Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Human impacts on planetary boundaries amplified by Earth system interactions
Lade, Steven J. ; Steffen, Will ; Vries, Wim de; Carpenter, Stephen R. ; Donges, Jonathan F. ; Gerten, Dieter ; Hoff, Holger ; Newbold, Tim ; Richardson, Katherine ; Rockström, Johan - \ 2019
Nature Sustainability (2019). - ISSN 2398-9629

The planetary boundary framework presents a ‘planetary dashboard’ of humanity’s globally aggregated performance on a set of environmental issues that endanger the Earth system’s capacity to support humanity. While this framework has been highly influential, a critical shortcoming for its application in sustainability governance is that it currently fails to represent how impacts related to one of the planetary boundaries affect the status of other planetary boundaries. Here, we surveyed and provisionally quantified interactions between the Earth system processes represented by the planetary boundaries and investigated their consequences for sustainability governance. We identified a dense network of interactions between the planetary boundaries. The resulting cascades and feedbacks predominantly amplify human impacts on the Earth system and thereby shrink the safe operating space for future human impacts on the Earth system. Our results show that an integrated understanding of Earth system dynamics is critical to navigating towards a sustainable future.

The impact of care farms on quality of life, depression and anxiety among different population groups: A systematic review
Murray, Jenni ; Wickramasekera, Nyantara ; Elings, Marjolein ; Bragg, Rachel ; Brennan, Cathy ; Richardson, Zoe ; Wright, Judy ; Llorente, Marina G. ; Cade, Janet ; Shickle, Darren ; Tubeuf, Sandy ; Elsey, Helen - \ 2019
Campbell Systematic Reviews 15 (2019)4. - ISSN 1891-1803

Care farming (also called social farming) is the therapeutic use of agricultural and farming practices. Service users and communities supported through care farming include people with learning disabilities, mental and physical health problems, substance misuse, adult offenders, disaffected youth, socially isolated older people and the long term unemployed. Care farming is growing in popularity, especially around Europe. This review aimed to understand the impact of care farming on quality of life, depression and anxiety, on a range of service user groups. It also aimed to explore and explain the way in which care farming might work for different groups. By reviewing interview studies we found that people valued, among other things, being in contact with each other, and feeling a sense of achievement, fulfilment and belonging. Some groups seemed to appreciate different things indicating that different groups may benefit in different ways but, it is unclear if this is due to a difference in the types of activities or the way in which people take different things from the same activity. We found no evidence that care farms improved people's quality of life and some evidence that they might improve depression and anxiety. Larger studies involving single service user groups and fully validated outcome measures are needed to prove more conclusive evidence about the benefits of care farming.

A Conceptual Framework for Range-Expanding Species that Track Human-Induced Environmental Change
Essl, Franz ; Dullinger, Stefan ; Genovesi, Piero ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Jeschke, Jonathan M. ; Katsanevakis, Stelios ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Lenzner, Bernd ; Pauchard, Aníbal ; Pyšek, Petr ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Richardson, David M. ; Seebens, Hanno ; Kleunen, Mark Van; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Vilà, Montserrat ; Bacher, Sven - \ 2019
Bioscience 69 (2019)11. - ISSN 0006-3568 - p. 908 - 919.
biogeography - biological invasions - climate change - framework - global environmental change - native - range expansion - spread - terminology

For many species, human-induced environmental changes are important indirect drivers of range expansion into new regions. We argue that it is important to distinguish the range dynamics of such species from those that occur without, or with less clear, involvement of human-induced environmental changes. We elucidate the salient features of the rapid increase in the number of species whose range dynamics are human induced, and review the relationships and differences to both natural range expansion and biological invasions. We discuss the consequences for science, policy and management in an era of rapid global change and highlight four key challenges relating to basic gaps in knowledge, and the transfer of scientific understanding to biodiversity management and policy. We conclude that range-expanding species responding to human-induced environmental change will become an essential feature for biodiversity management and science in the Anthropocene. Finally, we propose the term neonative for these taxa.

