Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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‘Opening up’ science policy: engaging with RRI in Brazil
Reyes-Galindo, Luis ; Monteiro, Marko ; Macnaghten, Phil - \ 2019
Journal of Responsible Innovation 6 (2019)3. - ISSN 2329-9460 - p. 353 - 360.
Brazil - governance of science and technology - RRI - science and technology policy

This article presents initial results from the Brazilian team in the Responsible Research and Innovation in Practice (RRI-Practice) collaboration, concurrently running in 22 countries. The project invites reflection from institutional actors through a variety of participatory exercises that focus on RRI’s potential for ‘opening up’ and impacting national science and innovation policy. After summarising the operational challenges faced during the research process, we focus on the main empirical findings. We conclude that despite its potential for opening up policy deliberation, RRI faces the inherent hurdles of surpassing longstanding Brazilian institutional traditions of hierarchical governance, autonomy and the dominance of linear models of innovation.

Agriculture versus wastewater pollution as drivers of macroinvertebrate community structure in streams
Burdon, F.J. ; Munz, N.A. ; Reyes, M. ; Focks, A. ; Joss, A. ; Räsänen, K. ; Altermatt, F. ; Eggen, R.I.L. ; Stamm, C. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 659 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1256 - 1265.
Aquatic ecosystems - Chemical pollution - Land use - Micropollutants - Multiple stressors - Pesticides

Water pollution is ubiquitous globally, yet how the effects of pollutants propagate through natural ecosystems remains poorly understood. This is because the interactive effects of multiple stressors are generally hard to predict. Agriculture and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are often major sources of contaminants for streams, but their relative importance and the role of different pollutants (e.g. nutrients or pesticides) are largely unknown. Using a ‘real world experiment’ with sampling locations up- and downstream of WWTPs, we studied how effluent discharges affected water quality and macroinvertebrate communities in 23 Swiss streams across a broad land-use gradient. Variation partitioning of community composition revealed that overall water quality explained approximately 30% of community variability, whereby nutrients and pesticides each independently explained 10% and 2%, respectively. Excluding oligochaetes (which were highly abundant downstream of the WWTPs) from the analyses, resulted in a relatively stronger influence (3%) of pesticides on the macroinvertebrate community composition, whereas nutrients had no influence. Generally, the macroinvertebrate community composition downstream of the WWTPs strongly reflected the upstream conditions, likely due to a combination of efficient treatment processes, environmental filtering and organismal dispersal. Wastewater impacts were most prominently by the Saprobic index, whereas the SPEAR index (a trait-based macroinvertebrate metrics reflecting sensitivity to pesticides) revealed a strong impact of arable cropping but only a weak impact of wastewater. Overall, our results indicate that agriculture can have a stronger impact on headwater stream macroinvertebrate communities than discharges from WWTP. Yet, effects of wastewater-born micropollutants were clearly quantifiable among all other influence factors. Improving our ability to further quantify the impacts of micropollutants requires highly-resolved water quality and taxonomic data with adequate spatial and temporal sampling. These improvements would help to better account for the underlying causal pathways that drive observed biological responses, such as episodic contaminant peaks and dispersal-related processes.

Pichia pastoris yeast as a vehicle for oral vaccination of larval and adult teleosts
Embregts, Carmen W.E. ; Reyes-Lopez, Felipe ; Pall, Adina C. ; Stratmann, Ansgar ; Tort, Luis ; Lorenzen, Niels ; Engell-Sorensen, Kirsten ; Wiegertjes, Geert F. ; Forlenza, Maria ; Sunyer, J.O. ; Parra, David - \ 2019
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 85 (2019). - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 52 - 60.

Oral vaccination is of major interest because it can be used for mass vaccination of fish of various size and age. Given that their administration is relatively easy and stress-free, oral vaccines have both economic and animal welfare benefits. Yet, mostly due to their limited efficacy, only very few oral vaccines are available to aquaculture industry. Here we present a method for oral vaccine delivery based on the yeast Pichia pastoris. We could express a model antigen, green fluorescent protein (GFP), in this yeast and subsequently show delivery of the GFP protein to the intestine of juvenile flounder or adult carp and trout. We tested this approach in several commercially-relevant fish species, from juvenile to adult stage. To test the oral delivery of antigen to larval fish, the GFP-expressing Pichia pastoris was first fed to planktonic crustacean Daphnia or rotifers that served as ‘bioencapsulation vehicles’ and afterwards, fed to flounder larvae. Again, we could show delivery of intact GFP protein to the intestine. In rainbow trout, the orally-administered GFP-expressing yeast elicited a rapid local innate immune response in the intestine and a subsequent systemic response in the spleen. Our results show that Pichia pastoris is a good vehicle for oral antigen delivery and that it can be used in non-encapsulated form for older fish or in bioencapsulated form for larval fish. We discuss the immunomodulatory properties of the yeast itself, and its potential to enhance local immune responses and act as an adjuvant.

Role for Arabidopsis PLC7 in Stomatal Movement, Seed Mucilage Attachment, and Leaf Serration
Wijk, Ringo van; Zhang, Qianqian ; Zarza, Xavier ; Lamers, M. ; Reyes Marquez, F.C. ; Guardia, Aisha ; Scuffi, Denise ; García-Mata, Carlos ; Ligterink, W. ; Haring, M.A. ; Laxalt, A.M. ; Munnik, Teun - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Phospholipase C (PLC) has been suggested to play important roles in plant stress and development. To increase our understanding of PLC signaling in plants, we have started to analyze knock-out (KO), knock-down (KD) and overexpression mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, which contains nine PLCs. Earlier, we characterized PLC2, PLC3 and PLC5. Here, the role of PLC7 is functionally addressed. Promoter-GUS analyses revealed that PLC7 is specifically expressed in the phloem of roots, leaves and flowers, and is also present in trichomes and hydathodes. Two T-DNA insertion mutants were obtained, i.e., plc7-3 being a KO- and plc7-4 a KD line. In contrast to earlier characterized phloem-expressed PLC mutants, i.e., plc3 and plc5, no defects in primary- or lateral root development were found for plc7 mutants. Like plc3 mutants, they were less sensitive to ABA during stomatal closure. Double-knockout plc3 plc7 lines were lethal, but plc5 plc7 (plc5/7) double mutants were viable, and revealed several new phenotypes, not observed earlier in the single mutants. These include a defect in seed mucilage, enhanced leaf serration, and an increased tolerance to drought. Overexpression of PLC7 enhanced drought tolerance too, similar to what was earlier found for PLC3-and PLC5 overexpression. In vivo 32Pi-labeling of seedlings and treatment with sorbitol to mimic drought stress, revealed stronger PIP2 responses in both drought-tolerant plc5/7 and PLC7-OE mutants. Together, these results show novel functions for PLC in plant stress and development. Potential molecular mechanisms are discussed.
Model-based management strategy for resource efficient design and operation of an aquaponic system
Reyes Lastiri, Daniel ; Geelen, Caspar ; Cappon, Hans J. ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Baganz, Daniela ; Kloas, Werner ; Karimanzira, Divas ; Keesman, Karel J. - \ 2018
Aquacultural Engineering 83 (2018). - ISSN 0144-8609 - p. 27 - 39.
Aquaponics - Mathematical model - Resource efficiency

Aquaponics is a technique that combines aquaculture with hydroponics, i.e. growing aquatic species and soilless plants in a single system. Commercial aquaponics is still in development. The main challenge consists in balancing the conditions required for the growth of multiple species, leading to dynamic a system with high complexity. Mathematical models improve our understanding of the complex dynamics in aquaponics, and thus support the development of efficient systems. We developed a water and nutrient management strategy for the production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in an existing INAPRO aquaponic demonstration system in Abtshagen, Germany. This management strategy aims for improved water and nutrient efficiency. For this purpose, we developed a system-level mathematical model and simulation. In our simulations, we found that the existing configuration and water management of the Abtshagen aquaponic system results in an excessive amount of water discharged from the RAS. Therefore, sending more nutrient-rich water from fish to plants can help reducing water and fertilizer consumption. However, this water transfer may lead to excess concentrations of some nutrients, which could stress fish, plants or both. For the Abtshagen system, our simulations predicted excess concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) for the fish, and sodium (Na+) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +-N) for the plants. Furthermore, our simulations predicted excess calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) for plants, due to the use of local fresh water with relatively high concentrations of those ions. Based on our simulations, we developed an improved management strategy that achieves a balance between resource efficiency and water quality conditions. This management strategy prevents excess levels of TSS for fish, and Na+ and NH4 +-N for plants. Under the improved management strategy, simulated water requirements (263 L/kg fish and 22 L/kg tomato) were similar to current commercial RAS and greenhouse horticulture. Simulated fertilizer requirements for plants of N, Ca and Mg (52, 46 and 9 mg/kg tomato, respectively) were one order of magnitude lower than in high efficient commercial closed greenhouse production.

Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests
Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Bongers, Frans ; Sprent, Janet I. ; Garner, Mira D. ; Aide, T.M. ; Andrade, José Luis ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Cole, Rebecca J. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Jong, Ben De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos Do; Fernandes, G.W. ; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Mora, Francisco ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Reich, Peter B. ; Reyes-García, Casandra ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Pérez, I.E. ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Silver, Whendee ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Sullivan, Benjamin W. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel Van; Wal, Hans Van Der; Veloso, Maria Das Dores Magalhães ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Powers, Jennifer S. - \ 2018
Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018)7. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1104 - 1111.
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N2, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.
Design cocoa processing towards healthy cocoa products : The role of phenolics and melanoidins
Quiroz-Reyes, Cinthya Nathaly ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2018
Journal of Functional Foods 45 (2018). - ISSN 1756-4646 - p. 480 - 490.
Antioxidant activity - Cocoa - Maillard reaction - Melanoidins - Phenolic compounds - Roasting process
Roasting and fermentation are key steps in cocoa processing that can be modulated to optimize the presence of health-promoting compounds in the final product. Roasting promote melanoidins formation and polyphenols depolymerization. Results of Forastero and Criollo cocoa beans were processed in different conditions showed that higher fat content and high phenolic content could promote melanoidins formation. Forastero variety had the highest melanoidins and phenols concentration under severe roasting conditions. More severe thermal treatment decreased the concentration of total phenolic compounds and proanthocyanidins in both varieties and also influenced the flavan-3-ols profile. The antioxidant activity determined using DPPH Quencher assay was the highest in Forastero fractions above 20 kDa obtained under severe roasting condition; thus supporting the idea that melanoidins play a major role in roasted cocoa antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that a proper design of roasting process and the adequate selection of cocoa variety can optimize the cocoa health potential; especially melanoidins and phenolic compounds.
ICTV virus taxonomy profile : Ophioviridae
García, María Laura ; Bó, Elena Dal; Graça, John V. da; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Hammond, John ; Moreno, Pedro ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Pallás, Vicente ; Navarro, Jose A. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Luna, Gabriel Robles ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E. ; Vaira, Anna María ; Verbeek, Martin ; Lefkowitz, Elliot J. ; Davison, Andrew J. ; Siddell, Stuart G. ; Simmonds, Peter ; Adams, Michael J. ; Smith, Donald B. ; Orton, Richard J. ; Sanfaçon, Hélène - \ 2017
Journal of General Virology 98 (2017)6. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 1161 - 1162.
Blueberry mosaic associated virus - Citrus psorosis virus - ICTV - Lettuce ring necrosis virus - Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus - Ophioviridae - Taxonomy
The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour lengths. The sole genus, Ophiovirus, includes seven species. Four ophioviruses are soil-transmitted and their natural hosts include trees, shrubs, vegetables and bulbous or corm-forming ornamentals, both monocots and dicots. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Ophioviridae, which is available at http://www.ictv.global/report/ophioviridae.
Identification and characterization of two RNA silencing suppressors encoded by ophioviruses
Robles Luna, Gabriel ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Peña, Eduardo J. ; Ocolotobiche, Eliana ; Baeza, Cecilia ; Borniego, Maria Belén ; Kormelink, Richard ; García, María Laura - \ 2017
Virus Research 235 (2017). - ISSN 0168-1702 - p. 96 - 105.
Citrus psorosis virus - Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus - Ophiovirus - RNA silencing - Viral suppressor

Citrus psorosis virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus are two members of the genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae. So far, how these viruses can interfere in the antiviral RNA silencing pathway is not known. In this study, using a local GFP silencing assay on Nicotiana benthamiana, the 24K–25K and the movement protein (MP) of both viruses were identified as RNA silencing suppressor proteins. Upon their co-expression with GFP in N. benthamiana 16c plants, the proteins also showed to suppress systemic RNA (GFP) silencing. The MPCPsV and 24KCPsV proteins bind long (114 nucleotides) but not short-interfering (21 nt) dsRNA, and upon transgenic expression, plants showed developmental abnormalities that coincided with an altered miRNA accumulation pattern. Furthermore, both proteins were able to suppress miRNA-induced silencing of a GFP-sensor construct and the co-expression of MPCPsV and 24KCPsV exhibited a stronger effect, suggesting they act at different stages of the RNAi pathway.

Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines : Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems
Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. Schulz, co-promotor(en): Guillermo Q. Tabios; K. Prasad. - Leiden : CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9781138067745 - 416
irrigation systems - crop yield - design - irrigation - water supply - philippines - irrigatiesystemen - gewasopbrengst - ontwerp - irrigatie - watervoorziening - filippijnen

The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to technical, managerial, institutional and policy issues and constraints, and in recent years, to climate change. Irrigation modernisation is recognized as strategic option to improve the irrigation system performance. It is defined as a process of technical, management and institutional transformation to improve irrigation services to farmers.

The main objective of the research study was to formulate a strategy for developing a modernisation plan for national irrigation systems in the Philippines. The research methodology was framed with deliberately selected assessment and characterization procedures, which were adoptively modified and integrated to critically analyse the state of coherence among the three fundamentals of irrigation system water delivery: design, operation and water supply; and to identify solutions for any inconsistency. It included, among others an analysis of the process, nature and impacts of rehabilitation projects; diagnostic assessment of the irrigation systems; revalidation of design assumptions on water balance parameters; characterization of irrigation management, service and demands; and identification of options for improvements.

The developed methodology for examining the different aspects of planning and operations of NIS with an end view of modernising the systems provides a more comprehensive and applicable methodology for drawing up of a more relevant plan for NIS modernisation. The knowledge gained on case study systems provides a sound basis for planning of appropriate modernisation solutions for the case study systems and in cases of ungauged, small-scale NIS. The methodology developed in this study could serve as a blueprint for modernisation program for NIS.

Groundwater and unsaturated zone evaporation and transpiration in a semi-arid open woodland
Balugani, E. ; Lubczynski, M.W. ; Reyes-Acosta, L. ; Tol, C. van der; Francés, A.P. ; Metselaar, K. - \ 2017
Journal of Hydrology 547 (2017). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 54 - 66.
Evaporation - Groundwater - Partitioning - Semi-arid - Sourcing - Transpiration
Studies on evapotranspiration partitioning under eddy covariance (EC) towers rarely address the separate effects of transpiration and evaporation on groundwater resources. Such partitioning is important to accurately assess groundwater resources, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The main objective of this study was to partition (evaluate separately) the evaporation and transpiration components of evapotranspiration, originated either from saturated or unsaturated zone, and estimate their contributions in a semi-arid area characterized by relatively shallow groundwater Table (0–10 m deep). Evapotranspiration, tree transpiration and subsurface evaporation were estimated with EC tower, using sap flow methods and HYDRUS1D model, respectively. To set up the HYDRUS1D model, soil material properties, soil moisture, soil temperature, soil matric potential and water table depth were measured in the area. The tree transpiration was sourced into groundwater and unsaturated zone components (∼0.017 mm d−1 for both) and accounted for only ∼6% of the evapotranspiration measured by the EC tower (∼0.565 mm d−1), due to the low canopy coverage in the study area (7%). The subsurface evaporation fluxes were also sourced into groundwater and unsaturated zone components using the SOURCE package, and their relative relevance in total evapotranspiration was assessed. Subsurface evaporation was the main flux year-round (∼0.526 mm d−1). During late autumn, winter and early spring time, the unsaturated zone evaporation was dominant, while in dry summer the relevance of groundwater evaporation increased, reaching one third of evapotranspiration, although errors in the water balance closure point still at its possible underestimation. The results show that, in arid and semi-arid areas with sparse vegetation, the often neglected groundwater evaporation is a relevant contribution to evapotranspiration, and that water vapor flow should be taken into account in the calculation of extinction depth.
Fishing in the Amazonian Forest: A Gendered Social Network Puzzle
Díaz-Reviriego, I. ; Fernández-Llamazares, ; Howard, P.L. ; Molina, J.L. ; Reyes-García, V. - \ 2017
Society & Natural Resources 30 (2017)6. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 690 - 706.
Fishing expertise - gender relations - perceptions - social network analysis - social status - Tsimane’ Amerindians
LLCWe employ social network analysis (SNA) to describe the structure of subsistence fishing social networks and to explore the relation between fishers’ emic perceptions of fishing expertise and their position in networks. Participant observation and quantitative methods were employed among the Tsimane’ Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. A multiple-regression quadratic assignment procedure was used to explore the extent to which gender, kinship, and age homophilies influence the formation of fishing networks. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between fishers’ expertise, their sociodemographic identities, and network centrality. We found that fishing networks are gendered and that there is a positive association between fishers’ expertise and centrality in networks, an association that is more striking for women than for men. We propose that a social network perspective broadens understanding of the relations that shape the intracultural distribution of fishing expertise, as well as natural resource access and use.
Gendered medicinal plant knowledge contributions to adaptive capacity and health sovereignty in Amazonia
Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel ; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro ; Salpeteur, Matthieu ; Howard, Patricia L. ; Reyes-García, Victoria - \ 2016
Ambio 45 (2016). - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 263 - 275.
Gendered knowledge - Knowledge diversity - Knowledge redundancy - Local knowledge systems - Local medical systems - Tsimane’

