How the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the necessity of animal research
Genzel, Lisa ; Adan, Roger ; Berns, Anton ; Beucken, Jeroen van den; Blokland, Arjan ; Boddeke, Erik H.W.G.M. ; Bogers, Willy M. ; Bontrop, Ronald ; Bulthuis, R. ; Bousema, Teun ; Clevers, Hans ; Coenen, Tineke C.J.J. ; Dam, Anne Marie van; Deen, Peter M.T. ; Dijk, K.W. van; Eggen, Bart J.L. ; Elgersma, Ype ; Erdogan, Izel ; Englitz, Bernard ; Fentener van Vlissingen, J.M. ; Fleur, Susanne la; Fouchier, Ron ; Fitzsimons, Carlos P. ; Frieling, Wilbert ; Haagmans, Bart ; Heesters, Balthasar A. ; Henckens, Marloes ; Herfst, Sander ; Hol, Elly ; Hove, Daniel van den; Jonge, Marien I. de; Jonkers, Jos ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Kalsbeek, Andries ; Kamermans, Maarten ; Kampinga, Harm H. ; Kas, Martien J. ; Keijer, J. ; Kersten, Sander ; Kiliaan, Amanda J. ; Kooij, Taco W.A. ; Kooijman, Sander ; Koopman, Werner J.H. ; Korosi, Aniko ; Krugers, Harm J. ; Kuiken, Thijs ; Kushner, Steven A. ; Langermans, Jan A.M. ; Lesscher, Heidi ; Lucassen, Paul J. ; Lutgens, Esther ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J. ; Meer, Jos W.M. van der; Meye, Frank J. ; Mul, Joram D. ; Oers, Kees van; Olivier, Jocelien D.A. ; Pasterkamp, R.J. ; Philippens, Ingrid H.C.H.M. ; Prickaerts, Jos ; Pullox, Bart J.A. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Rheenen, Jacco van; Rij, Ronald P. van; Ritsma, Laila ; Rockx, Barry H.G. ; Roozendaal, Benno ; Schothorst, Evert M. van; Stittelaar, K. ; Stockhofe, Norbert ; Swaab, Dick F. ; Swart, Rik L. de; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J. ; Vries, Taco de; Vrij, Femke de; Wezel, Richard van; Wierenga, Corette J. ; Wiesmann, Maximilian ; Willuhn, Ingo ; Zeeuw, Chris I. de; Homberg, Judith R. - \ 2020
Current Biology 30 (2020)18. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. R1014 - R1018.
Recently, a petition was offered to the European Commission calling for an immediate ban on animal testing. Although a Europe-wide moratorium on the use of animals in science is not yet possible, there has been a push by the non-scientific community and politicians for a rapid transition to animal-free innovations. Although there are benefits for both animal welfare and researchers, advances on alternative methods have not progressed enough to be able to replace animal research in the foreseeable future. This trend has led first and foremost to a substantial increase in the administrative burden and hurdles required to make timely advances in research and treatments for human and animal diseases. The current COVID-19 pandemic clearly highlights how much we actually rely on animal research. COVID-19 affects several organs and systems, and the various animal-free alternatives currently available do not come close to this complexity. In this Essay, we therefore argue that the use of animals is essential for the advancement of human and veterinary health. In this Essay, Genzel et al. make the case for animal research in light of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Joint sequencing of human and pathogen genomes reveals the genetics of pneumococcal meningitis
Lees, John A. ; Ferwerda, Bart ; Kremer, Philip H.C. ; Wheeler, Nicole E. ; Valls Serón, Mercedes ; Croucher, Nicholas J. ; Gladstone, Rebecca A. ; Bootsma, Hester J. ; Rots, Nynke Y. ; Wijmega-Monsuur, Alienke J. ; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M. ; Trzciński, Krzysztof ; Wyllie, Anne L. ; Zwinderman, Aeilko H. ; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Rheenen, Wouter van; Veldink, Jan H. ; Harboe, Zitta B. ; Lundbo, Lene F. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Velde, Nathalie van der; Ängquist, Lars H. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Mentzer, Alexander J. ; Mills, Tara C. ; Knight, Julian C. ; Plessis, Mignon du; Nzenze, Susan ; Weiser, Jeffrey N. ; Parkhill, Julian ; Madhi, Shabir ; Benfield, Thomas ; Gottberg, Anne von; Ende, Arie van der; Brouwer, Matthijs C. ; Barrett, Jeffrey C. ; Bentley, Stephen D. ; Beek, Diederik van de - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723 - 14 p.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal colonizer, but can also cause life-threatening invasive diseases such as empyema, bacteremia and meningitis. Genetic variation of host and pathogen is known to play a role in invasive pneumococcal disease, though to what extent is unknown. In a genome-wide association study of human and pathogen we show that human variation explains almost half of variation in susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis and one-third of variation in severity, identifying variants in CCDC33 associated with susceptibility. Pneumococcal genetic variation explains a large amount of invasive potential (70%), but has no effect on severity. Serotype alone is insufficient to explain invasiveness, suggesting other pneumococcal factors are involved in progression to invasive disease. We identify pneumococcal genes involved in invasiveness including pspC and zmpD, and perform a human-bacteria interaction analysis. These genes are potential candidates for the development of more broadly-acting pneumococcal vaccines.
