelagic sampling. As examples, we present 2 case studies where limited sampling occurred under conditions of complex pelagic dynamics. A Norwegian case study quantified particle abundance
around salmon farms, and aimed to highlight the effects of spatial−temporal variation on sampling design, the need for inclusion of companion parameters, and the benefits of a priori and a posteriori data interpretation strategies. A Canadian case study collected discrete samples to measure ammonium concentrations with continuous current measurements at an Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) farm, to explore issues of complex hydrodynamics, reference site suitability, sampling resolution, data pooling, and post hoc power tests. We further discuss lessons learned and the implications of study design, ambient conditions, physical processes, farm management, statistical analysis, companion parameters, and the potential for confounding effects. Pragmatic
consideration of these aspects will ultimately serve to better frame the costs and benefits of discrete pelagic sampling at open-water aquaculture sites.
Robotics in agriculture and forestry
Bergerman, M. ; Billingsley, J. ; Reid, J. ; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2016
In: Springer handbook of robotics / Siciliano, Bruno, Khatib, Oussama, Heidelberg : Springer Verlag - ISBN 9783319325507 - p. 1463 - 1492.
Robotics
Robotics for agriculture and forestry (A&F) represents the ultimate application of one of our society’s latest and most advanced innovations to its most ancient and important industries. Over the course of history, mechanization and automation increased crop output several orders of magnitude, enabling a geometric growth in population and an increase in quality of life across the globe. Rapid population growth and rising incomes in developing countries, however, require ever larger amounts of A&F output. This chapter addresses robotics for A&F in the form of case studies where robotics is being successfully applied to solve well-identified problems. With respect to plant crops, the focus is on the in-field or in-farm tasks necessary to guarantee a quality crop and, generally speaking, end at harvest time. In the livestock domain, the focus is on breeding and nurturing, exploiting, harvesting, and slaughtering and processing. The chapter is organized in four main sections. The first one explains the scope, in particular, what aspects of robotics for A&F are dealt with in the chapter. The second one discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with the application of robotics to A&F. The third section is the core of the chapter, presenting twenty case studies that showcase (mostly) mature applications of robotics in various agricultural and forestry domains. The case studies are not meant to be comprehensive but instead to give the reader a general overview of how robotics has been applied to A&F in the last 10 years. The fourth section concludes the chapter with a discussion on specific improvements to current technology and paths to commercialization.
Evaluating early-warning indicators of critical transitions in natural aquatic ecosystems
Gsell, A.S. ; Scharfenberger, Ulrike ; Özkundakci, Deniz ; Walters, Annika ; Hansson, Lars Anders ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Nõges, Peeter ; Reid, Philip C. ; Schindler, Daniel E. ; Donk, Ellen Van ; Dakos, Vasilis ; Adrian, Rita - \ 2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (2016)50. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E8089 - E8095.
Competition - Intraguild predation - Resilience indicators - Time series - Trophic cascade

Ecosystems can show sudden and persistent changes in state despite only incremental changes in drivers. Such critical transitions are difficult to predict, because the state of the system often shows little change before the transition. Early-warning indicators (EWIs) are hypothesized to signal the loss of system resilience and have been shown to precede critical transitions in theoretical models, paleo-climate time series, and in laboratory as well as whole lake experiments. The generalizability of EWIs for detecting critical transitions in empirical time series of natural aquatic ecosystems remains largely untested, however. Here we assessed four commonly used EWIs on long-term datasets of five freshwater ecosystems that have experienced sudden, persistent transitions and for which the relevant ecological mechanisms and drivers are well understood. These case studies were categorized by three mechanisms that can generate critical transitions between alternative states: competition, trophic cascade, and intraguild predation. Although EWIs could be detected in most of the case studies, agreement among the four indicators was low. In some cases, EWIs were detected considerably ahead of the transition. Nonetheless, our results show that at present, EWIs do not provide reliable and consistent signals of impending critical transitions despite using some of the best routinely monitored freshwater ecosystems. Our analysis strongly suggests that a priori knowledge of the underlying mechanisms driving ecosystem transitions is necessary to identify relevant state variables for successfully monitoring EWIs.

Encouraging results for controlling an Agricultural pest on St. Eustatius
Debrot, A.O. ; Reid, A. ; Leslie, T.W. ; Madden, H. ; Stapel, J. ; Dalm, Friso ; Uphoff, Lara ; Zwet, Leonie van der - \ 2016
BioNews (2016)26. - p. 8 - 8.
In 2013, the invasive Giant African Land Snail, Achatina fulica was found in a small part of urban St. Eustatius. In collaboration with local government agencies and Dutch universities, IMARES* conducted field and laboratory pilot trials of control methods from October 2015 to June 2016.
Grazing lands in Sub-Saharan Africa and their potential role in climate change mitigation: What we do and don't know
Milne, E. ; Aynekulu, E. ; Bationo, A. ; Batjes, N.H. ; Boone, R. ; Conant, R. ; Davies, J. ; Hanan, N. ; Hoag, D. ; Herrick, J.E. ; Knausenberger, W. ; Neely, C. ; Njoka, J. ; Ngugi, M. ; Parton, B. ; Paustian, K. ; Reid, K. ; Said, M. ; Shepherd, K. ; Swift, D. ; Thornton, P. ; Williams, S. ; Miller, S. ; Nkonya, Ephraim - \ 2016
Environmental Development 19 (2016). - ISSN 2211-4645 - p. 70 - 74.
In 2014, the USAID project ‘Grazing lands, livestock and climate resilient mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa’ held two workshops, hosted by the Colorado State University, which brought together experts from around the world. Two reports resulted from these workshops, one an assessment of the state of the science, and the other an inventory of related activities in the region to date.. In this short communication we summarize the main points of the first report – The state of the science (Milne and Williams, 2015). A second report is in preparation.
Vlakvaaggrond : Ameland, Neerlands Reid in wording. ´Kwelder als buffer bij zeespiegelstijging´
Mantel, S. ; Slim, P.A. ; Krol, J. - \ 2016
Natuurcentrum Ameland
Map-based estimates of present carbon stocks of grazing lands in Sub-Sahara Africa
Batjes, N.H. ; Milne, E. ; Williams, S. - \ 2015
In: Grazing Lands, Livestock and Climate Resilient Mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa: The State of the Science United States Agency for International Development (USAID) - p. 31 - 33, 97-100.
This report is a detailed review, synthesis, and analysis of the current “state of the science” concerning the potential for carbon sequestration in grazing lands through improved land management practices in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of the science of C sequestration from improved land management, including the current levels of uncertainty, major gaps in knowledge and data, areas for near term research and development, major determinants of sequestration potential, and current and potential scientific monitoring tools. The report firstly gives an overview of current grazing lands in SSA (Chapter 1) and explores the major determinants of C sequestration in grass/rangeland systems (Chapter 2). It then considers current research work on C impacts of grazing land management systems (Chapter 3). Available measurement techniques are summarized in Chapter 4 and a map based approach is then used in Chapter 5 to estimate present C stocks in grazing lands in SSA. This is followed by Chapter 6 which looks at available modeling techniques and Chapter 7 which presents a model based estimate of C sequestration potential in grass/rangelands in SSA. The final chapter (Chapter 8) provides a synthesis of the report’s findings. > Authors of the respective chapters: Eleanor Milne · Stephen Williams · Andre Bationo · Robin Reid · David Swift · Rich Conant · Niall Hanan · Constance Neely · Ermias Aynekulu · Keith D. Shepherd · Niels Batjes · Randall Boone
A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods
Kort, Remco ; Westerik, Nieke ; Mariela Serrano, L. ; Douillard, François P. ; Gottstein, Willi ; Mukisa, Ivan M. ; Tuijn, Coosje J. ; Basten, Lisa ; Hafkamp, Bert ; Meijer, Wilco C. ; Teusink, Bas ; Vos, Willem de; Reid, Gregor ; Sybesma, Wilbert - \ 2015
Microbial Cell Factories 14 (2015)1. - ISSN 1475-2859
Bacterial fermentation - Consortium - Enrichment - Fermented foods - Functional foods - Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG - Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 - Streptococcus thermophilus C106 - Yoghurt

Background: The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under the name Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012, world's first generic probiotic strain. We have been able to overcome the strain's limitations to grow in food matrices like milk, by formulating a dried starter consortium with Streptococcus thermophilus that enables the propagation of both strains in milk and other food matrices. The affordable seed culture is used by people in resource-poor communities. Results: We used S. thermophilus C106 as an adjuvant culture for the propagation of L. rhamnosus yoba 2012 in a variety of fermented foods up to concentrations, because of its endogenous proteolytic activity, ability to degrade lactose and other synergistic effects. Subsequently, L. rhamnosus could reach final titers of 1E+09CFUml-1, which is sufficient to comply with the recommended daily dose for probiotics. The specific metabolic interactions between the two strains were derived from the full genome sequences of L. rhamnosus GG and S. thermophilus C106. The piliation of the L. rhamnosus yoba 2012, required for epithelial adhesion and inflammatory signaling in the human host, was stable during growth in milk for two rounds of fermentation. Sachets prepared with the two strains, yoba 2012 and C106, retained viability for at least 2 years. Conclusions: A stable dried seed culture has been developed which facilitates local and low-cost production of a wide range of fermented foods that subsequently act as delivery vehicles for beneficial bacteria to communities in east Africa.

