Study of improvement for the analysis and exploitation of observers' reports EU fisheries from NW African waters : Final report
Garcia-Isarch, E. ; Clark, J.M. ; Fernandez-Peralta, L. ; Gonzalez-Lorenza, J.G. ; Duque-Nogal, V. ; Corten, A.A.H.M. ; Rey, J. ; Young, C. ; Perales-Raya, C. ; Cervantes, A. ; Verver, S.W. - \ 2020
Luxembourg : European Commission (Specific Contract No. 12 of the Framework Contract EASME/EMFF/2016/008 12) - 190 p.
The availability of detailed information on fishing activities and the biology of exploited species is an essential element for fishery resource assessment. Given the diversity of the fleets operating in the Atlantic waters of West Africa, obtaining this information is a challenge. The protocols for mixed Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements (SFPAs) in West Africa (Morocco, Mauritania,
Senegal and Guinea-Bissau) include provisions for observers from these countries to join EU vessels. Member States (MS) must also provide biological information from the exploited resources, under the EU Multi-Annual Programme (EU MAP) for the Data Collection Framework (DCF). For vessels that operate and unload their catches outside EU waters, this information can only be obtained from scientific observers. Although such observer data is analysed, there is considerable scope for further analysis to maximise information obtained. It is therefore necessary to ensure the observer schemes obtain complementary information to provide the data necessary to formulate relevant fisheries management advice in the region. The main objective of this Specific Contract is twofold: a) to scrutinise and deeply analyse the available information in DG MARE and MS in order to maximise its use; b) to critically analyse the content of these reports to identify strengths and weaknesses in data coverage, with a view to establish a standardised manual for the use of the observers.
Aerobic swimming in intensive finfish aquaculture : applications for production, mitigation and selection
McKenzie, David J. ; Palstra, Arjan P. ; Planas, Josep ; MacKenzie, Simon ; Bégout, Marie Laure ; Thorarensen, Helgi ; Vandeputte, Marc ; Mes, Daan ; Rey, Sonia ; Boeck, Gudrun De; Domenici, Paolo ; Skov, Peter V. - \ 2020
Reviews in Aquaculture (2020). - ISSN 1753-5123
aerobic exercise - growth - maturation - selection - stress - welfare
We review knowledge on applications of sustained aerobic swimming as a tool to promote productivity and welfare of farmed fish species. There has been extensive interest in whether providing active species with a current to swim against can promote growth. The results are not conclusive but the studies have varied in species, life stage, swimming speed applied, feeding regime, stocking density and other factors. Therefore, much remains to be understood about mechanisms underlying findings of ‘swimming-enhanced growth’, in particular to demonstrate that swimming can improve feed conversion ratio and dietary protein retention under true aquaculture conditions. There has also been research into whether swimming can alleviate chronic stress, once again on a range of species and life stages. The evidence is mixed but swimming does improve recovery from acute stresses such as handling or confinement. Research into issues such as whether swimming can improve immune function and promote cognitive function is still at an early stage and should be encouraged. There is promising evidence that swimming can inhibit precocious sexual maturation in some species, so studies should be broadened to other species where precocious maturation is a problem. Swimming performance is a heritable trait and may prove a useful selection tool, especially if it is related to overall robustness. More research is required to better understand the advantages that swimming may provide to the fish farmer, in terms of production, mitigation and selection.
Multimeric single-domain antibody complexes protect against bunyavirus infections
Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Water, Sandra van de; Harmsen, Michiel ; Bermúdez-Méndez, Erick ; Drabek, Dubravka ; Grosveld, Frank ; Wernike, Kerstin ; Beer, Martin ; Aebischer, Andrea ; Daramola, Olalekan ; Conde, Sara Rodriguez ; Brennan, Karen ; Kozub, Dorota ; Kristiansen, Maiken Søndergaard ; Mistry, Kieran K. ; Deng, Ziyan ; Hellert, Jan ; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo ; Rey, Félix A. ; Keulen, Lucien van; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
eLife 9 (2020). - ISSN 2050-084X
The World Health Organization has included three bunyaviruses posing an increasing threat to human health on the Blueprint list of viruses likely to cause major epidemics and for which no, or insufficient countermeasures exist. Here, we describe a broadly applicable strategy, based on llama-derived single-domain antibodies (VHHs), for the development of bunyavirus biotherapeutics. The method was validated using the zoonotic Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an emerging pathogen of ruminants, as model pathogens. VHH building blocks were assembled into highly potent neutralizing complexes using bacterial superglue technology. The multimeric complexes were shown to reduce and prevent virus-induced morbidity and mortality in mice upon prophylactic administration. Bispecific molecules engineered to present two different VHHs fused to an Fc domain were further shown to be effective upon therapeutic administration. The presented VHH-based technology holds great promise for the development of bunyavirus antiviral therapies.
Novel toscana virus reverse genetics system establishes NSS as an antagonist of type I interferon responses
Woelfl, Franziska ; Léger, Psylvia ; Oreshkova, Nadia ; Pahmeier, Felix ; Windhaber, Stefan ; Koch, Jana ; Stanifer, Megan ; Sosa, Gleyder Roman ; Uckeley, Zina M. ; Rey, Felix A. ; Boulant, Steeve ; Kortekaas, Jeroen ; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Lozach, Pierre Yves - \ 2020
Viruses 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 1999-4915
Arbovirus - Bunyavirales - Interferon - Neglected diseases - Phenuiviridae - Phlebovirus - Reverse genetics - Sand fly fever - Toscana virus
The sand fly-borne Toscana virus (TOSV) is the major cause of human meningoencephalitis in the Mediterranean basin during the summer season. In this work, we have developed a T7 RNA polymerase-driven reverse genetics system to recover infectious particles of a lineage B strain of TOSV. The viral protein pattern and growth properties of the rescued virus (rTOSV) were found to be similar to those of the corresponding wild-type (wt) virus. Using this system, we genetically engineered a TOSV mutant lacking expression of the non-structural protein NSs (rTOSVϕNSs). Unlike rTOSV and the wt virus, rTOSVϕNSs was unable to (i) suppress interferon (IFN)-b messenger RNA induction; and (ii) grow efficiently in cells producing IFN-b. Together, our results highlight the importance of NSs for TOSV in evading the IFN response and provide a comprehensive toolbox to investigate the TOSV life cycle in mammalian and insect host cells, including several novel polyclonal antibodies.
Impact of genotype, body weight and sex on the prenatal muscle transcriptome of Iberian pigs
García-Contreras, Consolación ; Madsen, Ole ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; López-García, Adrián ; Vázquez-Gómez, Marta ; Astiz, Susana ; Núñez, Yolanda ; Benítez, Rita ; Fernández, Almudena ; Isabel, Beatriz ; Rey, Ana Isabel ; González-Bulnes, Antonio ; Óvilo, Cristina - \ 2020
PLoS ONE 15 (2020)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
Growth is dependent on genotype and diet, even at early developmental stages. In this study, we investigated the effects of genotype, sex, and body weight on the fetal muscle transcriptome of purebred Iberian and crossbred Iberian x Large White pigs sharing the same uterine environment. RNA sequencing was performed on 16 purebred and crossbred fetuses with high body weight (340±14g and 415±14g, respectively) and 16 with low body weight (246±14g and 311±14g, respectively), on gestational day 77. Genotype had the greatest effect on gene expression, with 645 genes identified as differentially expressed (DE) between purebred and crossbred animals. Functional analysis showed differential regulation of pathways involved in energy and lipid metabolism, muscle development, and tissue disorders. In purebred animals, fetal body weight was associated with 35 DE genes involved in development, lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. In crossbred animals, fetal body weight was associated with 60 DE genes involved in muscle development, viability, and immunity. Interestingly, the results suggested an interaction genotype∗weight for some DE genes. Fetal sex had only a modest effect on gene expression. This study allowed the identification of genes, metabolic pathways, biological functions and regulators related to fetal genotype, weight and sex, in animals sharing the same uterine environment. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events that influence prenatal muscle development and highlight the complex interactions affecting transcriptional regulation during development.
|Fetal genotype effects on morphomics, fatty acids composition and transcriptomics in swine
Garcia Contreras, Consolacion ; Vazquez-Gomez, M. ; Madsen, O. ; Groenen, M. ; Astiz, S. ; Nunez, Y. ; Benitez, R. ; Heras-Molina, A. ; Fernandez, A. ; Isabel, B. ; Rey, A.I. ; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A. ; Ovilo, C. - \ 2019
In: ISAG 2019 Abstract Book. - - p. 148 - 149.