Sensoren en gewasmodellen voor precisielandbouw : Literatuuronderzoek DISAC deelproject E-pieper
Kempenaar, Corné ; Dijk, Chris ; Egmond, Fenny van; Goldbach, Franck ; Polder, Gerrit ; Pronk, Annette ; Rheenen, Hans van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen University Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit unit Agrosystems (Rapport / Wageningen Plant Research WPR-75) - 45
|The Era of Reconstruction and Land consolidation in perspective : lessons learned, 2017
Rooij, L.L. de; Rheenen, J. van - \ 2017
In: Post-War Reconstruction the Netherlands 1945-1965 / Blom, Anita, Vermaat , Simone, Vries, de , Ben, Rotterdam, Netherlands : NAi010 - ISBN 9789462082793 - p. 56 - 61.
Een nieuwe en handzame lysimeter: eerste stap naar een nationaal netwerk voor de werkelijke verdamping?
Voortman, Bernard ; Witte, J.P. ; Rheenen, Hans van; Bosveld, F. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Bolt, F.J.E. van der; Heijkers, J. ; Hoogendoorn, Jan ; Bolman, A. ; Spek, T. ; Voogt, M. - \ 2016
Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 22 (2016)2. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 49 - 63.
hydrologie - neerslag - waterbalans - grondwater - lysimeters - evaporatie - hydrology - precipitation - water balance - groundwater - lysimeters - evaporation
Vrijwel overal op aarde verdampt meer dan de helft van het neerslagwater, ook in Nederland. Toch wordt deze grote verliespost in ons land slechts sporadisch gemeten. Door inspanningen van kennisinstituten, bedrijven en overheid is daarom een lysimeter ontwikkeld. Metingen in 2014 en 2015 op twee locaties vertonen opvallende verschillen, maar ook grote overeenkomsten, met eddy-correlatiemetingen. Schattingen van de verdamping via satellietdata zijn hoger dan de metingen. Tijd daarom, om metingen in het veld te combineren met modellen en waarnemingen vanuit de ruimte
Measuring aeolian sand transport using acoustic sensors
Poortinga, Ate ; Rheenen, Hans van; Ellis, J.T. ; Sherman, D.J. - \ 2015
Aeolian Research 16 (2015). - ISSN 1875-9637 - p. 143 - 151.
Aeolian sand transport - Field measurements - Laboratory experiment - Miniphone - Saltation - Saltiphone
Acoustic sensors are frequently used to measure aeolian saltation. Different approaches are used to process the signals from these instruments. The goal of this paper is to describe and discuss a method to measure aeolian saltation with acoustic sensors. In a laboratory experiment, we measured the output from an advanced signal processing scheme on the circuit board of the saltiphone. We use a software implementation of this processing scheme to re-analyse data from four miniphones obtained during a field experiment. It is shown that a set of filters remove background noise outside the frequency spectrum of aeolian saltation (at 8. kHz), whereas signals within this frequency spectrum are amplified. The resulting analogue signal is a proxy of the energy. Using an AC pulse convertor, this signal can be converted into a digital and analogue count signal or an analogue energy signal, using a rectifier and integrator. Spatio-temporal correlation between field deployed miniphones increases by using longer integration times for signal processing. To quantify aeolian grain impact, it is suggested to use the analogue energy output, as this mode is able to detect changes in frequency and amplitude. The analogue and digital count signals are able to detect an increase in frequency, but are not able to detect an increase in signal amplitude. We propose a two-stage calibration scheme consisting of (1) a factory calibration, to set the frequency spectrum of the sensor and (2) a standardized drop-test conducted before and after the experiment to evaluate the response of the sensor.
A smart solution for flooding, drought and water pollution
Kwakernaak, C. ; Jansen, P.C. ; Kempen, M. ; Smolders, F. ; Rheenen, H. - \ 2015
Water Matters : Knowledge Journal for Water Professionals (2015)2. - p. 44 - 47.
Slimme oplossing voor te weinig, te veel en te vuil water
Kwakernaak, C. ; Jansen, P.C. ; Kempen, M. ; Smolders, F. ; Rheenen, H. van - \ 2015
Water Matters : Kenniskatern voor Waterprofessionals - Dutch edition (2015)Oktober. - p. 30 - 33.
waterbeheer - waterkwaliteit - drinkwater - watervoorziening - klimaatverandering - watertekort - waterverzadiging - wateropslag - afvoer - hergebruik van water - biomassa productie - waterzuivering - water management - water quality - drinking water - water supply - climatic change - water deficit - waterlogging - water storage - discharge - water reuse - biomass production - water treatment
Water Matters is het kenniskatern van H2O. Het verschijnt twee keer per jaar, als bijlage bij Vakblad H2O. De uitgave van Water Matters (een initiatief van Koninklijk Nederlands Waternetwerk) wordt mogelijk gemaakt door: Alterra Wageningen UR, ARCADIS, KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Royal HaskoningDHV en de Stichting Toegepast Onderzoek Waterbeheer (STOWA).
A Versatile Toolkit to Produce Sensitive FRET Biosensors to Visualize Signaling in Time and Space
Fritz, R.D. ; Letzelter, M. ; Reimann, A. ; Martin, K. ; Fusco, L. ; Ritsma, L. ; Ponsioen, B. ; Fluri, E. ; Schulte-Merker, S. ; Rheenen, J. ; Pertz, O. - \ 2013
Science Signaling 6 (2013)285. - ISSN 1945-0877
cyan fluorescent protein - rho-family gtpases - dynamic-range - living cells - in-vivo - activation - kinase - cdc42 - indicators - reporters
Genetically encoded, ratiometric biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are powerful tools to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of cell signaling. However, many biosensors lack sensitivity. We present a biosensor library that contains circularly permutated mutants for both the donor and acceptor fluorophores, which alter the orientation of the dipoles and thus better accommodate structural constraints imposed by different signaling molecules while maintaining FRET efficiency. Our strategy improved the brightness and dynamic range of preexisting RhoA and extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase (ERK) biosensors. Using the improved RhoA biosensor, we found micrometer-sized zones of RhoA activity at the tip of F-actin bundles in growth cone filopodia during neurite extension, whereas RhoA was globally activated throughout collapsing growth cones. RhoA was also activated in filopodia and protruding membranes at the leading edge of motile fibroblasts. Using the improved ERK biosensor, we simultaneously measured ERK activation dynamics in multiple cells using low-magnification microscopy and performed in vivo FRET imaging in zebrafish. Thus, we provide a construction toolkit consisting of a vector set, which enables facile generation of sensitive biosensors.
|Reflectie over Topsectoren, Sympathie voor hoofdlijnen; wel meer aandacht gewenst voor duurzaamheid en samenwerking met decentrale overheden
Rheenen, J. ; Wierenga, H. ; Wissen, K. van; Kampen, M. van; Kruit, J. ; Simons, A.E. ; Pleijte, M. - \ 2011
Den Haag : Dienst Landelijk Gebied - 8 p.
Determination of Temperature and Light Optima for Seed Germination and Seedling Development of Spiderplant (Cleome gynandra L.) Morphotypes from western Kenya
K'Opondo, F.B.O. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Rheenen, H. - \ 2011
Annals of Biological Research 2 (2011)1. - ISSN 0976-1233 - p. 60 - 75.
