Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Chromothripsis is a common mechanism driving genomic rearrangements in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer
    Kloosterman, W.P. ; Hoogstraat, M. ; Paling, O. ; Tavakoli-Yaraki, M. ; Renkens, I. ; Vermaat, J.S. ; Roosmalen, M.J. van; Lieshout, S. van; Nijman, I.J. ; Roessingh, W. ; Slot, R. van 't; Belt, J. van de - \ 2011
    Genome Biology 12 (2011)10. - ISSN 1474-7596 - 11 p.
    human breast - pancreatic-cancer - resolution - evolution - patterns - mutation - progression - landscapes - enrichment - genes
    Background - Structural rearrangements form a major class of somatic variation in cancer genomes. Local chromosome shattering, termed chromothripsis, is a mechanism proposed to be the cause of clustered chromosomal rearrangements and was recently described to occur in a small percentage of tumors. The significance of these clusters for tumor development or metastatic spread is largely unclear. Results - We used genome-wide long mate-pair sequencing and SNP array profiling to reveal that chromothripsis is a widespread phenomenon in primary colorectal cancer and metastases. We find large and small chromothripsis events in nearly every colorectal tumor sample and show that several breakpoints of chromothripsis clusters and isolated rearrangements affect cancer genes, including NOTCH2, EXO1 and MLL3. We complemented the structural variation studies by sequencing the coding regions of a cancer exome in all colorectal tumor samples and found somatic mutations in 24 genes, including APC, KRAS, SMAD4 and PIK3CA. A pairwise comparison of somatic variations in primary and metastatic samples indicated that many chromothripsis clusters, isolated rearrangements and point mutations are exclusively present in either the primary tumor or the metastasis and may affect cancer genes in a lesion-specific manner. Conclusions - We conclude that chromothripsis is a prevalent mechanism driving structural rearrangements in colorectal cancer and show that a complex interplay between point mutations, simple copy number changes and chromothripsis events drive colorectal tumor development and metastasis
    Werken voor Holland, boerenleven rond 1825
    Roessingh, H.K. ; Schaars, A.H.G. - \ 2000
    Achterhoekse Almanak 15 (2000). - p. 152 - 163.
    De ortpopulier en het populierenwortelhout
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 2000
    In: Vierde Nederlandse Symposium Hout- en meubelrestauratie, 12 oktober 1999 Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 12 oktober 1999 Amsterdam : Stichting & benist - Rijksmuseum VeRes - p. 61 - 73.
    Evolution of gustatory sensitivity in Yponomeuta caterpillars : sensitivity to the stereo-isomers dulcitol and sorbitol is localized in a single sensory cell
    Roessingh, P. ; Hora, K.H. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Menken, S.B.J. - \ 1999
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 184 (1999). - ISSN 0340-7594 - p. 119 - 126.
    Chemoreception of oviposition inhibiting terpenoids in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.
    Qiu, Y.T. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Roessingh, P. - \ 1998
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 87 (1998). - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 143 - 155.
    De Gelderse landbouw beschreven omstreeks 1825
    Roessingh, H.K. ; Schaars, A.H.G. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Vereniging van Landbouwgeschiedenis (Agronomisch - historische bijdragen 15) - ISBN 9789080052222 - 525
    landbouw - geschiedenis - nederland - gelderland - agriculture - history - netherlands - gelderland
    Wie zaait zal oogsten? De ontwikkeling van het rogge-beschot op de noordelijke zandgronden op lange termijn.
    Bieleman, J. ; Roessingh, H. - \ 1994
    In: Het platteland in een veranderende wereld. Boeren en het proces van modernisering / Diederiks, H., - p. 167 - 197.
    The trail following behaviour of Yponomeuta cagnagellus.
    Roessingh, P. - \ 1989
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 51 (1989). - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 49 - 57.
    Trail marking and following by larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus
    Roessingh, P. - \ 1989
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.M. Schoonhoven. - S.l. : Roessingh - 117
    Tortricidae - insecten - larven - communicatie tussen dieren - geurstoffen - feromonen - Yponomeuta cagnagellus - microlepidoptera - rupsen - Tortricidae - insects - larvae - communication between animals - odours - pheromones - Yponomeuta cagnagellus - microlepidoptera - caterpillars

    The importance of chemical cues in insect behaviour is well established (Bell & Cardé, 1984). The best known examples include the sex pheromones of butterflies and moths, and the aggregation pheromones of bark beetles. In eusocial insects (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) pheromones are widely used to maintain the organization of the colony. Many of these species produce chemical markers (trail pheromones) and deposit them on terrestrial trails that lead to food sources or nesting sites. Trail pheromones may also serve as cues in home range orientation and can facilitate migration of colonies (Attygalle & Morgan, 1985). However, trail following is not confined to eusocial species and is, for instance, also found in the Lepidoptera. Fabre (1922) already described the striking following behaviour of the procession caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller). To explain his observations, he stressed the importance of tactile stimuli from the silken treads that these (and other) caterpillars produce, and that can be followed. Although this argument still holds today (Chapter 2), it has become clear that, in addition to silk, chemical trail markers may also be important in the social behaviour of caterpillars (Fitzgerald & Peterson, 1988). The best documented examples are found in the Lasiocampidae. In Eriogaster lanestris trail marking was demonstrated by Weyh & Maschwitz (1978), and in the genus Malacosoma chemical trails convey information about the quality of a feeding site, and recruit other larvae to these places (Fitzgerald & Peterson, 1983: Peterson, 1988). In spite of these thoroughly studied examples, knowledge about chemical communication in caterpillars is limited, and mainly restricted to the Lasiocampidae. To gain more insight in trail following and trail marking in the Lepidoptera it is necessary to study this behaviour in other families.

    This thesis focuses on caterpillars of small ermine moths, members of the genus Yponomeuta. This group has been studied in the context of a long term multi-disciplinary research program on speciation, and host plant selection is thought to be an important element in the speciation process (Wiebes, 1976). Food preferences of larvae are related to host preferences of female moths. This makes it interesting to see whether speciation is accompanied by interspecific differences in larval trails to feeding sites.

    There are additional reasons to investigate trail marking and following in the Lepidoptera. Caterpillars have been advocated as model systems in the study of feeding behaviour (Schultz, 1983; Schoonhoven 1987), in part because their behaviour is relatively simple. A caterpillars primary function, gathering as much food as possible, is not complicated by tasks such as mate finding or taking care of offspring. In addition the sensory system is limited. Only about 90 chemosensory cells function in translating chemical messages from the environment into signals for the central nervous system (Albert, 1980; Devitt & Smith, 1982; Schoonhoven,1987). In spite of this restricted number of input channels, caterpillars can display striking food preferences, and will often die from starvation, rather than accept a non-host plant. Such behaviour, together with the possibility of tracing sensory connections into the central nervous system (Kent & Hildebrand, 1987) make caterpillars a good choice for studying the relationship between neurophysiology and behaviour.

    A further point of interest is the possible integration of sensory information. The receptors for sex pheromones are in general separated from those that perceive stimuli associated with food. Trail pheromones of caterpillars bear a close relation to food finding. Therefore these insects may have an integrated receptor system that responds to both food and trail pheromone stimuli.

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether trail pheromones are employed by Yponomeuta and, if so, whether they differ in different species, (2) To identify receptors responsible for pheromone detection, and (3) to determine whether these receptors operate in an integrated way with receptors for food perception. However, as a first step in the analysis of this system basic knowledge must be gained about trail following behaviour itself, the chemicals involved, the senses used and the oecological context in which it functions. These questions form the main topics of this thesis.

    Most experiments were performed on larvae of Y. cagnagellus (Hübner) (Fig. 1). This species is common in the Netherlands and suitable for behavioural studies. In addition, the caterpillars are gregarious throughout their development, suggesting that they may use a trail marker. Malacosoma caterpillars were used in some experiments to allow comparison to a species with well defined trail following behaviour, and an identified trail pheromone.

    Outline of the thesis

    Trail following in Y. cagnagellus

    The study begins by asking whether Y. cagnagellus in fact exhibits trail following behaviour (chapter 2). Two-choice tests on filter paper Y-mazes show clearly that this is the case. In addition it is demonstrated that a tactile component of the trail (the silk) can be used as a cue. Y. cagnagellus does not discriminate between its own trails and those of 5 other Yponomeuta species, but does prefer its own trails over those of M. neustria . This lack of species specificity within the genus is, in contrast to sex pheromones, not uncommon for trail pheromones, possibly because the relationship between mating success and the signal is indirect.

    A chemical marker

    The existence of trail following behaviour does not by itself prove that a chemical marker is involved. Evidence for the presence of a chemical signal is presented in chapter 4. The marker appears to be water soluble, and highly stable under laboratory conditions. Behavioural responses to extracts from several glands and body parts show that the marker is present in the labial glands (the silk gland) only. Therefore, the marker is probably secreted with the silk.

    The receptors involved in trail following behaviour

    Chapter 3 describes the sensory organ used for the perception of the trail. In this chapter a comparison is made with the American tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum, a known trail follower (Fitzgerald, 1976). Chemoreceptors in caterpillars are located on the antennae, the maxillary palps, the galea and on the inner side of the labrum (Fig. 1). Systematic removal of various relevant structures shows that the maxillary palps are necessary for the detection of the trail in both M.americanum and Y.cagnagellus. Since the source of the trail marker, as well as its chemical composition, differs between the two species, this is most likely an example of convergence of chemoreceptor function.

    Although the maxillary palps contain olfactory as well as gustatory receptors, the trail markers seem to be perceived only by contact chemoreception. This follows from the observation that trails covered with fine nylon mesh do not elicit any response. Moreover the long lifetime and stability of the markers, suggest that they have a low volatility.

    Electrophysiology of the maxillary palp

    Although the palps house a considerable fraction of the sensory equipment of a caterpillar (30-40 cells, more than 1/3 of the total), only very little is known about these organs. Therefore an electrophysiological survey of the chemoreceptors was conducted (Chapter 5). Because the sensilla are too small for tip recording, gustatory stimuli were applied to the whole tip of the palp. Electrical activity of only a few cells at a time was recorded with a glass microcapillary electrode. To aid analysis, a computer program was developed (Chapter 7). Following the ideas of van Drongelen et al. (1980), the program was designed to be highly interactive and to function as both as a display- and manipulation tool.

    Plant volatiles were used as olfactory stimuli (terpenoids and C6 fatty acid derivatives or 'green odours', Visser & Avé, 1978). These were chosen in part on the basis of the results from a dynamic headspace analysis (Cole, 1980) of Euonymus europaeus , the host of Y. cagnagellus . Silk extracts and salt solutions were employed as gustatory stimuli. Evidence was found for the existence of two groups of olfactory receptor cells, sensitive to (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal (aldehydes) or to (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol (alcohols). Receptors responsive to the silk extracts (and probably to the trail pheromone) were also identified. These cells do not show the degree of specificity typical of cells specialized for lepidopteran sex pheromones but, rather, resemble the generally more broadly tuned receptors for food components.

    The results from this and the preceding chapters strongly suggest the existence of a chemical trail marker in Y. cagnagellus , secreted with the silk and detected by contact-chemosensory neurons housed in the maxillary palps.

    Oecological and evolutionary aspects

    Chapter 6 addresses the the oecological and evolutionary relevance of such a signal. In eusocial insects as well as in Malacosoma , trail pheromones are often used to recruit siblings to high quality feeding sites (Peterson, 1988). In Y. cagnagellus this does not happen, but field observations have shown that a groups of caterpillars moves its silken nest over considerable distance, on average four times during development. The trail marker could help to maintain gregariousness during these migrations. Thus, it is of interest to ask whether gregariousness is advantageous. While many authors have discussed the benefits of larval aggregation (e.g. Tsubaki, 1981; Fitzgerald & Peterson, 1988; Weaver, 1988), gregariousness may also be associated with distinct disadvantages, for instance those arising from competition for food (Charnov et al., 1976). In chapter 6 a simple evolutionary model is presented to analyze the influence of these conflicting parameters on the evolutionary stability of gregarious behaviour. One result from this study is that it would be informative to classify larval behaviour in terms of the time of which larvae switch from gregariousness to solitary food searching.

    The sensory basis of train following in some lepidopterous larvae: contact chemoreception.
    Roessingh, P. ; Peterson, S.C. ; Fitzgerald, T.D. - \ 1988
    Physiological Entomology 13 (1988). - ISSN 0307-6962 - p. 219 - 224.
    Trail pheromones in Yponomeuta spp.
    Roessingh, P. - \ 1987
    In: Abstract 4th Ann. Meeting Int. Soc. Chemical Ecology, Hull (U.K.) (1987)
    Behaviour and abnormal damage in individual veal calves.
    Wiepkema, P.R. ; Hellemond, K.K. van; Roessingh, P. ; Romberg, H. - \ 1987
    In: Proc. SVE Meeting. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 17 - p. 373 - 373.
    AAG Bijdragen 25
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1985
    Wageningen : Vakgroep Agrarische Geschiedenis
    De economische ontwikkeling van de Nederlandse landbouw in de negentiende eeuw, 1800 - 1914
    Zanden, J.L. van - \ 1985
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): A.M. van der Woude; H.K. Roessingh. - Wageningen : LH - ISBN 9789061944942 - 461
    landbouw - economische sectoren - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - geschiedenis - nederland - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agrarische geschiedenis - cum laude - agriculture - economic sectors - farm management - history - netherlands - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural history

    The development of agricultural production and productivity is measured and explained with reference to the theories of 'modern economic growth' caused by specialization and technical change (S. Kuznets), and of 'traditional economic growth' induced by population growth (E. Boserup). In the first half of the century a process of 'traditional economic growth' took place; after 1850 this was gradually replaced by a process of 'modern economic growth'. The forces behind this transition are analysed. Special attention is paid to the eastern Netherlands, where a kind of 'peasant economy' was transformed into a modern, market oriented agriculture, a process which had been rather neglected in Dutch historiography. The relation between the modernization of the agricultural sector and changes in the social structure of the countryside is analysed, showing that after 1880 there was a connection between rapid economic growth and an increase in equality.

    AAG Bijdragen 24
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1984
    Wageningen : Vakgroep Agrarische Geschiedenis
    Landbouw in de Noordelijke Nederlanden 1650-1815
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1979
    In: Algemene Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, dl 8
    De veetelling van 1526 in het kwartier van Veluwe
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1979
    AAG Bijdragen 22 (1979). - ISSN 0511-0726 - p. 3 - 57.
    Tobacco growing in Holland in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: a case study of the innovation spirit of Dutch peasants
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1979
    Acta Historiae Neerlandicae (The Low Countries Yearbook) 11 (1979). - ISSN 0065-129X - p. 18 - 54.
    Het Veluwse kerkvolk geteld; de uitkomsten van de godsdiensttelling van 1809 in sociaal-historisch perspectief
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1978
    Zutphen : Walburg Pers - ISBN 9789060114643 - 48 p.
    Amsterdam en de tabaksteelt in Nederland
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1978
    Spiegel Historiael 13 (1978). - ISSN 0038-7487 - p. 73 - 79.
    AAG Bijdragen 22
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1978
    Wageningen : Vakgroep Agrarische Geschiedenis
    Het begin van de aardappelteelt en de aardappelconsumptie in Gelderland
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1977
    Tweestromenland, Maas en Waals tijdschrift voor streekgeschiedenis 26 (1977). - p. 25 - 32.
    Inlandse tabak : expansie en contractie van een handelsgewas in de 17e en 18e eeuw in Nederland
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1976
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.W. Hofstee; A.M. van der Woude. - Wageningen : Veenman - 594
    agrarische geschiedenis - tabak - geschiedenis - nederland - agricultural history - tobacco - history - netherlands

    This study deals with the introduction and economic development of tobacco growing in the 17th and 18th Centuries in the Netherlands. It tries to explain how and why tobacco became firmly established as a cash crop among small peasants in the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and Guelderland. The aim is not primarily to describe the origin and economic changes in tobacco cropping, but to interpret the expansion and contraction of inland tobacco by relating agricultural, social and economic phenomena and by linking tobacco growing with developments in the manufacture and trade of tobacco. To this end I have considered the expansion and contraction from two different angles:

    1. The production of Dutch leaf as source of income in agriculture.
    2. The demand for inland tobacco leaf as raw material for tobacco manufacture in the United Provinces (especially in Amsterdam) and elsewhere.

    An introduction on the biohistory of tobacco deals in general with the history of tobacco and tobacco smoking and its social implications. The object of this chapter is to place in a broader international and cultural-historical framework the introduction of tobacco in the Netherlands, the beginning of its cultivation, and its manufacture and trade.

    Commercial production in the Netherlands started between 1610 and 1620. Tobacco growing was an innovation in Dutch agriculture. Initially cultivation was stimulated by Amsterdam tobacco merchants and tobacco manufacturers who saw in inland production a source for the stockpiles which they needed in order to influence the price of the overseas tobacco leaf on the Amsterdam market. Others - such as the ruling urban upper class, rich citizens and the gentry who had ties with trade as well as with agriculture - initiated tobacco growing around several small towns in the middle and east of the Netherlands. Prominent farmers with some education and a commercial bent were quick to adopt tobacco as a crop and small farmers followed their lead.

    In other West European countries we also see the spread of tobacco growing from merchants and other urban people or the gentry to farmers and peasants. The available data show that this adoption and diffusion took place quickly (more quickly than usually is supposed for peasants in the pre-industrial period). This spread can be explained in part by the specific attributes of the innovation itself, but of equal importance was the structure of society in the regions where the adoption and diffusion succeeded.

    The Dutch were already skilled in a sophisticated, commercial horticulture. Hence, in the 17th Century Dutch farmers were able to introduce several innovations to the newly adopted crop. Most important were the adoption, after 1635, of hotbeds for raising the young plants; the use of live hedges or fences of bean poles around the tobacco plots as windbreaks; and, after 1660, the introduction of the wooden drying house or tobacco barn with movable boards in the walls to control the ventilation during air curing. It is possible to associate these innovations with the expansion of tobacco cultivation in the 17th Century.

    In the first decades of the 18th Century, the 'Dutch' method of cultivation was seen as the best one for successful tobacco growing in northern countries. After 1724 when the Swedish mercantile policy was to stimulate domestic tobacco growing, the Swedish government issued an advisory pamphlet propagating the 'Dutch' method.

    As we know from the work of Van der Woude (1972) and Faber (1972), the maritime provinces of Holland and Friesland showed a noteworthy stagnation in population or even a strong decline after about 1650. But, in the same period the growth of the rural population in the middle and east of the United Provinces was actually faster than before and exceeded the agricultural resources and means of subsistence. The already existing pressure of population was aggravated. The small farms suffered from a chronic excess of labour. The labour-intensive tobacco crop could help to solve this problem and the new crop was able to spread, because cheap family labour was available on the small farms. Tobacco growing did not ask for expensive investments, and much work could be done very well by young children and women. The whole family could participate during a great part of the year in the cultivation and the operations after harvest and this was highly consistent with existing socio-cultural values about family and family-farming. For these reasons tobacco growing suited small farms very well.

    In the long term, tobacco cultivation developed and expanded in the period of agricultural regression after about the middle of the 17th Century. When the prices of wheat, rye and buckwheat dropped more than did the prices of industrial products and wages, taxes, rents and so on, many small peasants fell into an economically dangerous situation. There was a growing shortage of hard cash for paying rent, taxes and shopping. Scarcity of money and population pressure in agriculture, favoured the switch to a labour-intensive and profitable cash crop like tobacco. Because of the failing grain prices, the available manure yielded a greater return when used on tobacco than on cereal crops. Share cropping in tobacco cultivation was usual, so it was less risky for the small peasants. The risk was shared with the landowning partner, who paid the costs for manure, advanced money and arranged sales of the crop.

    After 1650, the number of small tobacco farms in eastern Utrecht and in Guelderland increased rapidly. