Spatio-temporal variations in chemical-physical water quality parameters influencing water reuse for irrigated agriculture in tropical urbanized deltas
Haldar, Kamonashish ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna ; Dey, Priyanka ; Bosu, Shanchita ; Datta, Dilip Kumar ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. - \ 2020
Science of the Total Environment 708 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
Agriculture - Land-use - Spatial and temporal - Water quality - Water reuse
Agriculture in delta areas of emerging economies is highly reliant on the provision of water with adequate quality. This quality is often under pressure by season-related saltwater intrusion and poor domestic or industrial wastewater management. Methods to separate these two negative impacts on water quality for the delta areas are lacking but essential for proper management and supply of irrigation water. Therefore, the main aim of this research is to propose a method that maps salt and wastewater impacts on seasonal water quality and relate that to different land uses. Khulna, a delta city of Bangladesh was taken as a representative case study. Surface water samples have been collected from different city locations in winter, summer and monsoon seasons, and were analyzed for a variety of chemical-physical water quality parameters. Spatio-temporal variation maps were generated using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method, and weighted overlay method was employed to map the current irrigation water use suitability based on FAO guidelines for the interpretations of water quality for irrigation. The influence of land-use on water quality was assessed by correlation analysis followed by bi-variate linear regression analysis. Analysis indicated significant (p < 0.05) seasonal dependent variation in water quality parameters, especially for saltwater influenced and generic water quality parameters. Also, the land-use percentage within 500 m radii to the sampling stations had a significant positive correlation with several parameters indicating saltwater and urban wastewater influences. Weighted overlay analysis revealed that during summer, approximately 1/3rd of the total studied area has a severe restriction for irrigation water use. The method presented here was shown to be effective in presenting variabilities on the effects of salinization and wastewater discharge on water quality in urbanized deltas and can be used as a knowledge base for formulating and implementing future urban infrastructure planning to improve irrigation water quality.
Reading landscape design representations as an interplay of validity, readability and interactivity: a framework for visual content analysis
Raaphorst, K.M.C. ; Roeleveld, Gerda ; Duchhart, I. ; Knaap, W.G.M. van der; Brink, A. van den - \ 2020
Visual Communication 19 (2020)2. - ISSN 1470-3572 - p. 163 - 197.
Considering the importance of visual representations for communication between stakeholders in landscape planning and design processes, the authors identify a lack of critical visual research methods supportive of the disciplines involved. As part of such a method, they have developed an analytical framework based on semiotic and iconographic theory that enables a visual content analysis and iconographic interpretation of landscape design representations. Two projects from Rebuild by Design, a participatory transdisciplinary design competition organized in the New York City area after hurricane Sandy, were analysed to demonstrate this framework. The article presents a semiotic vocabulary based on four categories: medium, mode, formulation and knowledge with which to ‘read’, discuss and potentially create design representations. This enables a syntactic analysis for assessing the semiotic complexity of design representations in terms of validity, readability and interactivity. This assessment enables further qualitative study of the production and interpretation of landscape design representations in practice.
Decentralized valorization of residual flows as an alternative to the traditional urban waste management system: The case of Peñalolén in Santiago de Chile
Kraker, Jeltsje de; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna ; Villena, Marcelo J. ; Pabón-Pereira, Claudia - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)22. - ISSN 2071-1050
Circular metabolism - Decentralized valorization - Material flow analysis - Nutrient recovery - Waste management
Urban residual flows contain significant amounts of valuable nutrients, which, if recovered, could serve as input for the own city needs or those of its immediate surroundings. In this study, the possibilities for decentralized recovery of nutrient rich residual flows in Santiago, Chile, are studied by means of a case study considering technical and socio-economic criteria. In particular, we calculate circularity indicators for organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) and cost-benefits of household and community on-site technological alternatives. Kitchen waste (KW) and garden residues (GR) as well as urine were considered as system inputs whereas urban agriculture, municipality green, or peri-urban agriculture were the considered destinations for nutrients recovered. The technologies studied were anaerobic digestion, vermicomposting, and composting, while urine storage and struvite precipitation were considered for nutrient recovery from urine. Material flow analysis was used to visualize the inputs and outputs of the baseline situation (the traditional urban waste management system), and of the different household and municipality resource recovery scenarios (the decentralized valorization systems). Our findings show that decentralized valorization of KW and GR are a clear win-win policy, since they can not only produce important environmental benefits for the city in the long run, but also important cost savings considering the landfill fees and residues transportation of the current centralized waste management system.
Visualization, participation and rhetoric: The discursive power of landscape design representations in participatory processes
Raaphorst, Kevin ; Knaap, Wim van der; Brink, Adri van den; Roeleveld, Gerda - \ 2019
Jola : Journal of Landscape Architecture 14 (2019)2. - ISSN 1862-6033 - p. 42 - 53.
Design visualization - participatory design - rebuild by design - visual discourse analysis - visual rhetoric
Visual landscape design representations facilitate communication and knowledge exchange during participatory planning and design processes. The production of representations is considered to be a discursive act: actors and institutions construct knowledge with a certain authority and credibility through the use of visual expression. We aim to study the context in which the production of representations is embedded and how this context manifests itself in the communicative qualities of design representations. We present a visual discourse analysis of landscape design representations, employing empirical examples from the transdisciplinary design competition Rebuild by Design. The analysis uncovers interdependencies among three components of the visual discourse: the arrangement of participatory processes, media interactivity and the visual rhetoric embedded in the composition and style of the image. A conscious use of these discursive components could help prevent miscommunication, manage participant expectations and increase the validity of participatory design process outcomes.
Toxicokinetics of a urinary metabolite of tebuconazole following controlled oral and dermal administration in human volunteers
Oerlemans, A. ; Verscheijden, L.F.M. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Vermeulen, R.C.H. ; Westerhout, J. ; Roeleveld, N. ; Russel, F.G.M. ; Scheepers, P.T.J. - \ 2019
Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)9. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 2545 - 2553.
Biomarker - Human volunteer study - PBTK - Tebuconazole - Toxicokinetics - Urine
Tebuconazole (TEB) is a widely used triazole fungicide, but the toxicokinetics of its human metabolites are not fully described. For proper interpretation of biological monitoring data, knowledge on the metabolism and elimination of the compound is required. A human volunteer study was performed with the aim to describe the time courses of urinary excretion after controlled oral and dermal administration of TEB. Six healthy volunteers (three males and three females) received on separate occasions a single oral dose of 1.5 mg of TEB and a single dermal dose of 2.5 mg during 1 h. In addition to a pre-exposure urine sample, complete urine voids were collected over 48 h post-administration. The main metabolite hydroxy-tebuconazole (TEB-OH) was quantified in each urine sample. Peak excretion rates after oral and dermal administration were reached after 1.4 and 21 h, mean elimination half-lives were 7.8 and 16 h, and recoveries within 48 h were 38% and 1%, respectively. The time courses of excretion were compared to simulations with an established physiologically based toxicokinetic model for TEB that was extended with a parallel model for TEB-OH. Overall, TEB-OH was rapidly excreted into urine after oral exposure, and renal elimination was considerably slower after dermal exposure. Urinary time courses between individuals were similar. The model predictions were in good agreement with the observed time courses of excretion.
Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy complications: an individual participant data meta-analysis of European, North American and Australian cohorts
Santos, S. ; Voerman, E. ; Amiano, P. ; Barros, H. ; Beilin, L.J. ; Bergström, A. ; Charles, M.A. ; Chatzi, L. ; Chevrier, C. ; Chrousos, G.P. ; Corpeleijn, E. ; Costa, O. ; Costet, N. ; Crozier, S. ; Devereux, G. ; Doyon, M. ; Eggesbø, M. ; Fantini, M.P. ; Farchi, S. ; Forastiere, F. ; Georgiu, V. ; Godfrey, K.M. ; Gori, D. ; Grote, V. ; Hanke, W. ; Hertz-Picciotto, I. ; Heude, B. ; Hivert, M.F. ; Hryhorczuk, D. ; Huang, R.C. ; Inskip, H. ; Karvonen, A.M. ; Kenny, L.C. ; Koletzko, B. ; Küpers, L.K. ; Lagström, H. ; Lehmann, I. ; Magnus, P. ; Majewska, R. ; Mäkelä, J. ; Manios, Y. ; McAuliffe, F.M. ; McDonald, S.W. ; Mehegan, J. ; Melén, E. ; Mommers, M. ; Morgen, C.S. ; Moschonis, G. ; Murray, D. ; Ní Chaoimh, C. ; Nohr, E.A. ; Nybo Andersen, A.M. ; Oken, E. ; Oostvogels, A.J.J.M. ; Pac, A. ; Papadopoulou, E. ; Pekkanen, J. ; Pizzi, C. ; Polanska, K. ; Porta, D. ; Richiardi, L. ; Rifas-Shiman, S.L. ; Roeleveld, N. ; Ronfani, L. ; Santos, A.C. ; Standl, M. ; Stigum, H. ; Stoltenberg, C. ; Thiering, E. ; Thijs, C. ; Torrent, M. ; Tough, S.C. ; Trnovec, T. ; Turner, S. ; Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Rossem, L. van; Berg, A. von; Vrijheid, M. ; Vrijkotte, T.G.M. ; West, J. ; Wijga, A.H. ; Wright, J. ; Zvinchuk, O. ; Sørensen, T.I.A. ; Lawlor, D.A. ; Gaillard, R. ; Jaddoe, V.W.V. - \ 2019
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 126 (2019)8. - ISSN 1470-0328 - p. 984 - 995.
Birthweight - body mass index - pregnancy complications - preterm birth - weight gain
Objective: To assess the separate and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain with the risks of pregnancy complications and their population impact. Design: Individual participant data meta-analysis of 39 cohorts. Setting: Europe, North America, and Oceania. Population: 265 270 births. Methods: Information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and pregnancy complications was obtained. Multilevel binary logistic regression models were used. Main outcome measures: Gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, small and large for gestational age at birth. Results: Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were, across their full ranges, associated with higher risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, and large for gestational age at birth. Preterm birth risk was higher at lower and higher BMI and weight gain. Compared with normal weight mothers with medium gestational weight gain, obese mothers with high gestational weight gain had the highest risk of any pregnancy complication (odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI 2.31– 2.74). We estimated that 23.9% of any pregnancy complication was attributable to maternal overweight/obesity and 31.6% of large for gestational age infants was attributable to excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions: Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain are, across their full ranges, associated with risks of pregnancy complications. Obese mothers with high gestational weight gain are at the highest risk of pregnancy complications. Promoting a healthy pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain may reduce the burden of pregnancy complications and ultimately the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity. Tweetable abstract: Promoting a healthy body mass index and gestational weight gain might reduce the population burden of pregnancy complications.
Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Adverse Maternal and Infant Outcomes
Voerman, Ellis ; Santos, Susana ; Inskip, Hazel ; Amiano, Pilar ; Barros, Henrique ; Charles, Marie Aline ; Chatzi, Leda ; Chrousos, George P. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Crozier, Sarah ; Doyon, Myriam ; Eggesbø, Merete ; Fantini, Maria Pia ; Farchi, Sara ; Forastiere, Francesco ; Georgiu, Vagelis ; Gori, Davide ; Hanke, Wojciech ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Heude, Barbara ; Hivert, Marie France ; Hryhorczuk, Daniel ; Iñiguez, Carmen ; Karvonen, Anne M. ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Lagström, Hanna ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Lehmann, Irina ; Magnus, Per ; Majewska, Renata ; Mäkelä, Johanna ; Manios, Yannis ; Mommers, Monique ; Morgen, Camilla S. ; Moschonis, George ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Nybo Andersen, Anne Marie ; Oken, Emily ; Pac, Agnieszka ; Papadopoulou, Eleni ; Pekkanen, Juha ; Pizzi, Costanza ; Polanska, Kinga ; Porta, Daniela ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L. ; Roeleveld, Nel ; Ronfani, Luca ; Santos, Ana C. ; Standl, Marie - \ 2019
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 321 (2019)17. - ISSN 0098-7484 - p. 1702 - 1715.
Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.
|Dutch – German Circular Economy Breakfast ‘Blue & Green goes Orange’
Klemm, Wiebke - \ 2018
Keynote at the Dutch – German Circular Economy Breakfast ‘Blue & Green goes Orange’ in collaboration with Katarzyna Kujawa-Roeleveld (Senior lecturer and researcher in environmental technology, Wageningen University & Research)
Effects of estimated completion time and unconditional gift certificates on questionnaire response
Gelder, Marleen M.H.J. van; Geuijen, Pauline M. ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. de; Roeleveld, Nel - \ 2017
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 71 (2017)5. - ISSN 0143-005X - p. 520 - 520.
The semiotics of landscape design communication: towards a critical visual research approach in landscape architecture.
Raaphorst, K.M.C. ; Duchhart, I. ; Knaap, W.G.M. van der; Roeleveld, Gerda ; Brink, A. van den - \ 2017
Landscape Research 42 (2017)1. - ISSN 0142-6397 - p. 120 - 133.
In landscape architecture, visual representations are the primary means of communication between stakeholders in design processes. Despite the reliance on visual representations, little critical research has been undertaken by landscape architects on how visual communication forms work or their socio-political implications. In this theoretical paper, we argue that such research is of great importance. We explain how concepts of visual and critical social theory such as visual semiotics, simulacra and simulation, and power/knowledge can be used to critically reflect on landscape architectural representations. We further propose to study these representations at different stages of meaning-making by using visual methodologies such as visual discourse analysis, iconographical content analysis and social semiotic analysis. We conclude that these research approaches have the potential to explain issues such as dominant power structures, miscommunication between participants, and visual path-dependencies during landscape design processes.
Presence of helminth eggs in domestic wastewater and its removal at low temperature UASB reactors in Peruvian highlands
Yaya-Beas, Rosa Elena ; Cadillo-La-Torre, Erika Alejandra ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna ; Lier, Jules B. van; Zeeman, Grietje - \ 2016
Water Research 90 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 286 - 293.
Helminth eggs - Municipal wastewater - Pathogens - Sludge bed filtration capacity - UASB reactor
This work studied the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity for pathogens reduction in a 29 L and 1.65 m height lab-scale UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater at low temperatures in the city of Puno (Peru). The anaerobic sludge filtration capacity was performed applying upflow velocities of 0.12, 0.14, 0.16, 0.20, 0.27 and 0.41 m/h. Results show that the HE removal varied between 89 and 95% and the most common specie was Ascaris lumbricoides. Faecal coliform and Escherichia coli removal varied in the range of 0.9-2.1 and 0.8-1.6 log10 respectively. Likely related to the low operational temperatures, the total COD removal varied between 37 and 62%. The best performance in terms of removal of HE, total COD and turbidity was obtained at the lowest upflow velocity of 0.12 m/h. In order to meet WHO standards for water reuse a post-treatment unit will be required to polish the effluent.
Olfactomedin 4 serves as a marker for disease severity in pediatric Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection
Brand, Kim H. ; Ahout, Ingle M. ; Ridder, Dick de; Diepen, Angela van; Li, Yunlei ; Zaalberg, Marike ; Andeweg, Arno ; Roeleveld, Nel ; Groot, Ronald de; Warris, Adilia ; Hermans, Peter W. ; Ferwerda, Gerben ; Staal, Frank J. - \ 2015
GSE69606 - Homo sapiens - GSE69606 - Homo sapiens - PRJNA285966
Respiratory viral infections follow an unpredictable clinical course in young children ranging from a common cold to respiratory failure. The transition from mild to severe disease occurs rapidly and is difficult to predict. The pathophysiology underlying disease severity has remained elusive. There is an urgent need to better understand the immune response in this disease to come up with biomarkers that may aid clinical decision making. In a prospective study, flow cytometric and genome-wide gene expression analyses were performed on blood samples of 26 children with a diagnosis of severe, moderate or mild Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. Differentially expressed genes were validated using Q-PCR in a second cohort of 80 children during three consecutive winter seasons. FACS analyses were also performed in the second cohort and on recovery samples of severe cases in the first cohort. Severe RSV infection was associated with a transient but marked decrease in CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells in peripheral blood. Gene expression analyses in both cohorts identified Olfactomedin4 (OLFM4) as a fully discriminative marker between children with mild and severe RSV infection, giving a PAM cross-validation error of 0%. Patients with an OLFM4 gene expression level above -7.5 were 6 times more likely to develop severe disease, after correction for age at hospitalization and gestational age. In conclusion, by combining genome-wide expression profiling of blood cell subsets with clinically well-annotated samples, OLFM4 was identified as a biomarker for severity of pediatric RSV infection.