Spiderplant (Cleome gynandra) is an African indigenous vegetable (AIV) in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, especially in most countries in eastern and southern Africa, where it is a semi-cultivated popular tropical species. In Kenya, it is among the most popular AIVs, particularly in the western and coastal regions. Seed supply systems for spiderplant is largely local and whatever material that is available is often of poor quality, mainly due to lack of development of seed quality testing protocols, thus hampering the correct assessment of the quality of seed used for sowing. The study aimed at determining temperature and light optima for seed germination and seedling development of spiderplant morphotypes from western Kenya. The original spiderplant seeds for the study were sourced from farmers in Kakamega District and from wildly growing plants within Chepkoilel Campus in Uasin Gishu District, both in western Kenya. Four morphotypes were identified and selected based on the presence or absence of anthocyanins on their stems and petioles, respectively. Tests on seed quality aspects were done at the Bioscience Business Unit at Plant Research International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Determination of optimum temperature for seed germination was conducted by incubating three replicates of 100 seeds each of the four morphotypes at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45OC, respectively. In order to determine the light regime for seed germination and optimum temperature for seedling development four replicates of 50 seeds each were incubated at constant temperatures of 30 and 35 OC at 8-hr light day-1 and 0-hr light day-1 (in 24-hr darkness), respectively. Data analysis (ANOVA, statistical descriptors and t-tests) were done using statistical package SeedCalculator 3.0. Germination was strongly influenced by temperature showing declines at both extremes of 20 and 45OC and optimum of 35 and 40OC. Light had no influence on germination since seeds germinated equally well under light and in the dark. Seedling development was strongly influenced by temperature with higher percentage of normal seedlings at 30OC than at 35OC. It is concluded that while temperature had an effect on seed germination performance and seedling development, light on the other hand showed no effect on seed germination for the spiderplant morphotypes studied. However, white light is required in order to aid in seedling evaluation.
|Understanding marginalisation in the periphery of Europe: a mulidimensional process
Pinto Correia, T. ; Breman, B.C. - \ 2008
In: Sustainable Land Management, Strategies to Cope with the Marginalisation of Agriculture / Brouwer, F., van Rheenen, T., Dhillion, S., Elgersma, A.M, Cheltenham/Glos , UK : Edward Elgar Publishing Limited - ISBN 9781845429027 - p. 11 - 40.
|Emerging perspectives on changing land management practices
Brouwer, F.M. ; Rheenen, T. van; Dhillion, S. - \ 2008
In: Sustainable land management; strategies to cope with the marginalization of agriculture / Brouwer, F.M., van Rheenen, T., Dhillion, S., Elgersma, A.M., Cheltenham : Edward Elgar - ISBN 9781845429027 - p. 237 - 247.
|How visible is marginalization in Europe?
Rheenen, T. van; Brouwer, F.M. - \ 2008
In: Sustainable land management; strategies to cope with the marginalization of agriculture / Brouwer, F.M., van Rheenen, T., Dhillion, S., Elgersma, A.M., Cheltenham : Edward Elgar - ISBN 9781845429027 - p. 171 - 181.
|Sustainable land management : strategies to cope with the marginalisation of agriculture
Brouwer, F.M. ; Rheenen, T. van; Dhillion, S. ; Elgersma, A.M. - \ 2008
Cheltenham : Edward Elgar - ISBN 9781845429027 - 251
grondbeheer - platteland - marginalisering - marginaal land - landgebruik - agrarische economie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - meervoudig landgebruik - multifunctionele landbouw - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - land management - rural areas - marginalization - marginal land - land use - agricultural economics - sustainability - multiple land use - multifunctional agriculture - livelihood strategies
In large parts of the world, the reduction in the viability of agriculture and rural areas is an escalating problem. "Sustainable Land Management" offers a contemporary overview of the strategies employed to cope with the marginalisation of agriculture, through analyses of case studies and regional trends in marginalisation. The authors argue that complexities and driving forces governing marginalisation are not always the same across nations and regions due to climate, geography, economics, legislation and political status. This book illustrates in what form these complexities exist, and how these unravel at the national and regional levels. As the need to understand and cope with marginalisation processes has developed, the concept of multi-functionality has also gained a vital place in the string of coping strategies.This work contributes essential knowledge for the development of marginalisation mitigation policy actions across the globe. Informative and well-documented, this book will appeal to those researching and working in the fields of agricultural and resource economics, rural geography, environmental governance and sustainable development.
Economic and Ecological Consequences of Four European Land Use Scenarios
Eickhout, B. ; Meijl, H. van; Tabeau, A.A. ; Rheenen, T. van - \ 2007
Land Use Policy 24 (2007)3. - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 562 - 575.
climate - nitrogen - impacts - future
The impact of globalization on trade, production and land use is key to the Doha development round. This paper deals with the complex interaction between agricultural trade, production, land-use change and environmental consequences on the basis of four different scenarios. In these scenarios, major uncertainties from trade liberalization to maintained regional trade blocks are considered. Although economic growth is apparent in liberalizing scenarios, we also found that environmental threats of climate and nutrients to the sustainability of the global agricultural practices pose new challenges to future food production. Since most of the environmental threats will be experienced in tropical regions where most of the increase in population and food and feed demand is expected, an indirect pressure on the European agricultural market is likely. For the coming decades European agriculture is expected to decrease slightly, especially in liberalizing worlds. New demand for land for biofuels, carbon plantations and the global food market, will prevent the European agricultural sector from being eliminated. Moreover, current EU policies already result in less vulnerable farmers to additional liberalizing policies. Therefore, we conclude the global context is important for future European land use, especially in futures where environmental policies are ignored. Therefore, we conclude that environmental and trade agreements must be sufficiently integrated or coordinated, to assure they work together to improve the environment and attain the benefits of free trade
Governance of Biodiversity
Selnes, T. ; Bavel, M.A.H.J. van; Rheenen, T. van - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 42) - 119
natuurbescherming - biodiversiteit - beleid - internationale verdragen - nederland - nature conservation - biodiversity - policy - international agreements - netherlands
This WOT report summarizes the three major biodiversity conventions (Ramsar, Cites and CBD) and gives an impression of the governance of biodiversity in the Netherlands
The impact of different policy environments on agricultural land use in Europe
Meijl, H. van; Rheenen, T. van; Tabeau, A.A. ; Eickhout, B. - \ 2006
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114 (2006)1. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 21 - 38.
The impact of globalization on trade, production and land use was key to the Doha development round. Although many studies have shown the positive influence of liberalization on trade and production, the environmental questions remain unanswered in most studies. Here we present a combination of an economic (Global Trade Analysis Project, GTAP) and a biophysical (IMAGE) model. The methodology is innovative as it combines state of the art knowledge from both the economic and biophysical worlds. First, the treatment of agriculture and land use is improved in the economic model. For example, information from the OECD Policy Evaluation Model (PEM) was incorporated to improve the agricultural production structure and a new land allocation methodology was introduced using regional land supply curves to facilitate the conversion of idle land to productive land while giving consideration to the level of intensification. Secondly, the adapted economic model is linked to the biophysical modeling framework IMAGE allowing feedbacks of detailed heterogeneous information on land productivity to the economic framework. While often a rather pessimistic picture is portrayed for future developments of the agricultural sector in the EU (especially in liberalizing scenarios), our results show that no drastic decrease in land for agricultural purposes is expected for the EU25 the coming 30 years, since the global food market will experience an increase in demand because of expected growth in GDP and population in many developing countries. Moreover, the negative impact of liberalization of agricultural policies on European agricultural land use is small because on the one hand loss in EU's competitiveness leads partly to extensification instead of land abandonment, and secondly, the recent agricultural reforms of the EU changed the protection from market to income support which has less production effects. Changes in land use will be more outspoken in developing countries like Africa
Modeling shifts in agricultural land as a consequence of different agricultural policies
Meijl, H. van; Rheenen, T. van; Tabeau, A.A. ; Eickhout, B. - \ 2005
|Marginalization and agriculture: should we really be worried? : Drafting appropriate policies and guidelines to support sustainable land management in the Mediterranean region
Rheenen, T. van; Kuhlman, T. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Breman, B.C. ; Godeschalk, F.E. ; Elgersma, A. - \ 2005