Molucular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013
Watson, S.J. ; Langat, P. ; Reid, S. ; Lam, T. ; Cotten, M. ; Kelly, M. ; Reeth, K. Van; Qiu, Y. ; Simon, G. ; Bonin, E. ; Foni, E. ; Chiapponi, C. ; Larsen, L. ; Hjulsager, C. ; Markowska-Daniel, I. ; Urbaniak, K. ; Durrwald, R. ; Schlegel, M. ; Huovilainen, A. ; Davidson, I. ; Dan, A. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. ; Edwards, S. ; Bublot, M. ; Vila, T. ; Maldonado, J. ; Valls, L. ; Brown, I.H. ; Pybus, O.G. ; Kellam, P. - \ 2015
Journal of Virology 89 (2015)19. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 9920 - 9931.
The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data have not yet been described for Europe. We report the first large-scale genomic characterization of 290 swine influenza viruses collected from 14 European countries between 2009 and 2013. A total of 23 distinct genotypes were identified, with the 7 most common comprising 82% of the incidence. Contrasting epidemiological dynamics were observed for two of these genotypes, H1huN2 and H3N2, with the former showing multiple long-lived geographically isolated lineages, while the latter had short-lived geographically diffuse lineages. At least 32 human-swine transmission events have resulted in A(H1N1)pdm09 becoming established at a mean frequency of 8% across European countries. Notably, swine in the United Kingdom have largely had a replacement of the endemic Eurasian avian virus-like (“avian-like”) genotypes with A(H1N1)pdm09-derived genotypes. The high number of reassortant genotypes observed in European swine, combined with the identification of a genotype similar to the A(H3N2)v genotype in North America, underlines the importance of continued swine surveillance in Europe for the purposes of maintaining public health. This report further reveals that the emergences and drivers of virus evolution in swine differ at the global level.
Validation of the effects of a single one second hypochlorite floral dip on Bortytis cinerea incidence following long-term shipment of cut roses
Woltering, E.J. ; Boerrigter, H.A.M. ; Mensink, M.G.J. ; Harkema, H. ; Macnish, A.J. ; Reid, M.S. ; Jiang, C.Z. - \ 2015
Acta Horticulturae 1064 (2015). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 211 - 220.
The effect of a pre-shipment hypochlorite treatment on botrytis incidence was evaluated in a large number of rose cultivars and under different long-term storage conditions. Application parameters, stability and sources of hypochlorite were investigated. Irrespective of the type of packaging and shipment conditions, roses that received a pre-shipment treatment with 100 to 150 mg/L hypochlorite showed a significantly decreased botrytis incidence compared to non-hypochlorite treated roses. The hypochlorite treatment generally was more effective than a comparable treatment with commercial fungicides. Dipping the flower heads for approximately one second in a hypochlorite solution was more effective than spraying the heads. In few cases minor hypochlorite-induced damage on the petal tips was observed at higher concentrations (>200 mg/L). Apart from the effect on botrytis incidence, the treatment resulted in reduced water loss that may have an additional beneficial effect on the eventual flower quality. It is concluded that, apart from other obvious measures to reduce botrytis incidence (prevention of high humidity at the flower heads) a pre-shipment floral dip in 100 to 150 mg/L hypochlorite from commercial household bleach is an easy and cost effective way to reduce botrytis incidence following long term storage/transportation of roses.
Pedestrian Safety and the Built Environment : A Review of the Risk Factors
Stoker, Philip ; Garfinkel-Castro, Andrea ; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck ; Odero, Wilson ; Mwangi, M.N. ; Peden, Margie ; Ewing, Reid - \ 2015
Journal of Planning Literature 30 (2015)4. - ISSN 0885-4122 - p. 377 - 392.
built environment - pedestrian safety - risk factors

Urban and regional planning has a contribution to make toward improving pedestrian safety, particularly in view of the fact that about 273,000 pedestrians were killed in road traffic crashes in 2010. The road is a built environments that should enhance safety and security for pedestrians, but this ideal is not always the case. This article presents an overview of the evidence on the risks that pedestrians face in the built environment. This article shows that design of the roadway and development of different land uses can either increase or reduce pedestrian road traffic injury. Planners need to design or modify the built environment to minimize risk for pedestrians.

Balanced Harvest in the Real World. Scientific, Policy and Operational Issues in an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries
Garcia, S.M. ; Bianchi, G. ; Charles, A. ; Kolding, J. ; Rice, J. ; Rochet, M.J. ; Zhou, S. ; Delius, G. ; Reid, D. ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Atcheson, M. ; Bartley, D. ; Borges, L. ; Bundy, A. ; Dagorn, L. ; Dunn, D. ; Hall, M. ; Heino, M. ; Jacobsen, B. ; Jacobsen, N.S. ; Law, R. ; Makino, M. ; Martin, F. ; Skern-Mauritzen, M. ; Suuronen, P. ; Symons, D. - \ 2015
Gland, Switzerland : IUCN - 94 p.
The concept of the Ecosystem Approach has entered the fishery harvesting discussions both from fishery perspectives (Reykjavik Declaration; FAO 2003 Annex to the Code of Conduct and from the principles of the Ecosystem Approach adopted by the CBD in 1995. Both perspectives establish the need to maintain ecosystem structure and functioning, whether for sustainable use of biodiversity (CBD) or simply to keep exploited ecosystems healthy and productive (fisheries). In response, the “Balanced Harvest” (BH) concept was suggested by a group of scientists brought together by the IUCN Fisheries Experts Group during the CBD CoP 10 in 2010. The meeting and the BH concept as consolidated there highlighted some of the collateral ecological effects of current fishing patterns and unbalanced removals of particular components of the food web, stimulating a critical rethinking of current approaches to fisheries management. The meeting on “Balanced Harvest in the real world - Scientific, policy and operational issues in an ecosystem approach to fisheries” (Rome, September 29-October 2, 2014) examined the progress made since 2010 on a number of fronts. It considered questions related to the scientific underpinning of the BH concept, including theory, modelling, and empirical observations. It began to explore the economic, policy and management implications of harvesting in a more balanced way.
Does vegetation in restored salt marshes equal naturally developed vegetation
Loon-Steensma, J.M. van; Dobben, H.F. van; Slim, P.A. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Dirkse, G.M. - \ 2015
Applied Vegetation Science 18 (2015)4. - ISSN 1402-2001 - p. 674 - 682.
Question: Do low stone dams built to prevent erosion and to restore salt marshes through increased sedimentation affect plant species composition? Location: Dutch Wadden Sea area (ca. 53°N 5°E). Methods: Relevés (N = 170) were made of the vegetation of two restored salt marsh sites on the barrier islands Terschelling (Grië) and Ameland (Neerlands Reid). Existing relevés of salt-marsh vegetation (N = 6198) made along the entire Dutch Wadden Sea coast (both the mainland and the barrier islands) were used as a reference. The vegetation of the two restored sites (Grië NLR data) was compared with the reference by (1) simple species-by-species analysis based on frequencies in both data sets, and by (2) ordination, where relevés of the restored sites were projected into a multivariate space defined by the species' abundances in the reference relevés. Results: Out of the 37 species that are common (i.e. have a frequency >5%) in either the Grië NLR data or the reference data, 31 have frequencies that differ by less than a factor of five, and 23 differ by less than a factor of two. Furthermore, the Grië NLR data occupy a space that is well in the centre of the ordination space defined by the reference data. Conclusions: There are no conspicuous differences between salt-marsh vegetation behind low dams and the vegetation that has naturally developed on unprotected mudflats. We conclude that measures targeting salt marsh development in view of flood protection do not interfere with nature conservation.
Identifying marine pelagic ecoystem management objectives and indicators
Trenkel, V.M. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Farnsworth, K. ; Olesen, C. ; Reid, D. ; Rindorf, A. ; Shephard, S. ; Dickey-Collas, M. - \ 2015
Marine Policy 55 (2015). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 23 - 32.
north-sea - fisheries management - celtic sea - continental-shelf - functional-groups - fish communities - forage fish - atlantic - seabirds - impacts
International policy frameworks such as the Common Fisheries Policy and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive define high-level strategic goals for marine ecosystems. Strategic goals are addressed via general and operational management objectives. To add credibility and legitimacy to the development of objectives, for this study stakeholders explored intermediate level ecological, economic and social management objectives for Northeast Atlantic pelagic ecosystems. Stakeholder workshops were undertaken with participants being free to identify objectives based on their own insights and needs. Overall 26 objectives were proposed, with 58% agreement in proposed objectives between two workshops. Based on published evidence for pressure-state links, examples of operational objectives and suitable indicators for each of the 26 objectives were then selected. It is argued that given the strong species-specific links of pelagic species with the environment and the large geographic scale of their life cycles, which contrast to demersal systems, pelagic indicators are needed at the level of species (or stocks) independent of legislative region. Pelagic community indicators may be set at regional scale in some cases. In the evidence-based approach used in this study, the selection of species or region specific operational objectives and indicators was based on demonstrated pressure-state links. Hence observed changes in indicators can reliably inform on appropriate management measures.
Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.