Iberian pigs are more prone to obesity and metabolic alterations than other lean swine breeds, due to leptin resistance and thrifty genotype, which makes the breed susceptible to changes in amount and composition of diet. This is especially manifested during prenatal development, where nutritional deficiencies in the diet of the mother may modify offspring’s gene expression to cope with postnatal challenging conditions. This work aimed to assess the role of the genotype in the metabolic and transcriptomic changes of pig fetuses derived from undernourished pregnant sows. Pure Iberian sows were inseminated with heterospermic semen from Iberian and Large White boars to obtain IBxIB and IBxLW genotypes. The pregnancy was challenged by diminishingmaternal intake to 50% of requirements during the last 2 thirds of pregnancy. Fifty-one fetuses were obtained at Day 77 of pregnancy and 32 of them (16 from each genotype) were selected at random. Assessment of body traits showed that IBxLW fetuses were heavier and more corpulent than their IBxIB littermates (P < 0.05). Analysis of liver fatty acids (FA) showed that IBxIB had higher level of saturated FA and monounsaturated FA and lower levels of polyunsaturated FA than IBxLW fetuses (P < 0.0001). Liver transcriptome analysis resulted in 249 genes differentially expressed (DE) between the 2 genotypes (q < 0.05 and FC >1.3). Functional annotation of the DE genes revealed a downregulation of biological functions related to growth and development (e.g.: Cell survival, Cell movement, Quantity of connective tissue or Survival of organism) in IBxIB fetuses. Potential transcription factors were assessed with IPA software, which allow the prediction of upstream regulators that may explain the molecular mechanisms responsible of transcriptome differences between genetic types. We highlighted 955 potential upstream regulators, some of them being involvedin growth and development (e.g.: IGF1) and downregulated in IBxIB fetuses. Hence, our results indicate differential regulation of relevant functions and pathways involved in growth and development, which may explain the phenotypic differences among the fatty and lean swine genotypes.
Book reviews - Crítica de libros - Crítica de livros (Historia Agraria, 76)
Schuurman, Anton ; D’Onofrio, Federico ; Stagno, Anna-Maria ; Ramon-Muñoz, Ramon ; Sciacchitano, Grazia ; Calvo Caballero, Pilar ; Paniagua, Ángel ; Gallego Ranedo, Carmen ; Rabassa Vaquer, Carles ; Arco Blanco, Miguel Ángel Del; Fandos, Cecilia A. ; Cruz-Artacho, Salvador ; Rey Castelao, Ofelia ; Robledo, Ricardo ; Lana Berasain, José-Miguel - \ 2018
Historia Agraria : Revista de Agricultura e Historia Rural (2018)76. - ISSN 1139-1472 - p. 253 - 315.
Detecting animals in African Savanna with UAVs and the crowds
Rey, Nicolas ; Volpi, Michele ; Joost, Stéphane ; Tuia, Devis - \ 2017
Remote Sensing of Environment 200 (2017). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 341 - 351.
Active learning - Animal conservation - Crowd-sourcing data - Object detection - Unmanned aerial vehicles - Very high resolution - Wildlife monitoring
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer new opportunities for wildlife monitoring, with several advantages over traditional field-based methods. They have readily been used to count birds, marine mammals and large herbivores in different environments, tasks which are routinely performed through manual counting in large collections of images. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic system able to detect large mammals in semi-arid Savanna. It relies on an animal-detection system based on machine learning, trained with crowd-sourced annotations provided by volunteers who manually interpreted sub-decimeter resolution color images. The system achieves a high recall rate and a human operator can then eliminate false detections with limited effort. Our system provides good perspectives for the development of data-driven management practices in wildlife conservation. It shows that the detection of large mammals in semi-arid Savanna can be approached by processing data provided by standard RGB cameras mounted on affordable fixed wings UAVs.
The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions : An interdisciplinary perspective
Nesshöver, Carsten ; Assmuth, Timo ; Irvine, Katherine N. ; Rusch, Graciela M. ; Waylen, Kerry A. ; Delbaere, Ben ; Haase, Dagmar ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence ; Keune, Hans ; Kovacs, Eszter ; Krauze, Kinga ; Külvik, Mart ; Rey, Freddy ; Dijk, Jiska van; Vistad, Odd Inge ; Wilkinson, Mark E. ; Wittmer, Heidi - \ 2017
Science of the Total Environment 579 (2017). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1215 - 1227.
Ecosystem management - Ecosystem services - Environmental governance - Sustainability
In this paper, we reflect on the implications for science, policy and practice of the recently introduced concept of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), with a focus on the European context. First, we analyse NBS in relation to similar concepts, and reflect on its relationship to sustainability as an overarching framework. From this, we derive a set of questions to be addressed and propose a general framework for how these might be addressed in NBS projects by funders, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners. We conclude that: (1) NBS need to be developed and discussed in relation to existing concepts to clarify their added value;(2) When considering and implementing NBS, the ‘relabelling’ of related concepts and the misuse of the concept have to be prevented in order to avoid misunderstanding, duplication and unintended consequences;(3) NBS as currently framed by the European Commission provides an opportunity for: a) transdisciplinary research into the design and implementation of solutions based on nature; and b) overcoming a bias towards development alternatives with narrow perspectives that focus on short-term economic gains and effectiveness;(4) The strength of the NBS concept is its integrative, systemic approach which prevents it from becoming just another “green communication tool” that provides justification for a classical model of natural resource exploitation and management measures.To realise their full potential, NBS must be developed by including the experience of all relevant stakeholders such that ‘solutions’ contribute to achieving all dimensions of sustainability. As NBS are developed, we must also moderate the expectations placed on them since the precedent provided by other initiatives whose aim was to manage nature sustainably demonstrates that we should not expect NBS to be cheap and easy, at least not in the short-term.
Combining human computing and machine learning to make sense of big (Aerial) data for disaster response
Ofli, Ferda ; Meier, Patrick ; Imran, Muhammad ; Castillo, Carlos ; Tuia, Devis ; Rey, Nicolas ; Briant, Julien ; Millet, Pauline ; Reinhard, Friedrich ; Parkan, Matthew ; Joost, Stéphane - \ 2016
Data 4 (2016)1. - ISSN 2167-6461 - p. 47 - 59.
Big Data analytics - crowdsourcing - machine learning - remote sensing - UAV
Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap). The results suggest that the platform we have developed to combine crowdsourcing and machine learning to make sense of large volumes of aerial images can be used for disaster response.
Solubility Part 1 : Overview
Tantra, Ratna ; Bolea, Eduardo ; Bouwmeester, H. ; Rey-Castro, Carlos ; David, C.A.A. ; Dogné, Jean Michel ; Laborda, Francisco ; Laloy, Julie ; Robinson, Kenneth N. ; Undas, A.K. ; Zande, M. van der - \ 2016
In: Nanomaterial Characterization: An Introduction / Tantra, R., Wiley - ISBN 9781118753590 - p. 81 - 116.
Capillary electrophoresis - Conductivity detection - Free ion measurement - Nanomaterial solubility - Separation methods - Theoretical modeling - Total dissolved specie measurement
This chapter gives an overview of different methods that can potentially be used to determine the solubility of nanomaterials. In general, the methods presented can be broadly divided into four categories: separation methods, methods to quantify free ions, methods to quantify total dissolved species, and theoretical modeling/predictions. After presenting an overview of the different methods, a case study is presented. The aim here is to illustrate nanomaterial solubility measurement in the context of a specific nano-specific application. In particular, this case study explores the feasibility of microfluidics technology to measure solubility of ZnO. The device to be assessed is a miniaturized capillary electrophoresis (CE) with conductivity detection. The aim of the case study is to investigate as to whether such a device is fit for purpose and to determine if there is scope for further method development.
The postfusion 3D-structure of the Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus envelope fusion protein F
Wang, Q. ; Vasiliauskaite, I. ; Bosch, B.J. ; Krey, T. ; Rottier, P.J. ; Vlak, J.M. ; Rey, F. - \ 2016
- p. 91 - 91.
