The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.
The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.
The global abundance of tree palms
Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density
Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.
The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.
Multi-locus phylogeny of the genus Curvularia and description of ten new species
Marin-Felix, Y. ; Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2020
Mycological Progress 19 (2020)6. - ISSN 1617-416X - p. 559 - 588.
Bipolaris - Dothideomycetes - Drechslera - Helminthosporioid fungi - Human and plant pathogens
Curvularia is a cosmopolitan genus that includes species associated with plants, animals and humans, several of which are of clinical significance. Some of these species are important pathogens of grasses, causing devastating diseases on cereal crops in the family Poaceae. In the present multi-locus study, ex-type and reference strains of Curvularia, as well as several strains deposited in the CBS culture collection of the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, were included. Based on ITS, GAPDH and TEF1 sequences, as well as phenotypic data, ten new species are described and illustrated: C. arcana, C. austriaca, C. canadensis, C. ellisii, C. pseudoclavata, C. pseudoellisii, C. pseudointermedia, C. pseudoprotuberata, C. siddiquii and C. tribuli. Moreover, the new combinations C. cactivora and C. patereae are proposed, and an epitype for C. oryzae-sativae is designated. In addition, illustrations and descriptions are provided for C. cactivora, C. ellisii, C. crassiseptata, C. neergaardii, C. oryzae, C. oryzae-sativae, C. protuberata and C. verruciformis. The description of C. pseudobrachyspora is emended, and its host and distribution records are updated.
A New High-Throughput Tool to Screen Mosquito-Borne Viruses in Zika Virus Endemic/Epidemic Areas
Moutailler, Sara ; Yousfi, Lena ; Mousson, Laurence ; Devillers, Elodie ; Vazeille, Marie ; Vega-Rúa, Anubis ; Perrin, Yvon ; Jourdain, Frédéric ; Chandre, Fabrice ; Cannet, Arnaud ; Chantilly, Sandrine ; Restrepo, Johana ; Guidez, Amandine ; Dusfour, Isabelle ; Vieira Santos de Abreu, Filipe ; Pereira Dos Santos, Taissa ; Jiolle, Davy ; Visser, Tessa M. ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Wongsokarijo, Merril ; Diallo, Mawlouth ; Diallo, Diawo ; Gaye, Alioune ; Boyer, Sébastien ; Duong, Veasna ; Piorkowski, Géraldine ; Paupy, Christophe ; Lourenco de Oliveira, Ricardo ; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Failloux, Anna Bella - \ 2019
Viruses 11 (2019)10. - ISSN 1999-4915
microfluidic analysis - molecular epidemiology - mosquito-borne viruses - surveillance
Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses affecting animal and human health. Arboviruses circulate primarily within an enzootic cycle and recurrent spillovers contribute to the emergence of human-adapted viruses able to initiate an urban cycle involving anthropophilic mosquitoes. The increasing volume of travel and trade offers multiple opportunities for arbovirus introduction in new regions. This scenario has been exemplified recently with the Zika pandemic. To incriminate a mosquito as vector of a pathogen, several criteria are required such as the detection of natural infections in mosquitoes. In this study, we used a high-throughput chip based on the BioMark™ Dynamic arrays system capable of detecting 64 arboviruses in a single experiment. A total of 17,958 mosquitoes collected in Zika-endemic/epidemic countries (Brazil, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Suriname, Senegal, and Cambodia) were analyzed. Here we show that this new tool can detect endemic and epidemic viruses in different mosquito species in an epidemic context. Thus, this fast and low-cost method can be suggested as a novel epidemiological surveillance tool to identify circulating arboviruses.
Re-evaluation of Mycoleptodiscus species and morphologically similar fungi
Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Bezerra, J.D.P. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Wiederhold, N. ; Crous, P.W. ; Guarro, J. ; Gené, J. - \ 2019
Persoonia 42 (2019). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 205 - 227.
Ascomycota - Dothideomycetes - Fungal pathogen - Muyocopron - Mycoses - New taxa - Sordariomycetes
Mycoleptodiscus includes plant pathogens, animal opportunists, saprobic and endophytic fungi. The present study presents the first molecular phylogeny and revision of the genus based on four loci, including ITS, LSU, rpb2, and tef1. An extensive collection of Mycoleptodiscus cultures, including ex-type strains from the CBS, IMI, MUCL, BRIP, clinical isolates from the USA, and fresh isolates from Brazil and Spain, was studied morphologically and phylogenetically to resolve their taxonomy. The study showed that Mycoleptodiscus sensu lato is polyphyletic. Phylogenetic analysis places Mycoleptodiscus in Muyocopronales (Dothideomycetes), together with Arxiella, Leptodiscella, Muyocopron, Neocochlearomyces, and Paramycoleptodiscus. Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, the type species, and M. sphaericus are reduced to synonyms, and one new species is introduced, M. suttonii. Mycoleptodiscus atromaculans, M. coloratus, M. freycinetiae, M. geniculatus, M. indicus, M. lateralis (including M. unilateralis and M. variabilis as its synonyms) and M. taiwanensis belong to Muyocopron (Muyocopronales, Dothideomycetes), and M. affinis, and M. lunatus to Omnidemptus (Magnaporthales, Sordariomycetes). Based on phylogenetic analyses we propose Muyocopron alcornii sp. nov., a fungus associated with leaf spots on Epidendrum sp. (Orchidaceae) in Australia, Muyocopron zamiae sp. nov. associated with leaf spots on Zamia (Zamiaceae) in the USA, and Omnidemptus graminis sp. nov. isolated from a grass (Poaceae) in Spain. Furthermore, Neomycolepto-discus venezuelense gen. & sp. nov. is introduced for a genus similar to Mycoleptodiscus in Muyocopronaceae.
Genera of phytopathogenic fungi: GOPHY 3
Marin-Felix, Y. ; Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Iturrieta-González, I. ; García, D. ; Gené, J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Cai, L. ; Chen, Q. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Ambers, C. ; Bonthond, G. ; Edwards, J. ; Krueger-Hadfield, S.A. ; Luangsa-ard, J.J. ; Morton, L. ; Moslemi, A. ; Sandoval-Denis, M. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Thangavel, R. ; Vaghefi, N. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 94 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 124.
DNA barcodes - Fungal systematics - New taxa
This paper represents the third contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions, information about the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera, as well as primary and secondary DNA barcodes for the currently accepted species included in these. This third paper in the GOPHY series treats 21 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives including: Allophoma, Alternaria, Brunneosphaerella, Elsinoe, Exserohilum, Neosetophoma, Neostagonospora, Nothophoma, Parastagonospora, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Pleiocarpon, Pyrenophora, Ramichloridium, Seifertia, Seiridium, Septoriella, Setophoma, Stagonosporopsis, Stemphylium, Tubakia and Zasmidium. This study includes three new genera, 42 new species, 23 new combinations, four new names, and three typifications of older names.
Genera of phytopathogenic fungi : GOPHY 2
Marin-Felix, Y. ; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Akulov, A. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Gramaje, D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Guarnaccia, V. ; Halleen, F. ; Lombard, L. ; Luangsa-ard, J. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Moslemi, A. ; Mostert, L. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Spies, C.F.J. ; Thangavel, R. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Wilson, A.M. ; Wingfield, B.D. ; Wood, A.R. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 47 - 133.
26 new taxa - DNA barcodes - Fungal systematics - Six new typifications
This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA barcodes for the currently accepted species are included. This second paper in the GOPHY series treats 20 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives including: Allantophomopsiella, Apoharknessia, Cylindrocladiella, Diaporthe, Dichotomophthora, Gaeumannomyces, Harknessia, Huntiella, Macgarvieomyces, Metulocladosporiella, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Paraphoma, Phaeoacremonium, Phyllosticta, Proxypiricularia, Pyricularia, Stenocarpella, Utrechtiana and Wojnowiciella. This study includes the new genus Pyriculariomyces, 20 new species, five new combinations, and six typifications for older names.
Multi-locus phylogeny and taxonomy of exserohilum
Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Madrid, H. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Cunha, K.C. da; Gené, J. ; Guarro, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2018
Persoonia 41 (2018). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 71 - 108.
Curvularia - Helminthosporium - Human and plant pathogen - New species - Setosphaeria - Systematics
Exserohilum includes a number of plant pathogenic, saprobic and clinically relevant fungi. Some of these species are of great importance in human activities, but the genus has never been revised in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we revise Exserohilum based on available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections, observation of the holotypes and/or protologues, and additional isolates from diverse substrates and geographical origins. Based on nine nuclear loci, i.e., ITS, LSU, act, tub2, cam, gapdh, his, tef1 and rpb2, as well as phenotypic data, the genus and species boundaries are assessed for Exserohilum. Three species, i.e., E. novae-zelandiae, E. paspali and E. sorghicola, are excluded from the genus and reallocated in Sporidesmiella and Curvularia, respectively, whereas E. heteropogonicola and E. inaequale are confirmed as members of Curvularia. Exserohilum rostratum is revealed as conspecific with species previously described in Exserohilum such as E. antillanum, E. gedarefense, E. leptochloae, E. longirostratum, E. macginnisii and E. prolatum. Additionally, E. curvatum is revealed as synonym of E. holmii, and E. fusiforme of E. oryzicola. A total of 11 Exserohilum phylogenetic species are described, illustrated and discussed, including one novel taxon, E. corniculatum. The placements of 15 other doubtful species are discussed, and E. elongatum is validated.
|Monitoreo climático: herramienta al servicio de la caficultura Colombiana
Sarmiento, Ninibeth ; Ramírez, Carolina ; Jaramillo, Álvaro ; Restrepo, Alexander ; García López, Juan Carlos ; Wolters, W. ; Miguel Ayala, L. - \ 2018
Bogota : APC Columbia - ISBN 9789588490298 - 110
Scaling-up biofortified beans high in iron and zinc through the school-feeding program : A sensory acceptance study with schoolchildren from two departments in southwest Colombia
Beintema, Joni J.S. ; Gallego-Castillo, Sonia ; Londoño-Hernandez, Luis F. ; Restrepo-Manjarres, José ; Talsma, Elise F. - \ 2018
Food Science and Nutrition 6 (2018)4. - ISSN 2048-7177 - p. 1138 - 1145.
Beans - Biofortification - Colombia - Micronutrients - Sensory acceptability
Iron and zinc deficiencies are global health problems, affecting mostly pregnant women and young children. In 2016, biofortified iron and zinc beans were introduced in Colombia. The incorporation of biofortified beans into the national school-feeding program could facilitate adoption and potentially improve the nutritional status of large populations. However, biofortified beans have to be accepted in order to be consumed by populations. We therefore studied the sensory acceptability of two biofortified beans, BIO-101 and BIO-107, and local beans at schools with free feeding services in two departments of southwest Colombia. Measured on a five-point Likert scale, the mean overall scores were 3.88 ± 0.64, 3.79 ± 0.74, and 3.81 ± 0.76, for BIO-101, BIO-107, and the local bean varieties, respectively, without significant differences. The children in Piendamó (Cauca) slightly preferred BIO-107 over the local bean (p < .05) based on color, smell, and taste. The children in Caicedonia (Valle del Cauca) slightly favored the local bean over BIO-107 (p < .05), regarding size, smell, and taste. Overall acceptability in schoolchildren was good for all beans without significant differences. This study advocates incorporation of accepted biofortified beans in the school-feeding program, in order to reach large groups of schoolchildren and potentially improve their nutritional statuses.
Seasonal drought limits tree species across the Neotropics
Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Steege, Hans ter; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel ; Brienen, Roel ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Pitman, Nigel ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Ahuite, Manuel ; Alexiaides, Miguel ; Álvarez Dávila, Esteban ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aulestia, Milton ; Balslev, Henrik ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Boot, Rene ; Cano, Angela ; Chama Moscoso, Victor ; Comiskey, James A. ; Cornejo, Fernando ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Daly, Douglas C. ; Dávila, Nallarett ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Duque Montoya, Alvaro Javier ; Erwin, Terry ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Fredericksen, Todd ; Fuentes, Alfredo ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Gonzales, Therany ; Guevara Andino, Juan Ernesto ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Mogollón, Hugo ; Jørgensen, Peter Møller ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Nauray, William ; Neill, David ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Sonia ; Palacios Cuenca, Walter ; Pallqui Camacho, Nadir Carolina ; Peacock, Julie ; Phillips, Juan Fernando ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Quesada, Carlos Alberto ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Restrepo, Zorayda ; Reynel Rodriguez, Carlos ; Paredes, Marcos Ríos ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silveira, Marcos ; Stevenson, Pablo ; Stropp, Juliana ; Terborgh, John ; Tirado, Milton ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umaña, María Natalia ; Urrego, Ligia Estela ; Vasquez Martinez, Rodolfo ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Vela, César I.A. ; Vilanova Torre, Emilio ; Vos, Vincent ; Hildebrand, Patricio von; Vriesendorp, Corine ; Wang, Ophelia ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2017
Ecography 40 (2017)5. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 618 - 629.
Within the tropics, the species richness of tree communities is strongly and positively associated with precipitation. Previous research has suggested that this macroecological pattern is driven by the negative effect of water-stress on the physiological processes of most tree species. This implies that the range limits of inventory plots of closed canopy forest distributed across the western Neotropics taxa are defined by their ability to occur under dry conditions, and thus in terms of species distributions predicts a nested pattern of taxa distribution from wet to dry areas. However, this 'dry-tolerance' hypothesis has yet to be adequately tested at large spatial and taxonomic scales. Here, using a dataset of 531 we investigated how precipitation, evaluated both as mean annual precipitation and as the maximum climatological water deficit, influences the distribution of tropical tree species, genera and families. We find that the distributions of tree taxa are indeed nested along precipitation gradients in the western Neotropics. Taxa tolerant to seasonal drought are disproportionally widespread across the precipitation gradient, with most reaching even the wettest climates sampled; however, most taxa analysed are restricted to wet areas. Our results suggest that the 'dry tolerance' hypothesis has broad applicability in the world's most species-rich forests. In addition, the large number of species restricted to wetter conditions strongly indicates that an increased frequency of drought could severely threaten biodiversity in this region. Overall, this study establishes a baseline for exploring how tropical forest tree composition may change in response to current and future environmental changes in this region.
Taxonomic and phylogenetic re-evaluation of Microdochium, Monographella and Idriella
Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita ; Groenewald, Johannes Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2016
Persoonia 36 (2016)JUNE. - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 57 - 82.
Cereals - Grasses - Phytopathogenic fungi - Sordariomycetes - Xylariales
Based on morphology and DNA sequence data the taxonomic relationships of Microdochium, Monographella and Idriella were reassessed. Microdochium is morphologically and phylogenetically circumscribed, and the sexual genus Monographella treated as synonym on the basis that Microdochium has more species, is more commonly encountered, and more frequently used in literature. An epitype is designated for Microdochium phragmites, and several well-known species are redefined based on their morphology and DNA sequence data (LSU, ITS, BTUB and RPB2). Furthermore, the revision of Microdochium led to six new combinations (M. albescens, M. consociatum, M. fusariisporum, M. maydis, M. opuntiae and M. stevensonii) and six new species (M. citrinidiscum, M. colombiense, M. fisheri, M. neoqueenslandicum, M. seminicola and M. trichocladiopsis) being proposed. Microdochium s.str. belongs to a monophyletic clade, together with Idriella lunata and Selenodriella, representing a new family, Microdochiaceae, in Xylariales. Other species previously accommodated in Microdochium belong to different orders in the Ascomycota. Microdochium gracile belongs to Sordariomycetes (incertae sedis) and Paramicrodochium is proposed to accommodate this species. Microdochium tripsaci belongs to Ephelis in Clavicipitaceae, while M. fusarioides belongs to a new genus, Microdochiella in Orbiliales. Idriella s.str. is a monotypic genus phylogenetically closely related to Microdochium. Idriella s.l. separates into different genera in Xylariales (incertae sedis) including Castanediella, Selenodriella, Idriellopsis, Neoidriella and Paraidriella, the last three proposed here as new genera.
Take-all or nothing
Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Elliott, M.L. ; Canning, G. ; McMillan, V.E. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2016
Studies in Mycology 83 (2016). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 19 - 48.
Cryptic species - Gaeumannomyces graminis - Magnaporthaceae - Phylogeny - Triticum
Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in Gaeumannomyces by combining morphology and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses based on partial gene sequences of ITS, LSU, tef1 and rpb1. Two new genera, Falciphoriella and Gaeumannomycella were subsequently introduced in Magnaporthaceae. The resulting phylogeny revealed several cryptic species previously overlooked within Gaeumannomyces. Isolates of Gaeumannomyces were distributed in four main clades, from which 19 species could be delimited, 12 of which were new to science. Our results show that the former varieties Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici represent species phylogenetically distinct from G. graminis, for which the new combinations G. avenae and G. tritici are introduced. Based on molecular data, morphology and host preferences, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. maydis is proposed as a synonym of G. radicicola. Furthermore, an epitype for Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae was designated to help stabilise the application of that name.
Neocordana gen. nov.,the causal organism of Cordana leaf spot on banana
Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita ; Groenewald, Johannes Z. ; Crous, Pedro W. - \ 2015
Phytotaxa 205 (2015)4. - ISSN 1179-3155 - p. 229 - 238.
Cordanales - Magnaporthales - Musa - Plant pathogenic fungi - Pyriculariaceae - Systematics
Cordana leaf spot of banana is shown to be associated with several species of a new genus described here as Neocordana gen. nov. Furthermore, Neocordana belongs to Pyriculariaceae (Magnaporthales) rather than Cordanaceae where the type species of Cordana, C. pauciseptata resides. Neocordana is established to accommodate Cordana musae, C. johnstonii, C. versicolor, and a previously undescribed species, N. musicola, which is morphologically and phylogenetically distinct. Neocordana species are found to be associated with leaves of Musa spp. (Musaceae) and Canna denudata (Cannaceae). Based on these results, Cordanaceae is best recognized in a separate order, established here as Cordanales ord. nov.