Olfactomedin 4 Serves as a Marker for Disease Severity in Pediatric Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection
Brand, H.K. ; Ahout, I.M.L. ; Ridder, D. de; Diepen, A. van; Li, Y. ; Zaalberg, M. ; Andeweg, A. ; Roeleveld, N. ; Groot, R. de; Warris, A. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 14 p.
Respiratory viral infections follow an unpredictable clinical course in young children ranging from a common cold to respiratory failure. The transition from mild to severe disease occurs rapidly and is difficult to predict. The pathophysiology underlying disease severity has remained elusive. There is an urgent need to better understand the immune response in this disease to come up with biomarkers that may aid clinical decision making.
In a prospective study, flow cytometric and genome-wide gene expression analyses were performed on blood samples of 26 children with a diagnosis of severe, moderate or mild Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. Differentially expressed genes were validated using Q-PCR in a second cohort of 80 children during three consecutive winter seasons. FACS analyses were also performed in the second cohort and on recovery samples of severe cases in the first cohort.
Severe RSV infection was associated with a transient but marked decrease in CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells in peripheral blood. Gene expression analyses in both cohorts identified Olfactomedin4 (OLFM4) as a fully discriminative marker between children with mild and severe RSV infection, giving a PAM cross-validation error of 0%. Patients with an OLFM4 gene expression level above -7.5 were 6 times more likely to develop severe disease, after correction for age at hospitalization and gestational age.
By combining genome-wide expression profiling of blood cell subsets with clinically well-annotated samples, OLFM4 was identified as a biomarker for severity of pediatric RSV infection.
New perspectives for urbanizing deltas : a complex adaptive systems approach to planning and design : Integrated Planning and Design in the Delta (IPDD)
Meyer, Han ; Bregt, A.K. ; Dammers, Ed ; Edelbos, Jurian ; Berg, Job van den; Born, Gert Jan van den; Broesi, R. ; Buuren, A. van; Burg, Leo van den; Duijn, Mike ; Heun, Gepke ; Marchand, M. ; Neumann, D. ; Nieuwenhuijze, L. ; Nijhuis, S. ; Pel, B. ; Pols, L. ; Pouderoijen, Michiel ; Rijken, Bart ; Roeleveld, Gerda ; Verkerk, Jitske ; Warmerdam, M. - \ 2015
Amsterdam : MUST Publishers - 233
deltas - urbanization - regional planning - physical planning - integrated spatial planning policy - south-west netherlands - urban development - water management - delta's - urbanisatie - regionale planning - ruimtelijke ordening - gebiedsgericht beleid - zuidwest-nederland - stadsontwikkeling - waterbeheer
The delta region between Rotterdam and Antwerp is a prime example of an area where spatial developments face increasing complexity. Local initiatives for developing urban expansions, recreation areas, nature and industrial complexes must harmonize with measures such as adequate flood protection, sufficient freshwater supply, restoration of ecosystems and large-scale infrastructure over the long term. This complexity demans a new approach to spatial planning and design. This book is the result of a research project that aimed to develop such a new planning practice. The research was carried out in collaboration by a consortium of universities, centres of expertise, and engineering and design firms. The research conceived of the Southwest Delta of the Netherlands as a laboratory for the new approach, which has nonetheless also proven relevant to other regions dealing with a similar level of complexity.
Correction to Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions [Water, 7, (2015), 2402-2421]
Yaya-Beas, Rosa Elena ; Ayala-Limaylla, Christian ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna ; Lier, J.B. Van; Zeeman, Grietje - \ 2015
Water 7 (2015)9. - ISSN 2073-4441 - p. 5152 - 5154.
A Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) effluent
Yaya Beas, R.E. ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K. ; Lier, J.B. van; Zeeman, G. - \ 2015
Water Science and Technology 72 (2015)11. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2034 - 2044.
faecal coliforms - biochemical oxygen demand - chemical oxygen demand - waste water - waste water treatment - anaerobic treatment - waste water treatment plants - fecale coliformen - biochemisch zuurstofverbruik - chemisch zuurstofverbruik - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe behandeling - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties
This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous lab-scale DHS reactors i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without recirculation, a similar one with recirculation and a reactor with curtain type sponges. The porosities of the applied medium were 91%, 87% and 47% respectively. The organic loading rates were 0.86 kgCOD m-3 d-1, 0.53 kgCOD m-3 d-1 and 0.24 kgCOD m-3 d-1 correspondingly at hydraulic loading rates of 1.92 m3 m-2 d-1, 2.97 m3 m-2 d-1 and 1.32 m3 m-2 d-1, respectively. The corresponding averages for faecal coliform removal were 99.997%, 99.919% and 92.121% respectively. The WHO (1989) standards, in terms of faecal coliform content for unrestricted irrigation (Category A), was achieved with the effluent of the cube type DHS (G1) without recirculation. Restricted irrigation, category B and C is assigned to the effluent of the cube type with recirculation and the curtain type, respectively. Particularly for organic compounds, the effluent of evaluated DHS reactors complies with USEPA standards for irrigation of so called non-food crops like pasture for milking animals, fodder, fibre, and seed crops.
Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions
Yaya Beas, R.E. ; Ayala-Limaylla, C. ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K. ; Lier, J.B. van; Zeeman, G. - \ 2015
Water 7 (2015)5. - ISSN 2073-4441 - p. 2402 - 2421.
This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was selected as the model egg considering its similarity in terms of size and morphology to Ascaris lumbricoides, a human pathogen. Ascaris suum eggs were obtained from female parasites of infected pigs. The anaerobic sludge filtration capacity was performed applying upflow velocities between 0.09 and 0.68 m·h-1. Three sludge bed heights in the range of 0.30–0.40 m, 0.50–0.60 m and 0.60–0.70 m were applied. These sludge bed heights corresponded to 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. Under the mentioned conditions, the average helminth egg removal efficiency was reciprocally correlated to the imposed upflow velocity. The studied lab-scale reactors reported an average helminth egg removal between 34%–100%, 30%–91% and 34%–56%, when the sludge bed in the UASB reactor was 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. The decreased filtration capacity at increasing sludge bed heights might be likely related to biogas production and channeling formation. The average helminth egg removal efficiency in the control experiments performed without any sludge bed, by plain sedimentation, varied between 44% and 66%
|Integrale Kennisontsluiting Deltaprogramma / Zuidwestelijke Delta
Veraart, J.A. ; Luttik, J. ; Roeleveld, G. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2517) - 52 p.
|Nieuwe perspectieven voor een verstedelijkte delta: naar een methode van planvorming en ontwerp
Meyer, V.J. ; Berg, J. van den; Bregt, A.K. ; Broesi, R. ; Dammers, E. ; Edelenbos, J. ; Nieuwenhuijze, L. ; Roeleveld, G. - \ 2013
Delft : Integrated Planning and Design in the Delta (IPDD) - 20 p.
Anaerobic treatment of source-separated domestic wastewater
Zeeman, G. ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K. - \ 2013
In: Source Separation and Decentralization for Wastewater Management / Larsen, T.A., Udert, K.M., IWA Publishing - ISBN 9781843393481 - p. 308 - 320.