Suitability of analytical methods to measure solubility for the purpose of nanoregulation
Tantra, Ratna ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Bolea, Eduardo ; Rey-Castro, Carlos ; David, Calin A. ; Dogné, Jean Michel ; Jarman, John ; Laborda, Francisco ; Laloy, Julie ; Robinson, Kenneth N. ; Undas, Anna K. ; Zande, Meike Van Der - \ 2016
Nanotoxicology 10 (2016)2. - ISSN 1743-5390 - p. 173 - 184.
Nanomaterials - regulation - solubility
Solubility is an important physicochemical parameter in nanoregulation. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then from a risk assessment point of view, its disposal can be treated much in the same way as "ordinary" chemicals, which will simplify testing and characterisation regimes. This review assesses potential techniques for the measurement of nanomaterial solubility and evaluates the performance against a set of analytical criteria (based on satisfying the requirements as governed by the cosmetic regulation as well as the need to quantify the concentration of free (hydrated) ions). Our findings show that no universal method exists. A complementary approach is thus recommended, to comprise an atomic spectrometry-based method in conjunction with an electrochemical (or colorimetric) method. This article shows that although some techniques are more commonly used than others, a huge research gap remains, related with the need to ensure data reliability.
|Acid activated fusion mechanism of baculovirus mediated by F protein
Wang, Q. ; Rottier, P.J.M. ; Bosch, B.J. ; Oers, M.M. van; Vlak, J.M. ; Vasliauskaite, I. ; Rey, F. - \ 2013
In: Abstract book of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Virology, Pennsylvania, USA, July 20-24, 2013. - - p. 164 - 164.
The organic seed regulations framework in Europe - current status and recommendations for future development
Döring, T.F. ; Bocci, R. ; Hitchings, R. ; Howlett, S. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Pautasso, M. ; Raaijmakers, M. ; Rey, F. ; Stubsgaard, A. ; Weinhappel, M. ; Wilbois, K.P. ; Winkler, L.R. ; Wolfe, M.S. - \ 2012
Organic Agriculture 2 (2012)3-4. - ISSN 1879-4238 - p. 173 - 183.
Organic agriculture regulations, in particular European regulation EC 889/2008, prescribe the use of organically produced seed. For many cultivated plants, however, organic seed is often not available. This is mainly because investment in organic plant breeding and seed production has been low in the past. To bridge the gap between organic seed supply and demand, national and European regulations define certain circumstances under which organic producers are permitted to use non-organically produced seed. While the organic sector currently depends on these concessions, they also threaten to impede a further increase in the demand for organic seed, thereby potentially restraining present and future investment in organic seed production and plant breeding. We review the current status of the organic seed regulations framework by analysing key issues such as the role of the national derogation regimes, the role of Expert Groups, databases and seed prices. Key points are that (a) the situation of the organic seed sector has improved over the last few years; however, (b) reporting on organic seed to the EU by different countries needs to be harmonised; (c) the success of the organic seed sector depends critically on the implementation and improvement of national Expert Groups; and (d) to protect genetic diversity, the use of local varieties and landraces should not be impeded by organic seed regulations.
|Breeding organic seed
Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Goldringer, I. ; Rey, F. - \ 2011
Ecology and Farming 2011 (2011)1. - ISSN 1016-5061 - p. 30 - 32.
Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America
Wouw, P. van de; Echeverria, C. ; Rey-Benayas, J.M. ; Holmgren, M. - \ 2011
Forest Ecology and Management 262 (2011)6. - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 1100 - 1108.
central chile - seedling establishment - vegetation structure - plant invasions - slope aspect - management - fire - conservation - regeneration - germination
Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean sclerophyllous forest in central Chile is been largely transformed into savannas dominated by the invasive legume tree Acacia caven as result of interacting management and ecological factors. We used multi-temporal satellite imagery to study the transition dynamics of these major vegetation types over the last four decades (1975–2008). Vegetation changes were related to indicators of resource availability (topography, water availability, solar radiance), potential propagule availability (distance to forest remnant patches) and disturbance regimes (grazing, fire occurrence and distance to roads and cities). During this study period, forests were mostly converted into Acacia savannas (46.1%). Acacia savanna was the most persistent natural vegetation type. The probability of sclerophyllous forest degradation into Acacia savanna increased on drier northern-exposed slopes, close to roads and further away from forest remnants. In contrast, forest regeneration from Acacia savanna was higher on moister southern-exposed slopes and closer to forest remnants. Acacia savannas are increasingly being converted into cultivated land on the moister locations or switching into a bare soil state in locations close to cities and further away from forest remnants. These results highlight the vulnerability of diverse sclerophyllous forests and its increasing conversion into persistent Acacia savannas in the Mediterranean region of central Chile and identify the ecological conditions for successful conservation and restoration of the native sclerophyllous forest vegetation that can be used for sensible land use planning.
Europe adapts to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Swart, R.J. ; Carter, T.R. ; Cowan, C. ; Henrichs, T. ; Mela, H. ; Morcecroft, M.D. ; Rey, D. - \ 2010
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 20 (2010)3. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 440 - 450.
social-ecological systems - boundary organizations - policy - governance - science - vulnerability - capacity - scales - uk
For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and facilitating the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms of multi-level governance to implement the proposed actions. Fifthly, how the strategy addresses integration and coordination with other policy domains. Finally, how the strategy suggests the implementation and how the strategy is evaluated. The paper notes that the role of National Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even though the strategies show great resemblance in terms of topics, methods and approaches, there are many institutional challenges, including multi-level governance and policy integration issues, which can act as considerable barriers in future policy implementation
Europe adapts to climate change. Comparing National Adaptation Strategies in Europe
Swart, R.J. ; Biesbroek, G.R. ; Binnerup, S. ; Carter, T. ; Cowan, C. ; Henrichs, T. ; Loquen, S. ; Mela, H. ; Morecroft, M. ; Reese, M. ; Rey, D. - \ 2009
Helsinki : PEER (PEER Report / Partnership of European Environmental Research no. 1) - ISBN 9789521134517 - 283
klimaatverandering - milieubeleid - adaptatie - europa - governance - risicobeheersing - climatic change - environmental policy - adaptation - europe - governance - risk management
Climate Change is happening. Even if global emission reductions and mitigation efforts over the next decades prove to be successful, a signifi cant amount of human-induced climate change has become inevitable. In addition to efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, many EU countries are therefore developing and putting in place adaptation strategies to help them cope with the expected impacts of climate change. This report presents a comparative analysis of national adaptation strategies in a sample of European countries. The primary objectives of this study are to identify policy-relevant fi ndings and formulate recommendations for further research. Through these objectives, this report aims at providing both policy makers and research managers with enhanced insights into the variety of approaches taken by countries and knowledge gaps, and to thus facilitate the exchange of information on how to tackle adaptation across Europe and develop relevant research agendas. Our focus is on national level strategies, examining top-down approaches to and coordination of adaptation measures in each country. There is clearly also an important role for bottom-up action, action which is often already taking place at the local scale, where climate impacts are expected to be experienced. This is covered in a parallel PEER report (Mickwitz et al., 2009). The report is structured around six key themes that were identifi ed by the research team on the basis of an initial inventory as distinctive elements of all the National Adaptation Strategies (NASs) that have been analysed. We examine how the countries have approached each of these themes, analyse how much progress has been made and identify policy needs and research gaps that we believe will help improve understanding and enhance the implementation of adaptation policy at the national level. The six themes are:
1. Motivating and facilitating factors for strategy development
2. Science-policy interactions and the place of research
3. The role of communicating adaptation
4. Multi-level governance in shaping and delivering National Adaptation Strategies
5. The integration of adaptation into sectoral policies
6. The role of policy monitoring, review and enforcement
Arranged to Distraction: How Categorizing Products with Complements versus Substitutes Alters the Experience of Product Choice
Herpen, E. van; Diehl, K. ; Poynor, C. - \ 2009
Arranged to Distraction: How Categorizing Products with Complements versus Substitutes Alters the Experience of Product Choice Erica van Herpen (Wageningen University), Kristin Diehl (University of Southern California), Cait Poynor (University of Pittsburgh) Short abstract (98 words) Although much is known about how substitute products impact consumers¿ decision processes, little is known about how product displays involving complementary items affect decisions. If consumers shop for a single target product, complementary items are objectively irrelevant. Yet, our research finds that organizing products with complements distracts consumers, increasing decision time and perceived effort. This distraction occurs across different physical arrangements and is not due to detailed examination of complementary products. At the same time, complementary categorizations are perceived as attractive and inviting, suggesting that their negative effects may be offset by creating an engaging, affectively positive experience. Long abstract (824 words) Websites such as www.furniture.com organize their assortment either by product type (i.e., dining tables) or by collection (i.e., full dining rooms with tables, chairs, sideboards, etc.). Likewise, clothing stores either present products in sets of substitutes or as part of entire outfits. These examples represent fundamentally different ways in which marketers organize products, in either taxonomic categories or consumption constellations. Although we know that consumers are influenced by the order and format in which alternatives are presented, prior research has mainly focused on sets of substitutes (e.g., Bettman, Luce, and Payne 1998) or on purchases of entire product bundles (Harris and Blair 2006). As a result, we know much about the influence of substitute products in an assortment, but relatively little about the influence of categorizing complementary products alongside the target item. Our research compares consumption constellations (Englis and Solomon 1996; Lai 1994) to more typical presentations of separating products by product types and identifies both drawbacks and benefits for consumers. Complementary products can distract consumers who plan to buy a single target product. They may complicate search, as the cluttered environment obscures rapid identification of specific target products (Bravo and Farid 2006). As such, complements may raise the effort involved in shopping simply because they compete for attention (Janiszewski 1998) and thereby increase the difficulty in remembering and comparing target products. For complements to act as distractors it is not necessary that consumers actually effortfully search complementary products or consider them at all relevant to their purchase goals (Perruchet, Rey and Hivert 2006). We predict that the mere presence of complementary items in a display will mentally distract consumers from their target product, therefore increasing decision time and difficulty but not necessarily time spent actively processing complements. However, presenting targets within consumption constellations may also generate positive outcomes. Compared to substitute-based organizations, consumption constellations may encourage greater visualization of product use (Dahl and Hoeffler 2004). Furthermore, consumption constellations may highlight new uses for the target product and its complements which a categorization with substitutes would not suggest. As a result, we predict that consumers¿ satisfaction with the assortment as a whole should be higher when items are externally categorized with complements rather than only with substitutes. In Experiment 1, 82 participants were randomly assigned to either a substitute or a complement organization, in a 2-group design. Stimuli were clothing brochures, with products from 8 taxonomic categories. Participants were asked to choose a shirt. In line with our predictions, participants in the complement condition experienced higher decision effort, more difficulty to grasp the selection, and more confusion than participants in the substitute condition. Still, consistent with our predictions, they thought that the assortment was more attractive. Experiment 2 examined whether increased effort in complement organizations could be attributed to greater physical distance between target products. Does the act of flipping pages to view different consumption constellations explain this increase in effort? 92 participants were asked to select a pair of pants from an online assortment containing 8 pairs of pants. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: substitutes together (the 8 pairs of pants all displayed on 1 screen), substitutes separated (one pair of pants on each of 8 screens), or complements (8 pairs of pants displayed on 8 screens surrounded by complementary products). The computer captured time measures as well as subjective responses. Our results suggest that the physical separation of items in complementary sets cannot explain the decision difficulty found in Experiment 1: Decision times were significantly longer in the 8-page complement than the 8-page substitute condition, where page distance was objectively equal and only the organization changed. Interestingly, differences in decision time were not driven by consumers actively examining complementary products, but rather by them spending more time looking at consumption constellations overall. As in Experiment 1, individuals shopping in complementary sets consistently took longer deciding and reported greater decision difficulty. Yet, such sets also generated greater assortment satisfaction and were seen as more inviting. A third study more closely investigates the effect of consumption constellations versus substitute presentations on information acquisition across. Using digital cameras as the target product described along product attribute and price info, we show that respondents take longer making a decision, but they acquire fewer individual pieces of information about these cameras. Yet, replicating findings from our previous study, they enjoy the experience more. As a whole, our research shows that even when consumers purchase products from a single, specified category, whether these products are immediately surrounded by complentary as opposed to supplementary products substantially changes the decision process. Marketers may want to create such complementary environments because they seem inviting and engaging to consumers. However, they should also be aware that although consumers spend more time deciding, they do not engage in more detailed examinations of either the target products or any complements.