Mechanisms of water supply and vegetation demand govern the seasonality and magnitude of evapotranspiration in Amazonia and Cerrado
Christoffersen, B.O. ; Restrepo-Coupe, N. ; Arain, M.A. ; Baker, I.T. ; Cestaro, B.P. ; Ciais, P. ; Fisher, J.B. ; Galbraith, D. ; Guan, X. ; Hurk, B. van den; Kruijt, B. - \ 2014
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 191 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 33 - 50.
land-surface scheme - environment simulator jules - carbon-cycle feedbacks - stomatal conductance - regional evapotranspiration - atmosphere interactions - model description - biosphere model - boundary-layer - climate model
Evapotranspiration (E) in the Amazon connects forest function and regional climate via its role in precipitation recycling However, the mechanisms regulating water supply to vegetation and its demand for water remain poorly understood, especially during periods of seasonal water deficits In this study, we address two main questions: First, how do mechanisms of water supply (indicated by rooting depth and groundwater) and vegetation water demand (indicated by stomatal conductance and intrinsic water use efficiency) control evapotranspiration (E) along broad gradients of climate and vegetation from equatorial Amazonia to Cerrado, and second, how do these inferred mechanisms of supply and demand compare to those employed by a suite of ecosystem models? We used a network of eddy covariance towers in Brazil coupled with ancillary measurements to address these questions With respect to the magnitude and seasonality of E, models have much improved in equatorial tropical forests by eliminating most dry season water limitation, diverge in performance in transitional forests where seasonal water deficits are greater, and mostly capture the observed seasonal depressions in E at Cerrado However, many models depended universally on either deep roots or groundwater to mitigate dry season water deficits, the relative importance of which we found does not vary as a simple function of climate or vegetation In addition, canopy stomatal conductance (gs) regulates dry season vegetation demand for water at all except the wettest sites even as the seasonal cycle of E follows that of net radiation In contrast, some models simulated no seasonality in gs, even while matching the observed seasonal cycle of E. We suggest that canopy dynamics mediated by leaf phenology may play a significant role in such seasonality, a process poorly represented in models Model bias in gs and E, in turn, was related to biases arising from the simulated light response (gross primary productivity, GPP) or the intrinsic water use efficiency of photosynthesis (iWUE). We identified deficiencies in models which would not otherwise be apparent based on a simple comparison of simulated and observed rates of E. While some deficiencies can be remedied by parameter tuning, in most models they highlight the need for continued process development of belowground hydrology and in particular, the biological processes of root dynamics and leaf phenology, which via their controls on E, mediate vegetation-climate feedbacks in the tropics.
Fungal Planet description sheets: 214–280
Crous, P.W. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Bank, M. van der; Zhang, Y. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Guarro, J. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Wood, A.R. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Braun, U. ; Cano-Lira, J.F. ; Garcia, D. ; Marin-Felix, Y. ; Alvarado, P. ; Andrade, J.P. ; Armengol, J. ; Assefa, A. ; Breeÿen, A. den; Camele, I. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Souza, J.T. De; Duong, T.A. ; Esteve-Raventós, F. ; Fournier, J. ; Frisullo, S. ; García-Jiménez, J. ; Gardiennet, A. ; Gené, J. ; Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Hirooka, Y. ; Hospenthal, D.R. ; King, A. ; Lechat, C. ; Lombard, L. ; Mang, S.M. ; Marbach, P.A.S. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Montaño-Mata, N.J. ; Moreno, G. ; Perez, C.A. ; Pérez Sierra, A.M. ; Robertson, J.L. ; Roux, J. ; Rubio, E. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Stchigel, A.M. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Thompson, E.H. ; Vanderlinde, E. ; Walker, A.K. ; Walker, D.M. ; Wickes, B.L. ; Wong, P.T.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2014
Persoonia 32 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 184 - 306.
sp-nov - phylogeny reveals - eucalyptus-microfungi - host-associations - gene phylogeny - sequence data - diaporthales - morphology - gnomoniaceae - conioscypha
Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
What drives the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin? A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brazil flux network
Restrepo-Coupe, N. ; Rocha, H.R. da; Hutyra, L.R. ; Araujo, A.C. de; Borma, L.S. ; Christoffersen, B. ; Cabral, O.M.R. ; Camargo, P.B. de; Cardoso, F.L. ; Lola da Costa, A.C. ; Fitzjarrald, D.R. ; Kruijt, B. - \ 2013
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 182-183 (2013). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 128 - 144.
net ecosystem exchange - gross primary production - rain-forest - tropical forest - leaf-area - active radiation - carbon balance - co2 flux - climate - covariance
We investigated the seasonal patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity, and the effects thereon of variations in climate and land-use, by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia’ project. We found that degree of water limitation, as indicated by the seasonality of the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (Bowen ratio) predicts seasonal patterns of photosynthesis. In equatorial Amazonian forests (5° N–5° S), water limitation is absent, and photosynthetic fluxes (or gross ecosystem productivity, GEP) exhibit high or increasing levels of photosynthetic activity as the dry season progresses, likely a consequence of allocation to growth of new leaves. In contrast, forests along the southern flank of the Amazon, pastures converted from forest, and mixed forest-grass savanna, exhibit dry-season declines in GEP, consistent with increasing degrees of water limitation. Although previous work showed tropical ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) is driven by incoming radiation, GEP observations reported here surprisingly show no or negative relationships with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Instead, GEP fluxes largely followed the phenology of canopy photosynthetic capacity (Pc), with only deviations from this primary pattern driven by variations in PAR. Estimates of leaf flush at three non-water limited equatorial forest sites peak in the dry season, in correlation with high dry season light levels. The higher photosynthetic capacity that follows persists into the wet season, driving high GEP that is out of phase with sunlight, explaining the negative observed relationship with sunlight. Overall, these patterns suggest that at sites where water is not limiting, light interacts with adaptive mechanisms to determine photosynthetic capacity indirectly through leaf flush and litterfall seasonality. These mechanisms are poorly represented in ecosystem models, and represent an important challenge to efforts to predict tropical forest responses to climatic variations.
Advancing data assimilation in operational hydrologic forecasting: progresses, challenges, and emerging opportunities
Liu, Y. ; Weerts, A. ; Clark, M. ; Franssen, H.J. ; Moradkhani, S. ; Seo, D.J. ; Schwanenberg, D. ; Smith, P. ; Dijk, A.I.J.M. van; Velzen, N. ; He, M. ; Lee, H. ; Noh, S.J. ; Rakovec, O. ; Restrepo, P. - \ 2012
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16 (2012). - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 3863 - 3887.
ensemble kalman filter - variational data assimilation - numerical weather-prediction - soil-moisture retrievals - land data assimilation - stochastic hydrometeorological model - sequential data assimilation - improving runoff prediction - state-parameter estimat
Data assimilation (DA) holds considerable potential for improving hydrologic predictions as demonstrated in numerous research studies. However, advances in hydrologic DA research have not been adequately or timely implemented in operational forecast systems to improve the skill of forecasts for better informed real-world decision making. This is due in part to a lack of mechanisms to properly quantify the uncertainty in observations and forecast models in real-time forecasting situations and to conduct the merging of data and models in a way that is adequately efficient and transparent to operational forecasters. The need for effective DA of useful hydrologic data into the forecast process has become increasingly recognized in recent years. This motivated a hydrologic DA workshop in Delft, the Netherlands in November 2010, which focused on advancing DA in operational hydrologic forecasting and water resources management. As an outcome of the workshop, this paper reviews, in relevant detail, the current status of DA applications in both hydrologic research and operational practices, and discusses the existing or potential hurdles and challenges in transitioning hydrologic DA research into cost-effective operational forecasting tools, as well as the potential pathways and newly emerging opportunities for overcoming these challenges. Several related aspects are discussed, including (1) theoretical or mathematical aspects in DA algorithms, (2) the estimation of different types of uncertainty, (3) new observations and their objective use in hydrologic DA, (4) the use of DA for real-time control of water resources systems, and (5) the development of community-based, generic DA tools for hydrologic applications. It is recommended that cost-effective transition of hydrologic DA from research to operations should be helped by developing community-based, generic modeling and DA tools or frameworks, and through fostering collaborative efforts among hydrologic modellers, DA developers, and operational forecasters.
Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans
Haas, B.J. ; Kamoun, S. ; Zody, M.C. ; Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Handsaker, R.E. ; Cano, L.M. ; Grabherr, M. ; Kodira, C.D. ; Raffaele, S. ; Torto-Alalibo, T. ; Bozkurt, T.O. ; Ah-Fong, A.M.V. ; Alvarado, L. ; Anderson, V.L. ; Armstrong, M.R. ; Avrova, A. ; Baxter, L. ; Beynon, J. ; Boevink, P.C. ; Bollmann, S.R. ; Bos, J.I.B. ; Bulone, V. ; Cai, G. ; Cakir, C. ; Carrington, J.C. ; Chawner, M. ; Conti, L. ; Costanzo, S. ; Ewan, R. ; Fahlgren, N. ; Fischbach, M.A. ; Fugelstad, J. ; Gilroy, E.M. ; Gnerre, S. ; Green, P.J. ; Grenville-Briggs, L.J. ; Griffith, J. ; Grunwald, N.J. ; Horn, K. ; Horner, N.R. ; Hu, C.H. ; Huitema, E. ; Jeong, D.H. ; Jones, A.M.E. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Jones, R.W. ; Karlsson, E.K. ; Kunjeti, S.G. ; Lamour, K. ; Liu, Z. ; Ma, L. ; Maclean, D. ; Chibucos, M.C. ; McDonald, H. ; McWalters, J. ; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Morgan, W. ; Morris, P.F. ; Munro, C.A. ; O'Neill, K. ; Ospina-Giraldo, M. ; Pinzon, A. ; Pritchard, L. ; Ramsahoye, B. ; Ren, Q. ; Restrepo, S. ; Roy, S. ; Sadanandom, A. ; Savidor, A. ; Schornack, S. ; Schwartz, D.C. ; Schumann, U.D. ; Schwessinger, B. ; Seyer, L. ; Sharpe, T. ; Silvar, C. ; Song, J. ; Studholme, D.J. ; Sykes, S. ; Thines, M. ; Vondervoort, P.J.I. van de; Phuntumart, V. ; Wawra, S. ; Weide, R. ; Win, J. ; Young, C. ; Zhou, S. ; Fry, W. ; Meyers, B.C. ; West, P. van; Ristaino, J. ; Govers, F. ; Birch, P.R.J. ; Whisson, S.C. ; Judelson, H.S. ; Nusbaum, C. - \ 2009
Nature 461 (2009). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 393 - 398.
effector proteins - rxlr effectors - cell-death - plant - avirulence - avr3a - resistance - infection - genes
Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in famine and population displacement(1). To this day, it affects world agriculture by causing the most destructive disease of potato, the fourth largest food crop and a critical alternative to the major cereal crops for feeding the world's population(1). Current annual worldwide potato crop losses due to late blight are conservatively estimated at $6.7 billion(2). Management of this devastating pathogen is challenged by its remarkable speed of adaptation to control strategies such as genetically resistant cultivars(3,4). Here we report the sequence of the P. infestans genome, which at similar to 240 megabases (Mb) is by far the largest and most complex genome sequenced so far in the chromalveolates. Its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA accounting for similar to 74% of the genome. Comparison with two other Phytophthora genomes showed rapid turnover and extensive expansion of specific families of secreted disease effector proteins, including many genes that are induced during infection or are predicted to have activities that alter host physiology. These fast-evolving effector genes are localized to highly dynamic and expanded regions of the P. infestans genome. This probably plays a crucial part in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plants and underpins its evolutionary potential.
Landsliding and its multiscale influence on mountainscapes
Restrepo, C. ; Walker, L.R. ; Bussmann, R. ; Claessens, L. - \ 2009
Bioscience 59 (2009)8. - ISSN 0006-3568 - p. 685 - 698.
puerto-rican landslides - british-columbia - new-zealand - land-cover - vegetation - forest - soil - disturbance - succession - recovery
Landsliding is a complex process that modifies mountainscapes worldwide. Its severe and sometimes long-lasting negative effects contrast with the less-documented positive effects on ecosystems, raising numerous questions about the dual role of landsliding, the feedbacks between biotic and geomorphic processes, and, ultimately, the ecological and evolutionary responses of organisms. We present a conceptual model in which feedbacks between biotic and geomorphic processes, landslides, and ecosystem attributes are hypothesized to drive the dynamics of mountain ecosystems at multiple scales. This model is used to integrate and synthesize a rich, but fragmented, body of literature generated in different disciplines, and to highlight the need for profitable collaborations between biologists and geoscientists. Such efforts should help identify attributes that contribute to the resilience of mountain ecosystems, and also should help in conservation, restoration, and hazard assessment. Given the sensitivity of mountains to land-use and global climate change, these endeavors are both relevant and timely
|Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papaya (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America
Scheldeman, X. ; Willemen, L. ; Coppens D'eeckenbrugge, G. ; Romeijn-Peeters, E. ; Restrepo, M.T. ; Romero Motoche, J. ; Jimenez, D. ; Lobo, M. ; Medina, C.I. ; Reyes, C. ; Rodriguez, D. ; Ocampo, J.A. ; Damme, P. van; Goetghebeur, P. - \ 2007
In: Plant Conservation and Biodiversity / Hawksworth, D.L., Bull, A.T., Dordrecht : Springer (Series Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation 6) - ISBN 9781402064432 - p. 293 - 310.
Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papaya (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America
Scheldeman, X. ; Willemen, L. ; Coppens D'eeckenbrugge, G. ; Romeijn-Peeters, E. ; Restrepo, M.T. ; Romero Motoche, J. ; Jimenez, D. ; Lobo, M. ; Medina, C.I. ; Reyes, C. ; Rodriguez, D. ; Ocampo, J.A. ; Damme, P. van; Goetghebeur, P. - \ 2007
Biodiversity and Conservation 16 (2007)6. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1867 - 1884.
wild crop germplasm - ex-situ collections - interspecific hybridization - biodiversity exploration - conservation priorities - geographic information - carica-cauliflora - pentagona - ecuador - hybrids
Vasconcellea species, often referred to as highland papayas, consist of a group of fruit species that are closely related to the common papaya (Carica papaya). The genus deserves special attention as a number of species show potential as raw material in the tropical fruit industry, fresh or in processed products, or as genetic resources in papaya breeding programs. Some species show a very restricted distribution and are included in the IUCN Red List. This study on Vasconcellea distribution and diversity compiled collection data from five Vasconcellea projects and retrieved data from 62 herbaria, resulting in a total of 1,553 georeferenced collection sites, in 16 countries, including all 21 currently known Vasconcellea species. Spatial analysis of species richness clearly shows that Ecuador, Colombia and Peru are areas of high Vasconcellea diversity. Combination of species occurrence data with climatic data delimitates the potential distribution of each species and allows the modeling of potential richness at continent level. Based on these modeled richness maps, Ecuador appears to be the country with the highest potential Vasconcellea diversity. Despite differences in sampling densities, its neighboring countries, Peru and Colombia, possess high modeled species richness as well. A combination of observed richness maps and modeled potential richness maps makes it possible to identify important collection gaps. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of climate data at the collection sites allows us to define climatic preferences and adaptability of the different Vasconcellea species and to compare them with those of the common papaya.
Accounting for water : institutional viability and impacts of market-oriented irrigation interventions in Central Mexico
Kloezen, W.H. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L.F. Vincent; C. Garcés-Restrepo. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086570 - 291
irrigatie - bedrijfsvoering - institutionele opbouw - instellingen - levensvatbaarheid - impact - beoordeling - mexico - irrigation - management - institution building - institutions - viability - impact - assessment - mexico
During the past decade, many countries throughout the world have attempted to improve their generally poor performance record of agency-managed irrigation systems by designing and implementing institutional policy programs. This thesis analyses the institutional viability and the local impact on irrigation performance of two such institutional intervention programs. This is done in the context of the Alto Río Lerma irrigation district (ARLID), a large-scale irrigation system with a command area of more than 112,000 hectares located in the State of Guanajuato, Central Mexico. The central notion that runs through this study is the recognition that new institutional arrangements do not necessarily follow institutional design principles and top-down directives from policy makers and government interveners, but rather are created in a process of local negotiation between water users, farmer leaders and irrigation managers. This requires detailed observations on local practices, strategies and interactions on how users, leaders and managers cope with building and transforming irrigation institutions.
The first intervention program analyzed in this thesis aims to transfer management responsibilities from the irrigation agency (CNA) to local newly established water user organizations (WUAs) and to make them responsible for cost-recovery. The neoliberal belief behind this program is that greater farmer involvement in irrigation management and financing would eventually lead to a reduction in public investments in irrigated agriculture as well as to higher levels of irrigation performance. The second institutional intervention program that is analyzed in this thesis deals with the introduction of water markets, aiming at re-allocating water use to uses of higher economic value. Both intervention programs clearly embark on the 'less state, more market' approach to design and implement institutional arrangements for more use and cost-effective management of scarce resources such as water and funds. The central theme of this thesis is to study how water users and local water managers deal with the problems that result from these interventions and arrangements.
In 1992, ARLID was one of the first of Mexican districts were irrigation management transfer (IMT) was introduced. The Mexican IMT program is worldwide considered to be the most successful and ambitious institutional programs in its kind, both because of its scale and the speed with which the policy was designed and implemented. The claims on the successes of these and similar programs are generally ideologically driven, and empirical evidence to support the policy claim that these institutional interventions have achieved these goals remain largely undocumented. This thesis fills some of this empirical void.
This thesis comprises ten chapters. After the conceptual and methodological introduction in chapter 1, two contextual chapters follow. Chapter 2 introduces the research site, and chapter 3 presents the political economic history and context in which the institutional interventions took place. Chapter 4 to 9 provide the empirical data from the intensive case study in ARLID. Chapter 10 evaluates the main empirical, conceptual and methodological findings and discusses possible implications for policy and research orientations.
The first chapter provides a review of the conceptual approaches and methodologies used to study the viability of new institutional arrangements in the context of market-oriented reforms. This thesis explores the kind of conditions, processes and mechanisms that help to create viable institutions. These mechanisms do not only refer to institutional and economic relationships, but also to the relationship between institutions, and water scarcity and irrigation technology. In that sense the thesis follows the notion that irrigation technology is a sociotechnical phenomenon, with institutional requirements for use.
A key concept used for analyzing the viability of new irrigation institutions is accountability. This study shows that four forms of accountability can be separated: operational, financial, political and administrative accountability. Studying these forms of accountability (and the relationship between them ) demonstrates that practices and strategies of decision making in water management are only partly influenced by rational choice and (economic) incentives for utility maximization. They are also influenced by socio-political factors.
The methodological concern of this thesis is to develop a set of tools and indicators that help to assess the impacts of institutional interventions, both in terms of changes in irrigation performance levels, and in qualitative terms of processes of institutional viability. Two sets of performance indicators are presented. The first set comprises indicators that measure actual performance against set performance targets. The second set compares performance levels over time and across different system levels. The field work for this thesis comprised a wide set of methods and research techniques, ranging from intensive observations of practices and strategies for coping with the new institutional arrangements, to daily measurements of water flows in two selected WUA areas and several canals and fields in the irrigation district. Field research took place during the period from early 1995 to mid-1998.
Chapter 2 provides background information on the location, history, water availability and layout of ARLID. It also introduces the two main groups of farmers that now jointly are organized in the new WUA: ejidatarios and private growers. It shows how these two groups have historically and economically been separated for almost 70 years. The chapter also provides a brief description of the Cortazar and Salvatierra module areas, their canals and WUAs that were selected for the intensive case study.
Two important notions form the basis of the chapter 3, in which a detailed description of the historical and political economic context of IMT and water marketing is given. The first notion is that the legitimization for institutional interventions should be viewed in the political economic context of privatizing the Mexican country-side through dramatic constitutional revisions in the way distribution of land and water rights are organized. These reforms and revisions were started in the 1980 as a result of both a political and an economic crisis and were accompanied by wave of programs on the liberalization, decentralization and technocratization of the economy. Institutional intervention programs like the Mexican IMT program do not come on their own, but are preceded, accompanied and followed by other intervention programs that share the same neoliberal legitimization for restructuring the political and economic control over resources. The second notion is that to achieve the economic goals of these neolibral programs, the Salinas and subsequent administrations needed intervention policies such as IMT and water marketing as these would help to recover costs from the users. However, to improve greater involvement of farmers in water management, neoliberal programs are not a necessity.
Chapter 4 shows how IMT and water markets were implemented, both at the national level and in ARLID. The IMT program is a typical example of institutional engineering, comprising detailed prescriptions on institutional design and a top-down approach for implementing these designs. Yet, farmers and local managers do not fully disregard these proposed arrangements. Rather than using them as prescriptive dictates, the new principles and arrangements served as a strategic starting point for the WUAs for negotiating irrigation fee levels, water marketing, mode of user representation, maintenance programs, and redistribution of O&M responsibilities between the WUAs and CNA. Local recipients have partly adopted and accommodated the new institutional arrangements. The IMT program allowed local irrigation managers, new leaders of WUAs and farmers to jointly create room and institutional flexibility to alter the proposed arrangements. This was made possible mainly because from the initial stage of implementation, CNA officials in ARLID have shown to users that they are credible and willing to share knowledge and information in a transparent way. Credibility, transparency, institutional flexibility and probity were among the most important factors to explain how operational accountability from CNA to WUAs, and from WUAs to water users, was earned in a continuous process of negotiating institutional arrangements. Furthermore, given the wider set of market-oriented reforms and constitutional revisions that farmers had become familiar with, they realized that they could hardly resist IMT.
Chapter 5 provides a detailed analysis of practices, results and operational accountability for local water management. It demonstrates that official post-transfer arrangements for O&M in ARLID do not always reflect actual irrigation practices. As result, outputs of these practices in terms of relative water supply and land and water productivity remained unchanged after IMT. The main reason for this is the conflict in forms of accountability, which could not be resolved under the new institutional arrangements. Rather than adhering to new principles of using water as an economic good, farmers and local managers adhered to pre-IMT arrangements and practices of distributing water. Daily measurements of water flows and observation of irrigation practices revealed that ditch tenders (who are now employed by the WUAs) generally report planned water deliveries rather than actually supplied volumes. In that sense, they continued the practice of being administratively accountable to both users and CNA. This runs counter to the idea of encouraging efficient water use through water pricing and cost-recovery and hence being both financially and operationally accountable. Comparison of water use per hectare or per m 3of water across the 11 module areas in ARLID, shows that although water is the limiting factor in ARLID, the irrigation management strategy chosen by farmers is to maximize returns per hectare rather than increasing returns per m 3of water. As a result, water deliveries per hectare of irrigated land are generally very high. The chapter also provides some evidence that existing irrigation technology and water management regimes do not always match with the institutional capacity of the new WUAs to operate the system. The chapter also explores some ideas of approaching issues of relative water scarcity in the context of conjunctive use and in a wider setting of the entire water basin.
Chapter 6 gives a detailed account of how practices, processes and mechanisms of user representation, leadership election and conflict resolution affect political accountability and institutional viability. Detailed analysis of election procedures and processes over a period of two WUA administrations demonstrate that the de jure distribution of farmer representation in the boards and assemblies of WUAs is well organized. However, the de facto control over decision making remains in the hands of a few farmer leaders. These leaders have developed several strategies to reproduce this control. These include political coercion to become re-elected; favoritism in the employment of board members and irrigation staff; corruption; and extending economic and political networks. Particularly in the case of Salvatierra WUA, these strategies have caused that accountability was hardly created. Farmers use two strategies in their trying to counter-balance these mechanisms that weaken accountability. First, they refuse to pay higher fees to signal their dissatisfaction with th WUA's management policies. Second, they call for CNA to resolve disputes over illicit payments and the performance of the WUA leadership.
In chapter 7 an analysis is made of how mechanisms of financial accountability influence the institutional viability of the post-transfer institutional arrangements for irrigation management. WUAs in ARLID succeeded to boost cost-recovery and to become financially autonomous. In that sense IMT has been very instrumental to achieving the government goal of reducing public investments in irrigation. However, improved cost-recovery and financial autonomy have also helped WUAs to create room for negotiating the reformulation of important institutional arrangements such as the percentages of total revenue that had to be paid to CNA; the level of water pricing; and the conditions and prices for water trading. Financial transparency, the use of computers and external auditing helped the WUAs to become financially accountable to fee payers. Moreover, particularly in the case of Cortazar, leaders showed that they were credible when they started to use revenues from fee payments to dramatically improve canal maintenance. They also showed their willingness to fire irrigation staff that had proved to be corrupt. Yet, financial viability is threatened in two ways. First, as a result of lack of political accountability (such as in the case of Salvatierra). Second, because of the WUAs' total dependency on water availability to generate income.