Experimentally induced antipredator responses are mediated by social and environmental factors
Groenewoud, Frank ; Kingma, Sjouke A. ; Bebbington, Kat ; Richardson, David S. ; Komdeur, Jan - \ 2019
Behavioral Ecology 30 (2019)4. - ISSN 1045-2249 - p. 986 - 992.
Antipredator defense - Nest defense - Nest predation - Parental investment - Seychelles warbler - Trade-off

Nest predation is a common cause of reproductive failure for many bird species, and various antipredator defense behaviors have evolved to reduce the risk of nest predation. However, trade-offs between current reproductive duties and future reproduction often limit the parent’s ability to respond to nest predation risk. Individual responses to experimentally increased nest predation risk can give insights into these trade-offs. Here, we investigate whether social and ecological factors affect individual responses to predation risk by experimentally manipulating the risk of nest predation using taxidermic mounts in the cooperative breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). Our results show that dominant females, but not males, alarm called more often when they confront a nest predator model alone than when they do so with a partner, and that individuals that confront a predator together attacked more than those that did so alone. Dominant males increased their antipredator defense by spending more time nest guarding after a presentation with a nest predator, compared with a nonpredator control, but no such effect was found for females, who did not increase the time spent incubating. In contrast to incubation by females, nest guarding responses by dominant males depended on the presence of other group members and food availability. These results suggest that while female investment in incubation is always high and not dependent on social and ecological conditions, males have a lower initial investment, which allows them to respond to sudden changes in nest predation risk.

Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies in neonates reveals widespread differential DNA methylation associated with birthweight
Küpers, Leanne K. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Sharp, Gemma C. ; Yousefi, Paul ; Salas, Lucas A. ; Ghantous, Akram ; Page, Christian M. ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Wilcox, Allen J. ; Czamara, Darina ; Starling, Anne P. ; Novoloaca, Alexei ; Lent, Samantha ; Roy, Ritu ; Hoyo, Cathrine ; Breton, Carrie V. ; Allard, Catherine ; Just, Allan C. ; Bakulski, Kelly M. ; Holloway, John W. ; Everson, Todd M. ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Plaat, Diana A. van der; Wielscher, Matthias ; Merid, Simon Kebede ; Ullemar, Vilhelmina ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Lahti, Jari ; Dongen, Jenny van; Langie, Sabine A.S. ; Richardson, Tom G. ; Magnus, Maria C. ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Xu, Zongli ; Duijts, Liesbeth ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Zhang, Weiming ; Plusquin, Michelle ; DeMeo, Dawn L. ; Solomon, Olivia ; Heimovaara, Joosje H. ; Jima, Dereje D. ; Gao, Lu ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Perron, Patrice ; Wright, Robert O. ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Zhang, Hongmei ; Karagas, Margaret R. ; Gehring, Ulrike ; Marsit, Carmen J. ; Beilin, Lawrence J. ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Bergström, Anna ; Örtqvist, Anne K. ; Ewart, Susan ; Villa, Pia M. ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Standaert, Arnout R.L. ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Taylor, Jack A. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Yang, Ivana V. ; Kechris, Katerina ; Nawrot, Tim S. ; Silver, Matt J. ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Kogevinas, Manolis ; Litonjua, Augusto A. ; Eskenazi, Brenda ; Huen, Karen ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; Maguire, Rachel L. ; Dwyer, Terence ; Vrijheid, Martine ; Bouchard, Luigi ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Croen, Lisa A. ; Karmaus, Wilfried ; Anderson, Denise ; Vries, Maaike de; Sebert, Sylvain ; Kere, Juha ; Karlsson, Robert ; Arshad, Syed Hasan ; Hämäläinen, Esa ; Routledge, Michael N. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Feinberg, Andrew P. ; Newschaffer, Craig J. ; Govarts, Eva ; Moisse, Matthieu ; Fallin, M.D. ; Melén, Erik ; Prentice, Andrew M. ; Kajantie, Eero ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Oken, Emily ; Dabelea, Dana ; Boezen, H.M. ; Melton, Phillip E. ; Wright, Rosalind J. ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; Trevisi, Letizia ; Hivert, Marie France ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C. ; Murphy, Susan K. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Wiemels, Joseph ; Holland, Nina ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Davey Smith, George ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Lie, Rolv T. ; Nystad, Wenche ; London, Stephanie J. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Snieder, Harold ; Felix, Janine F. - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from −183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (P Bonferroni < 1.06 x 10 −7 ). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10 −74 ) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10 −3 ), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.

