Chromothripsis is a common mechanism driving genomic rearrangements in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer
Kloosterman, W.P. ; Hoogstraat, M. ; Paling, O. ; Tavakoli-Yaraki, M. ; Renkens, I. ; Vermaat, J.S. ; Roosmalen, M.J. van; Lieshout, S. van; Nijman, I.J. ; Roessingh, W. ; Slot, R. van 't; Belt, J. van de - \ 2011
Genome Biology 12 (2011)10. - ISSN 1474-7596 - 11 p.
human breast - pancreatic-cancer - resolution - evolution - patterns - mutation - progression - landscapes - enrichment - genes
Background - Structural rearrangements form a major class of somatic variation in cancer genomes. Local chromosome shattering, termed chromothripsis, is a mechanism proposed to be the cause of clustered chromosomal rearrangements and was recently described to occur in a small percentage of tumors. The significance of these clusters for tumor development or metastatic spread is largely unclear. Results - We used genome-wide long mate-pair sequencing and SNP array profiling to reveal that chromothripsis is a widespread phenomenon in primary colorectal cancer and metastases. We find large and small chromothripsis events in nearly every colorectal tumor sample and show that several breakpoints of chromothripsis clusters and isolated rearrangements affect cancer genes, including NOTCH2, EXO1 and MLL3. We complemented the structural variation studies by sequencing the coding regions of a cancer exome in all colorectal tumor samples and found somatic mutations in 24 genes, including APC, KRAS, SMAD4 and PIK3CA. A pairwise comparison of somatic variations in primary and metastatic samples indicated that many chromothripsis clusters, isolated rearrangements and point mutations are exclusively present in either the primary tumor or the metastasis and may affect cancer genes in a lesion-specific manner. Conclusions - We conclude that chromothripsis is a prevalent mechanism driving structural rearrangements in colorectal cancer and show that a complex interplay between point mutations, simple copy number changes and chromothripsis events drive colorectal tumor development and metastasis
|Werken voor Holland, boerenleven rond 1825
Roessingh, H.K. ; Schaars, A.H.G. - \ 2000
Achterhoekse Almanak 15 (2000). - p. 152 - 163.
|De ortpopulier en het populierenwortelhout
Roessingh, H.K. - \ 2000
In: Vierde Nederlandse Symposium Hout- en meubelrestauratie, 12 oktober 1999 Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 12 oktober 1999 Amsterdam : Stichting & benist - Rijksmuseum VeRes - p. 61 - 73.
Evolution of gustatory sensitivity in Yponomeuta caterpillars : sensitivity to the stereo-isomers dulcitol and sorbitol is localized in a single sensory cell
Roessingh, P. ; Hora, K.H. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Menken, S.B.J. - \ 1999
Journal of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 184 (1999). - ISSN 0340-7594 - p. 119 - 126.
Chemoreception of oviposition inhibiting terpenoids in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.
Qiu, Y.T. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Roessingh, P. - \ 1998
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 87 (1998). - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 143 - 155.
De Gelderse landbouw beschreven omstreeks 1825
Roessingh, H.K. ; Schaars, A.H.G. - \ 1996
Wageningen : Vereniging van Landbouwgeschiedenis (Agronomisch - historische bijdragen 15) - ISBN 9789080052222 - 525
landbouw - geschiedenis - nederland - gelderland - agriculture - history - netherlands - gelderland
|Wie zaait zal oogsten? De ontwikkeling van het rogge-beschot op de noordelijke zandgronden op lange termijn.
Bieleman, J. ; Roessingh, H. - \ 1994
In: Het platteland in een veranderende wereld. Boeren en het proces van modernisering / Diederiks, H., - p. 167 - 197.
The trail following behaviour of Yponomeuta cagnagellus.
Roessingh, P. - \ 1989
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 51 (1989). - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 49 - 57.
Trail marking and following by larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus
Roessingh, P. - \ 1989
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.M. Schoonhoven. - S.l. : Roessingh - 117
Tortricidae - insecten - larven - communicatie tussen dieren - geurstoffen - feromonen - Yponomeuta cagnagellus - microlepidoptera - rupsen - Tortricidae - insects - larvae - communication between animals - odours - pheromones - Yponomeuta cagnagellus - microlepidoptera - caterpillars
The importance of chemical cues in insect behaviour is well established (Bell & Cardé, 1984). The best known examples include the sex pheromones of butterflies and moths, and the aggregation pheromones of bark beetles. In eusocial insects (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) pheromones are widely used to maintain the organization of the colony. Many of these species produce chemical markers (trail pheromones) and deposit them on terrestrial trails that lead to food sources or nesting sites. Trail pheromones may also serve as cues in home range orientation and can facilitate migration of colonies (Attygalle & Morgan, 1985). However, trail following is not confined to eusocial species and is, for instance, also found in the Lepidoptera. Fabre (1922) already described the striking following behaviour of the procession caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller). To explain his observations, he stressed the importance of tactile stimuli from the silken treads that these (and other) caterpillars produce, and that can be followed. Although this argument still holds today (Chapter 2), it has become clear that, in addition to silk, chemical trail markers may also be important in the social behaviour of caterpillars (Fitzgerald & Peterson, 1988). The best documented examples are found in the Lasiocampidae. In Eriogaster lanestris trail marking was demonstrated by Weyh & Maschwitz (1978), and in the genus Malacosoma chemical trails convey information about the quality of a feeding site, and recruit other larvae to these places (Fitzgerald & Peterson, 1983: Peterson, 1988). In spite of these thoroughly studied examples, knowledge about chemical communication in caterpillars is limited, and mainly restricted to the Lasiocampidae. To gain more insight in trail following and trail marking in the Lepidoptera it is necessary to study this behaviour in other families.