Local medical systems are key elements of social-ecological systems as they provide culturally appropriate and locally accessible health care options, especially for populations with scarce access to biomedicine. The adaptive capacity of local medical systems generally rests on two pillars: species diversity and a robust local knowledge system, both threatened by local and global environmental change. We first present a conceptual framework to guide the assessment of knowledge diversity and redundancy in local medicinal knowledge systems through a gender lens. Then, we apply this conceptual framework to our research on the local medicinal plant knowledge of the Tsimane’ Amerindians. Our results suggest that Tsimane’ medicinal plant knowledge is gendered and that the frequency of reported ailments and the redundancy of knowledge used to treat them are positively associated. We discuss the implications of knowledge diversity and redundancy for local knowledge systems’ adaptive capacity, resilience, and health sovereignty.

Model of an aquaponic system for minimised water, energy and nitrogen requirements
Reyes Lastiri, D. ; Slinkert, T. ; Cappon, H.J. ; Baganz, D. ; Staaks, G. ; Keesman, K.J. - \ 2016
Water Science and Technology 74 (2016)1. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 30 - 37.
Water and nutrient savings can be established by coupling water streams between interacting processes. Wastewater from production processes contains nutrients like nitrogen (N), which can and should be recycled in order to meet future regulatory discharge demands. Optimisation of interacting water systems is a complex task. An effective way of understanding, analysing and optimising such systems is by applying mathematical models. The present modelling work aims at supporting the design of a nearly emission-free aquaculture and hydroponic system (aquaponics), thus contributing to sustainable production and to food security for the 21st century. Based on the model, a system that couples 40 m3 fish tanks and a hydroponic system of 1,000 m2 can produce 5 tons of tilapia and 75 tons of tomato yearly. The system requires energy to condense and recover evaporated water, for lighting and heating, adding up to 1.3 GJ/m2 every year. In the suggested configuration, the fish can provide about 26% of the N required in a plant cycle. A coupling strategy that sends water from the fish to the plants in amounts proportional to the fish feed input, reduces the standard deviation of the NO3− level in the fish cycle by 35%.
Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in amazonian homegardens
Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel ; González-Segura, Lara ; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro ; Howard, Patricia L. ; Molina, José Luis ; Reyes-García, Victoria - \ 2016
Ecology and Society 21 (2016)1. - ISSN 1708-3087
Exchange networks - Gender - Plant diversity - Social networks analysis - Tropical homegardens - Tsimane’

Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane’ Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people’s location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners’ centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centralitymaintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins
Martin, Anneke H. ; Los Reyes Jiménez, Marta L. De; Pouvreau, Laurice - \ 2016
Food Hydrocolloids 58 (2016). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 215 - 223.
Acidification - Aggregation - Fracture stress - Gel - Sodium caseinate - Soy proteins

Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore explored. Mixtures of sodium caseinate (CAS) and soy proteins (SP) are pre-heated at different conditions (pH, ratio CAS:SP, temperature) prior to acidification with GDL in order to modulate aggregation, structure build-up and final mechanical properties of acidified gels with total protein content of 10% (w/w). Optimal results in mechanical response were obtained when CAS and SP were pre-heated together at a 7:3 protein ratio for 15 min at 95 °C. In addition, heat treatment of CAS-SP mixtures resulted in a shift to higher onset pH and a faster onset gelation as determined by dynamic oscillation rheology. From turbidity measurements a change in aggregation kinetics was observed which can be appointed to the altered aggregation propensity during acidification of the heat induced aggregates. Pre-heating of CAS and SP together resulted in an enhanced increase in aggregate size (as determined with light scattering) compared to unheated mixture or when only SP was heated. By pre-heating mixtures of CAS and SP at the right conditions prior to acidification, the mechanical response of mixed CAS-SP gels can be restored to that comparable with CAS only gels. As a result, 30% CAS can be successfully replaced with SP while maintaining mechanical properties.