Improving scientific advice for the conservation and management of oceanic sharks and rays : Final report - Study
Coelho, R. ; Apostolaki, P. ; Bach, P. ; Brunel, T.P.A. ; Davies, T. ; Diez, G. ; Ellis, J. ; Escalle, L. ; Lopez, J. ; Merino, Gorka ; Mitchell, R. ; Macias, D. ; Murua, H. ; Overzee, H.M.J. van; Poos, J.J. ; Richardson, H. ; Rosa, D. ; Sanchez, S. ; Santos, C. ; Seret, B. ; Urbina, J.O. ; Walker, N. - \ 2019
Brussels : European Commission - ISBN 9789292024550 - 658 p.
The purpose of this specific study is to provide the Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE) with: Updated information regarding the association or occurrence of pelagic sharks and rays in different fisheries; Updated information regarding data collection and methodological approaches for the assessment of conservation status of sharks; A critical review of existing Conservation and Management Measures (CMMs) for sharks and of the current conservation status of the species concerned; and Proposals to improve and/or provide alternative options for conservation and management of sharks taking into account any recent methodological advances and new data or information. The species of interest are the main pelagic sharks caught by pelagic fisheries, including under Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements (longline and purse seine fisheries). The study also considers some pelagic elasmobranchs included in Article 13 (species prohibitions) of the Council Regulation 2016/72 fixing for 2016 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks. The main regions focused are the oceanic regions covered by tuna-RFMOs where those species of elasmobranch are represented in the catches, specifically the Atlantic (ICCAT region), the Indian Ocean (IOTC region) and the Pacific (WCPFC and IATTC regions)
Breeders that receive help age more slowly in a cooperatively breeding bird
Hammers, Martijn ; Kingma, Sjouke A. ; Spurgin, Lewis G. ; Bebbington, Kat ; Dugdale, Hannah L. ; Burke, Terry ; Komdeur, Jan ; Richardson, David S. - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

Helping by group members is predicted to lead to delayed senescence by affecting the trade-off between current reproduction and future survival for dominant breeders. Here we investigate this prediction in the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, in which mainly female subordinate helpers (both co-breeders and non-breeding helpers) often help dominants raise offspring. We find that the late-life decline in survival usually observed in this species is greatly reduced in female dominants when a helper is present. Female dominants with a female helper show reduced telomere attrition, a measure that reflects biological ageing in this and other species. Finally, the probability of having female, but not male, helpers increases with dominant female age. Our results suggest that delayed senescence is a key benefit of cooperative breeding for elderly dominants and support the idea that sociality and delayed senescence are positively self-reinforcing. Such an effect may help explain why social species often have longer lifespans.

Oomycetes along a 120,000 year temperate rainforest ecosystem development chronosequence
Dickie, Ian A. ; Wakelin, Angela M. ; Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Richardson, Sarah J. ; Makiola, Andreas ; Tylianakis, Jason M. - \ 2019
Fungal Ecology 39 (2019). - ISSN 1754-5048 - p. 192 - 200.
Forest diversity - Lagena - Molecular ecology - Oomycetes - Pedogenesis - Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions - Retrogression - Succession

The occurrence of plant-associated oomycetes in natural ecosystems and particularly during long-term ecosystem development is largely unknown. Using DNA sequencing, we investigated the frequency and host relationships of plant-root-associated oomycete communities along a 120 000 y glacial chronosequence, comprising site ages with rapid compositional change (“early succession”; 5–70 y old soil); relatively stable higher-diversity sites (“mature” 280–12000 y); and ancient, nutrient-limited soils with declining plant biomass and stature (“retrogression” 60 000, 120 000 y). Plant-associated oomycetes were frequent in early successional sites, occurring in 38–65% of plant roots, but rare (mean 3%) in all older ecosystems. Oomycete OTUs occurred non-randomly with plant host species, and were more frequent on those plant species that declined most strongly in abundance between ecosystem ages. While oomycetes were common in early succession, their absence in older sites suggests a limited role in later stages of ecosystem development.

Compensatory and additive helper effects in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)
Boheemen, Lotte A. van; Hammers, Martijn ; Kingma, Sjouke A. ; Richardson, David S. ; Burke, Terry ; Komdeur, Jan ; Dugdale, Hannah L. - \ 2019
Ecology and Evolution 9 (2019)5. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 2986 - 2995.
additive care - compensatory care - cooperative breeding - investment strategies - load-lightening - parental care - Seychelles warbler

In cooperatively breeding species, care provided by helpers may affect the dominant breeders’ investment trade-offs between current and future reproduction. By negatively compensating for such additional care, breeders can reduce costs of reproduction and improve their own chances of survival. Alternatively, helper care can be additive to that of dominants, increasing the fledging fitness of the current brood. However, the influence helpers have on brood care may be affected by group size and territory quality. Therefore, the impact of helping needs to be disentangled from other factors determining offspring investment before conclusive inferences about the effect of help on additive and compensatory care can be made. We used 20 years of provisioning data to investigate the effect of helping on provisioning rates in the facultative cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis. Our extensive dataset allowed us to statistically disentangle the effects of helper presence, living in larger groups and different food availability. We show compensatory and additive care (i.e., partial compensation) in response to helper provisioning. Helpers lightened the provisioning load of the dominant male and female and increased total provisioning to nestlings. This was irrespective of group size or territory quality (food availability). Moreover, our results illustrate sex-specific variation in parental care over the course of the breeding event. We discriminate between temporal variation, group size, and territory quality processes affecting cooperative care and as such, gain further insight into the importance of these factors to the evolutionary maintenance of helping behavior.

Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene
Steffen, Will ; Rockström, Johan ; Richardson, Katherine ; Lenton, Timothy M. ; Folke, Carl ; Liverman, Diana ; Summerhayes, Colin P. ; Barnosky, Anthony D. ; Cornell, Sarah E. ; Crucifix, Michel ; Donges, Jonathan F. ; Fetzer, Ingo ; Lade, Steven J. ; Scheffer, Marten ; Winkelmann, Ricarda ; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)33. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8252 - 8259.
Anthropocene - Biosphere feedbacks - Climate change - Earth system trajectories - Tipping elements

We explore the risk that self-reinforcing feedbacks could push the Earth System toward a planetary threshold that, if crossed, could prevent stabilization of the climate at intermediate temperature rises and cause continued warming on a “Hothouse Earth” pathway even as human emissions are reduced. Crossing the threshold would lead to a much higher global average temperature than any interglacial in the past 1.2 million years and to sea levels significantly higher than at any time in the Holocene. We examine the evidence that such a threshold might exist and where it might be. If the threshold is crossed, the resulting trajectory would likely cause serious disruptions to ecosystems, society, and economies. Collective human action is required to steer the Earth System away from a potential threshold and stabilize it in a habitable interglacial-like state. Such action entails stewardship of the entire Earth System—biosphere, climate, and societies—and could include decarbonization of the global economy, enhancement of biosphere carbon sinks, behavioral changes, technological innovations, new governance arrangements, and transformed social values.

Understanding root, tuber, and banana seed systems and coordination breakdown : a multi-stakeholder framework
Bentley, Jeffery W. ; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge ; Demo, Paul ; Dzomeku, Beloved ; Jacobsen, Kim ; Kikulwe, Enoch ; Kromann, Peter ; Kumar, P.L. ; McEwan, Margaret ; Mudege, Netsayi ; Ogero, Kwame ; Okechukwu, Richardson ; Orrego, Ricardo ; Ospina, Bernardo ; Sperling, Louise ; Walsh, Stephen ; Thiele, Graham - \ 2018
Journal of Crop Improvement 32 (2018)5. - ISSN 1542-7528 - p. 599 - 621.
Bananas and plantains - root crops - seed security - seed systems - tuber crops - vegetatively propagated crops (VPC)

Vegetatively propagated crop (VPC) seed tends to remain true to varietal type but is bulky, often carries disease, and is slow to produce. So VPC seed needs to be handled differently than that of other crops, e.g., it tends to be sourced locally, often must be fresh, and it is less often sold on the market. Hence, a framework was adapted to describe and support interventions in such seed systems. The framework was used with 13 case studies to understand VPC seed systems for roots, tubers, and bananas, including differing roles and sometimes conflicting goals of stakeholders, and to identify potential coordination breakdowns when actors fail to develop a shared understanding and vision. In this article, we review those case studies. The framework is a critical tool to (a) document VPC seed systems and build evidence; (b) diagnose and treat coordination breakdown and (c) guide decision-makers and donors on the design of more sustainable seed system interventions for VPCs. The framework can be used to analyze past interventions and will be useful for planning future VPC seed programs.

Symmetric assembly and disassembly processes in an ecological network
Tylianakis, Jason M. ; Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Richardson, Sarah J. ; Peltzer, Duane A. ; Dickie, Ian A. - \ 2018
Ecology Letters 21 (2018)6. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 896 - 904.
Community assembly - ecosystem development - mutualist network - mycorrhizal symbiosis - preferential attachment - retrogression - succession
The processes whereby ecological networks emerge, persist and decay throughout ecosystem development are largely unknown. Here we study networks of plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities along a 120 000 year soil chronosequence, as they undergo assembly (progression) and then disassembly (retrogression). We found that network assembly and disassembly were symmetrical, self-reinforcing processes that together were capable of generating key attributes of network architecture. Plant and AMF species that had short indirect paths to others in the community (i.e. high centrality), rather than many direct interaction partners (i.e. high degree), were best able to attract new interaction partners and, in the case of AMF species, also to retain existing interactions with plants during retrogression. We then show using simulations that these non-random patterns of attachment and detachment promote nestedness of the network. These results have implications for predicting extinction sequences, identifying focal points for invasions and suggesting trajectories for restoration.
Assessing the impact of care farms on quality of life and offending : A pilot study among probation service users in England
Elsey, Helen ; Farragher, Tracey ; Tubeuf, Sandy ; Bragg, Rachel ; Elings, Marjolein ; Brennan, Cathy ; Gold, Rochelle ; Shickle, Darren ; Wickramasekera, Nyantara ; Richardson, Zoe ; Cade, Janet ; Murray, Jenni - \ 2018
BMJ Open 8 (2018)3. - ISSN 2044-6055
mental health - public health - social medicine - substance misuse
Objectives To assess the feasibility of conducting a cost-effectiveness study of using care farms (CFS) to improve quality of life and reduce reoffending among offenders undertaking community orders (COs). To pilot questionnaires to assess quality of life, connection to nature, lifestyle behaviours, health and social-care use. To assess recruitment and retention at 6 months and feasibility of data linkage to Police National Computer (PNC) reconvictions data and data held by probation services. Design Pilot study using questionnaires to assess quality of life, individually linked to police and probation data. Setting The pilot study was conducted in three probation service regions in England. Each site included a CF and at least one comparator CO project. CFS are working farms used with a range of clients, including offenders, for therapeutic purposes. The three CFS included one aquaponics and horticulture social enterprise, a religious charity focusing on horticulture and a family-run cattle farm. Comparator projects included sorting secondhand clothes and activities to address alcohol misuse and anger management. Participants We recruited 134 adults (over 18) serving COs in England, 29% female. Results 52% of participants completed follow-up questionnaires. Privatisation of UK probation trusts in 2014 negatively impacted on recruitment and retention. Linkage to PNC data was a more successful means of follow-up, with 90% consenting to access their probation and PNC data. Collection of health and social-care costs and quality-Adjusted life year derivation were feasible. Propensity score adjustment provided a viable comparison method despite differences between comparators. We found worse health and higher reoffending risk among CF participants due to allocation of challenging offenders to CFS, making risk of reoffending a confounder. Conclusions Recruitment would be feasible in a more stable probation environment. Follow-up was challenging; however, assessing reconvictions from PNC data is feasible and a potential primary outcome for future studies.
Geoengineering/Climate Intervention
Macnaghten, Philip ; Szerszynski, Bronislaw - \ 2017
In: International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment and Technology / Richardson, Douglas, Castree, Noel, Goodchild, Michael F., Kobayashi, Audrey, Liu, Weidong, Marston, Richard A., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd - ISBN 9780470659632 - p. 1 - 7.
The term “geoengineering” is used to refer to a range of techniques for deliberatively intervening in the global climate to counteract global warming. Solar radiation management techniques are a class of geoengineering methods designed to reflect some of the inbound sunlight back into space with the intended effect of arresting further warming of the planet and thus counteracting global warming. Carbon dioxide removal techniques, by contrast, aim to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through practices which attempt to address the root cause of climate change. The challenges that geoengineering poses for geographical scholarship are discussed, including analysis of the various contributions the latter can play. This includes, inter alia, analysis of geoengineering's distinctive relationship with nature, its challenges for debates on risk governance, its potential implications for contemporary political systems, its conditioning by wider economic relations, and the role for public engagement in deliberating a geoengineered future.
Hybridity
Driessen, C.P.G. - \ 2017
In: The International Encyclopaedia of Geography / Richardson, Douglas, Wiley - ISBN 9780470659632
Hybridity indicates the combining and mixing of entities or domains that conventionally are thought of as separate or even opposed. Hybrid geographies involve attempts to theorize and engage with the social and natural world as intertwined and impossible to disentangle. Work under the banner of hybridity aims to break down the dualisms that structure life in modernity, such as subject/object, mind/body, material/symbolic, human/nonhuman, and science/politics. Looking at the world as a hybrid place has implications for politics and ethics, since science is no longer accorded a pure objective status and normative benchmarks associated with naturalness are lost when we acknowledge the coevolving character of our combined natural and social world.
Exploring pathways linking greenspace to health : Theoretical and methodological guidance
Markevych, Iana ; Schoierer, Julia ; Hartig, Terry ; Chudnovsky, Alexandra ; Hystad, Perry ; Dzhambov, Angel M. ; Vries, Sjerp de; Triguero-Mas, Margarita ; Brauer, Michael ; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J. ; Lupp, Gerd ; Richardson, Elizabeth A. ; Astell-Burt, Thomas ; Dimitrova, Donka ; Feng, Xiaoqi ; Sadeh, Maya ; Standl, Marie ; Heinrich, Joachim ; Fuertes, Elaine - \ 2017
Environmental Research 158 (2017). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 301 - 317.
Green spaces - Greenness - Greenspace - Mediation analysis - Pathways