In chapter 8 the focus of analysis is shifted towards issues of water marketing. WUAs in ARLID indeed have used the now legal opportunity to market water with other WUAs within the district. However, unlike the common belief among neoliberal advocates of water marketing, trading is not used to price water at opportunity cost levels. Rather, the process of water marketing is used to create solidarity among the WUAs. This solidarity is needed to be able to work together in the new federation of WUAs, which has opted to take over from CNA maintenance responsibilities for the main canal system. Water trading is also used by WUAs to show their members that they are credible in the sense that they will try to deliver water at any time; even when they have to buy it from other WUAs during times of water scarcity. As a result, prices of traded water are generally lower than water prices paid for normal water deliveries during times of sufficient water availability.
Chapter 9 returns to the official objectives of the IMT program and assesses the program's impact on water management. By applying a set of comparative indicators, it is shown that the result of IMT and water marketing in terms of changes in performance levels are disappointing. With the exception of improvements in cost-recovery and maintenance, there is no evidence that water is used more efficiently or that IMT has resulted in higher levels of productivity per hectare or per m 3of water.
Chapter 10 first provides a full synthesis of the empirical findings discussed bove. It subsequently revisits some of the conceptual and methodological tools used for this study. This shows that the conceptual notion of social requirements for use of irrigation technology should be further elaborated to institutional requirements for use. An important notion in this respect is that institutional arrangements are a mixture of formal prescriptive arrangements, existing arrangements and newly negotiated arrangements. Existing and new institutions are the result of a continuous process of creating, negotiating, earning, and maintaining accountability. This explains why institutions manifest themselves as being contingent rather than proposed static structures that follow designed institutional principles.
A revisit of the accountability concept shows that it is useful to separate different forms of accountability. This separation helps to analyze accountability mechanisms that go beyond those related to providing mere O&M services or cost-recovery; it also helps to unravel in what way providers of services are accountable, or not; and it helps to recognize in what way different forms of accountability can compete with each other. This is particularly of interest in the case of joint WUA-agency management of irrigation system, where different organizations can have competing management values and targets, and hence try to be accountable in different ways.
The methodological revisit on the different sets of impact assessment tools shows that comparative indicators are useful to assess changes over time as a result from institutional interventions. Yet, they are limited in the sense that they exclusively focus on economic and productivity output oriented results. Furthermore, applying these indicators was more time and resource consuming than assumed. The reason for this are the complexity and amount of secondary data needed as well as the difficult process it takes to deconstruct the meaning of these data.
This study has several implications for market-oriented policies, both in and outside of Mexico. Because of its unique political economic and constitutional context, the 'Mexican IMT model' cannot simply be copied to other countries where similar attempts of planned institutional changes are underway. Particularly the fact that IMT and water marketing in Mexico were supported by political commitment at the highest levels and by dramatic constitutional revisions and other agrarian reforms, explains why the new institutional arrangements for water management could be speedily implemented on such a wide scale. This study also suggests that institutional 'modernization' programs (such as IMT and water marketing) and physical modernization programs in irrigation should be better matched. Although physical improvement programs are often used to sell institutional reforms (and the consequent burden) to water users, they hardly ever are matched in such a sense that the proposed new technology matches with the proposed new institutional arrangements to use this technology.
Chapter 10 ends with a discussion on why to orient research on institutional interventions in water management to the level of entire water basin rather than irrigation systems. Also, irrespective that universities and international research institutes need to do research in the context of a globalizing world and with globalized research agendas, a plea is made to not shift too frequently to doing extensive, quantitative and comparative studies during a short period of time. Understanding institutional change processes and their impacts at the local level requires intensive and qualitative case studies over longer periods of time. Only in this way collaboration with local research partners can fully develop, resulting in the level of creation of institutional research memory that is needed for this understanding.
Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane
Heijden, M.W. van der; Carette, J.E. ; Reinhoud, P.J. ; Haegi, A. ; Bol, J.F. - \ 2001
Journal of Virology 75 (2001). - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 1879 - 1887.
Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and showed that these proteins are present together in fractions with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. A deletion analysis in the yeast two-hybrid system showed that in P1 the C-terminal sequence of 509 amino acids with the helicase domain was necessary for the interaction. In P2, the sequence of the N-terminal 241 aa was required for the interaction. In infected protoplasts, P1 and P2 colocalized at a membrane structure that was identified as the tonoplast (i.e., the membrane that surrounds the vacuoles) by using a tonoplast intrinsic protein as a marker in immunofluorescence studies. While P1 was exclusively localized on the tonoplast, P2 was found both at the tonoplast and at other locations in the cell. As Brome mosaic virus replication complexes have been found to be associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (M. A. Restrepo-Hartwig and P. Ahlquist, J. Virol. 70:8908-8916, 1996), viruses in the family Bromoviridae apparently select different cellular membranes for the assembly of their replication complexes.
Manejo del Agua en Las Acequias Privadas Garrapatal y el Tambo en la Provincia del Carchi, Ecuador
Sotomayor, J. ; Kloezen, W.H. ; Carcés-Restrepo, C. ; Bastidas, E. - \ 1999
Mexico : IWMI (IWMI Serie Latinoamericana 4) - 62 p.
|Assessing irrigation performance with comparative indicators: the case of Alto Rio Lerma Irrigation District, Mexico.
Kloezen, W.H. ; Garces-Restrepo, C. - \ 1998
Colombo, Sri Lanka : International Water Management Institute (Research Report 22)
|Impact assessment of irrigation management transfer in the Alto Rio Lerma Irrigation District, Mexico.
Kloezen, W.H. ; Garces-Restrepo, C. ; Johnson, S.H. - \ 1998
Colombo, Sri Lanka : International Water Management Institute (Research Report 15)
|Equity and water distribution in the context of irrigation management transfer: the case of the Alto Rio Lerma irrigation district, Mexico.
Kloezen, W. ; Garces-Restrepo, C. - \ 1998
In: Searching for equity: concepts of justice and equity in peasant irrigation / Boelens, R., Davila, G., Assen : Van Gorcum Publishers - p. 176 - 188.