The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method : From knowledge to action
Egger, Lotti ; Ménard, Olivia ; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina ; Alvito, Paula ; Assunção, Ricardo ; Balance, Simon ; Barberá, Reyes ; Brodkorb, Andre ; Cattenoz, Thomas ; Clemente, Alfonso ; Comi, Irene ; Dupont, Didier ; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe ; Lagarda, María Jesús ; Feunteun, Steven Le; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke ; Karakaya, Sibel ; Lesmes, Uri ; Mackie, Alan R. ; Martins, Carla ; Meynier, Anne ; Miralles, Beatriz ; Murray, B.S. ; Pihlanto, Anne ; Picariello, Gianluca ; Santos, C.N. ; Simsek, Sebnem ; Recio, Isidra ; Rigby, Neil ; Rioux, Laurie Eve ; Stoffers, Helena ; Tavares, Ana ; Tavares, Lucelia ; Turgeon, Sylvie ; Ulleberg, E.K. ; Vegarud, G.E. ; Vergères, Guy ; Portmann, Reto - \ 2016
Food Research International 88 (2016)Par B. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 217 - 225.
Dairy proteins - Harmonized IVD protocol - In vitro digestion - Inter-laboratory trial - Mass spectrometry - Peptides

Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary output from this network. To validate this protocol, inter-laboratory trials were conducted within the INFOGEST network. A first study was performed using skim milk powder (SMP) as a model food and served to compare the different in-house digestion protocols used among the INFOGEST members. In a second inter-laboratory study applying the harmonized protocol, the degree of consistency in protein hydrolysis was investigated. Analysis of the hydrolyzed proteins, after the gastric and intestinal phases, showed that caseins were mainly hydrolyzed during the gastric phase, whereas β-lactoglobulin was, as previously shown, resistant to pepsin. Moreover, generation of free amino acids occurred mainly during the intestinal phase.The study also showed that a few critical steps were responsible for the remaining inter-laboratory variability. The largest deviations arose from the determination of pepsin activity. Therefore, this step was further clarified, harmonized, and implemented in a third inter-laboratory study.The present work gives an overview of all three inter-laboratory studies, showing that the IVD INFOGEST method has led to an increased consistency that enables a better comparability of in vitro digestion studies in the future.

2nd New Developments in IT & Water, IWC
Reyes Lastiri, Daniel - \ 2015
Optimisation of water, energy and nutrient requirements in an aquaponic system with interacting production loops
Modelling of aquaculture-hydroponic systems
Reyes Lastiri, D. ; Slinkert, Thomas ; Keesman, K.J. ; Cappon, H.J. - \ 2015
Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women
Salazar, N. ; Dewulf, E.M. ; Neyrinck, A.M. ; Bindels, L.B. ; Cani, P.D. ; Mahillon, J. ; Vos, W.M. de; Thissen, J.P. ; Gueimonde, M. ; Reyes-Gavilán, C.G. de los; Delzenne, N.M. - \ 2015
Clinical Nutrition 34 (2015)3. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 501 - 507.
gradient gel-electrophoresis - protein-coupled receptor - gut microbiota - mice - prebiotics - increases - glucose - diet - pcr - fermentation
Background & aims : Inulin-type fructans (ITF) prebiotics promote changes in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine variations on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in obese women treated with ITF and to explore associations between Bifidobacterium species, SCFA and host biological markers of metabolism. Methods Samples were obtained in a randomized, double blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, with 30 obese women randomly assigned to groups that received either 16 g/day ITF (n = 15) or maltodextrin (n = 15) for 3 months. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of Bifidobacterium spp. was performed in feces by PCR-DGGE and q-PCR, and SCFA profile was analyzed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation analysis was performed between the different variables analyzed. Results The species Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were significantly increased at the end of the treatment in the prebiotic group (p <0.01) with being B. longum negatively correlated with serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (p <0.01). Total SCFA, acetate and propionate, that positively correlated with BMI, fasting insulinemia and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) (p <0.05), were significantly lower in prebiotic than in placebo group after the treatment period. Conclusions ITF consumption selectively modulates Bifidobacterium spp. and decreases fecal SCFA concentration in obese women. ITF could lessen metabolic risk factors associated with higher fecal SCFA concentration in obese individuals.
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