Background In a rapidly urbanizing world, many people have little contact with natural environments, which may affect health and well-being. Existing reviews generally conclude that residential greenspace is beneficial to health. However, the processes generating these benefits and how they can be best promoted remain unclear. Objectives During an Expert Workshop held in September 2016, the evidence linking greenspace and health was reviewed from a transdisciplinary standpoint, with a particular focus on potential underlying biopsychosocial pathways and how these can be explored and organized to support policy-relevant population health research. Discussions Potential pathways linking greenspace to health are here presented in three domains, which emphasize three general functions of greenspace: reducing harm (e.g. reducing exposure to air pollution, noise and heat), restoring capacities (e.g. attention restoration and physiological stress recovery) and building capacities (e.g. encouraging physical activity and facilitating social cohesion). Interrelations between among the three domains are also noted. Among several recommendations, future studies should: use greenspace and behavioural measures that are relevant to hypothesized pathways; include assessment of presence, access and use of greenspace; use longitudinal, interventional and (quasi)experimental study designs to assess causation; and include low and middle income countries given their absence in the existing literature. Cultural, climatic, geographic and other contextual factors also need further consideration. Conclusions While the existing evidence affirms beneficial impacts of greenspace on health, much remains to be learned about the specific pathways and functional form of such relationships, and how these may vary by context, population groups and health outcomes. This Report provides guidance for further epidemiological research with the goal of creating new evidence upon which to develop policy recommendations.

Biopolitics
Minca, C. - \ 2017
In: The International Encyclopedia of Geography / Richardson, Douglas, Castree, Noel, Goodchild, Michael, Kobayashi, Audrey, Liu, Weidong, Marston, Richard, London : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118786352 - 6 p.
The notion of biopolitics is at the core of many contemporary scholarly discussions involving both life and politics. Biopolitics originates from positivistic ideas in life and political sciences in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Michel Foucault's critical work on biopolitics in the 1970s, along with major contributions from contemporary scholars such as Giorgio Agamben and Donna Haraway, initiated the “biopolitical turn” in the social sciences and the humanities. In human geography, and especially political geography, efforts to consider biopolitics have yielded not only significant theoretical work but also rich and innovative empirical work, covering a wealth of diverse topics such as historical bio-geopolitics, (post)colonial politics, biosecurity, state and population governance, spaces of exception, global health, (im)mobility, and animal and more-than-human geographies.
Orientalism/Occidentalism
Minca, C. ; Ong, C.E. - \ 2017
In: The International Encyclopedia of Geography / Richardson, Douglas, Castree, Noel, Goodchild, Michael, Kobayashi, Audrey, Liu, Weidong, Marston, Richard, London : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118786352 - 4 p.
Orientalism and Occidentalism are interrelated concepts. Orientalism is defined in three keys ways: (i) as a study of “the Orient”; (ii) as a cultural and aesthetic concern with “the Orient”; and (iii) as a critical approach to understanding the construction of “the Orient” by European and American cultural authorities. Current geographical works have focused largely on the third. Defined in a critical way, Orientalism is also an idealized European vision that consisted of a long-lasting collection of theory and practices with an elaborate material setup. Occidentalism, the calculated construction of “the West” or “the Occident” as a unified entity, is an inversion of the Western imaginary, a counterdiscourse to Orientalism, and a stage for thinking about and realizing alternative or new approaches. These definitions differ in terms of their recognition of the strength and durability of Western imperialism in orchestrating Orientalism.
Space of Exception
Minca, C. - \ 2017
In: International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology / Richardson, D., London : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118786352
Slice of PLOS: A Fungus Among Us
Kema, Gert - \ 2016
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