This thesis focuses on caterpillars of small ermine moths, members of the genus Yponomeuta. This group has been studied in the context of a long term multi-disciplinary research program on speciation, and host plant selection is thought to be an important element in the speciation process (Wiebes, 1976). Food preferences of larvae are related to host preferences of female moths. This makes it interesting to see whether speciation is accompanied by interspecific differences in larval trails to feeding sites.
There are additional reasons to investigate trail marking and following in the Lepidoptera. Caterpillars have been advocated as model systems in the study of feeding behaviour (Schultz, 1983; Schoonhoven 1987), in part because their behaviour is relatively simple. A caterpillars primary function, gathering as much food as possible, is not complicated by tasks such as mate finding or taking care of offspring. In addition the sensory system is limited. Only about 90 chemosensory cells function in translating chemical messages from the environment into signals for the central nervous system (Albert, 1980; Devitt & Smith, 1982; Schoonhoven,1987). In spite of this restricted number of input channels, caterpillars can display striking food preferences, and will often die from starvation, rather than accept a non-host plant. Such behaviour, together with the possibility of tracing sensory connections into the central nervous system (Kent & Hildebrand, 1987) make caterpillars a good choice for studying the relationship between neurophysiology and behaviour.
A further point of interest is the possible integration of sensory information. The receptors for sex pheromones are in general separated from those that perceive stimuli associated with food. Trail pheromones of caterpillars bear a close relation to food finding. Therefore these insects may have an integrated receptor system that responds to both food and trail pheromone stimuli.
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether trail pheromones are employed by Yponomeuta and, if so, whether they differ in different species, (2) To identify receptors responsible for pheromone detection, and (3) to determine whether these receptors operate in an integrated way with receptors for food perception. However, as a first step in the analysis of this system basic knowledge must be gained about trail following behaviour itself, the chemicals involved, the senses used and the oecological context in which it functions. These questions form the main topics of this thesis.
Most experiments were performed on larvae of Y. cagnagellus (Hübner) (Fig. 1). This species is common in the Netherlands and suitable for behavioural studies. In addition, the caterpillars are gregarious throughout their development, suggesting that they may use a trail marker. Malacosoma caterpillars were used in some experiments to allow comparison to a species with well defined trail following behaviour, and an identified trail pheromone.
Outline of the thesis
Trail following in Y. cagnagellus
The study begins by asking whether Y. cagnagellus in fact exhibits trail following behaviour (chapter 2). Two-choice tests on filter paper Y-mazes show clearly that this is the case. In addition it is demonstrated that a tactile component of the trail (the silk) can be used as a cue. Y. cagnagellus does not discriminate between its own trails and those of 5 other Yponomeuta species, but does prefer its own trails over those of M. neustria . This lack of species specificity within the genus is, in contrast to sex pheromones, not uncommon for trail pheromones, possibly because the relationship between mating success and the signal is indirect.
A chemical marker
The existence of trail following behaviour does not by itself prove that a chemical marker is involved. Evidence for the presence of a chemical signal is presented in chapter 4. The marker appears to be water soluble, and highly stable under laboratory conditions. Behavioural responses to extracts from several glands and body parts show that the marker is present in the labial glands (the silk gland) only. Therefore, the marker is probably secreted with the silk.
The receptors involved in trail following behaviour
Chapter 3 describes the sensory organ used for the perception of the trail. In this chapter a comparison is made with the American tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum, a known trail follower (Fitzgerald, 1976). Chemoreceptors in caterpillars are located on the antennae, the maxillary palps, the galea and on the inner side of the labrum (Fig. 1). Systematic removal of various relevant structures shows that the maxillary palps are necessary for the detection of the trail in both M.americanum and Y.cagnagellus. Since the source of the trail marker, as well as its chemical composition, differs between the two species, this is most likely an example of convergence of chemoreceptor function.
Although the maxillary palps contain olfactory as well as gustatory receptors, the trail markers seem to be perceived only by contact chemoreception. This follows from the observation that trails covered with fine nylon mesh do not elicit any response. Moreover the long lifetime and stability of the markers, suggest that they have a low volatility.
Electrophysiology of the maxillary palp
Although the palps house a considerable fraction of the sensory equipment of a caterpillar (30-40 cells, more than 1/3 of the total), only very little is known about these organs. Therefore an electrophysiological survey of the chemoreceptors was conducted (Chapter 5). Because the sensilla are too small for tip recording, gustatory stimuli were applied to the whole tip of the palp. Electrical activity of only a few cells at a time was recorded with a glass microcapillary electrode. To aid analysis, a computer program was developed (Chapter 7). Following the ideas of van Drongelen et al. (1980), the program was designed to be highly interactive and to function as both as a display- and manipulation tool.
Plant volatiles were used as olfactory stimuli (terpenoids and C6 fatty acid derivatives or 'green odours', Visser & Avé, 1978). These were chosen in part on the basis of the results from a dynamic headspace analysis (Cole, 1980) of Euonymus europaeus , the host of Y. cagnagellus . Silk extracts and salt solutions were employed as gustatory stimuli. Evidence was found for the existence of two groups of olfactory receptor cells, sensitive to (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal (aldehydes) or to (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol (alcohols). Receptors responsive to the silk extracts (and probably to the trail pheromone) were also identified. These cells do not show the degree of specificity typical of cells specialized for lepidopteran sex pheromones but, rather, resemble the generally more broadly tuned receptors for food components.
The results from this and the preceding chapters strongly suggest the existence of a chemical trail marker in Y. cagnagellus , secreted with the silk and detected by contact-chemosensory neurons housed in the maxillary palps.
Oecological and evolutionary aspects
Chapter 6 addresses the the oecological and evolutionary relevance of such a signal. In eusocial insects as well as in Malacosoma , trail pheromones are often used to recruit siblings to high quality feeding sites (Peterson, 1988). In Y. cagnagellus this does not happen, but field observations have shown that a groups of caterpillars moves its silken nest over considerable distance, on average four times during development. The trail marker could help to maintain gregariousness during these migrations. Thus, it is of interest to ask whether gregariousness is advantageous. While many authors have discussed the benefits of larval aggregation (e.g. Tsubaki, 1981; Fitzgerald & Peterson, 1988; Weaver, 1988), gregariousness may also be associated with distinct disadvantages, for instance those arising from competition for food (Charnov et al., 1976). In chapter 6 a simple evolutionary model is presented to analyze the influence of these conflicting parameters on the evolutionary stability of gregarious behaviour. One result from this study is that it would be informative to classify larval behaviour in terms of the time of which larvae switch from gregariousness to solitary food searching.
|The sensory basis of train following in some lepidopterous larvae: contact chemoreception.
Roessingh, P. ; Peterson, S.C. ; Fitzgerald, T.D. - \ 1988
Physiological Entomology 13 (1988). - ISSN 0307-6962 - p. 219 - 224.
|Trail pheromones in Yponomeuta spp.
Roessingh, P. - \ 1987
In: Abstract 4th Ann. Meeting Int. Soc. Chemical Ecology, Hull (U.K.) (1987)
|Behaviour and abnormal damage in individual veal calves.
Wiepkema, P.R. ; Hellemond, K.K. van; Roessingh, P. ; Romberg, H. - \ 1987
In: Proc. SVE Meeting. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 17 - p. 373 - 373.
|AAG Bijdragen 25
Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1985
Wageningen : Vakgroep Agrarische Geschiedenis
De economische ontwikkeling van de Nederlandse landbouw in de negentiende eeuw, 1800 - 1914
Zanden, J.L. van - \ 1985
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): A.M. van der Woude; H.K. Roessingh. - Wageningen : LH - ISBN 9789061944942 - 461
landbouw - economische sectoren - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - geschiedenis - nederland - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agrarische geschiedenis - cum laude - agriculture - economic sectors - farm management - history - netherlands - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural history
The development of agricultural production and productivity is measured and explained with reference to the theories of 'modern economic growth' caused by specialization and technical change (S. Kuznets), and of 'traditional economic growth' induced by population growth (E. Boserup). In the first half of the century a process of 'traditional economic growth' took place; after 1850 this was gradually replaced by a process of 'modern economic growth'. The forces behind this transition are analysed. Special attention is paid to the eastern Netherlands, where a kind of 'peasant economy' was transformed into a modern, market oriented agriculture, a process which had been rather neglected in Dutch historiography. The relation between the modernization of the agricultural sector and changes in the social structure of the countryside is analysed, showing that after 1880 there was a connection between rapid economic growth and an increase in equality.
|AAG Bijdragen 24
Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1984
Wageningen : Vakgroep Agrarische Geschiedenis
|Landbouw in de Noordelijke Nederlanden 1650-1815
Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1979
In: Algemene Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, dl 8
|De veetelling van 1526 in het kwartier van Veluwe
Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1979
AAG Bijdragen 22 (1979). - ISSN 0511-0726 - p. 3 - 57.
|Tobacco growing in Holland in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: a case study of the innovation spirit of Dutch peasants
Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1979
Acta Historiae Neerlandicae (The Low Countries Yearbook) 11 (1979). - ISSN 0065-129X - p. 18 - 54.
|Het Veluwse kerkvolk geteld; de uitkomsten van de godsdiensttelling van 1809 in sociaal-historisch perspectief
Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1978
Zutphen : Walburg Pers - ISBN 9789060114643 - 48 p.
|Amsterdam en de tabaksteelt in Nederland
Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1978
Spiegel Historiael 13 (1978). - ISSN 0038-7487 - p. 73 - 79.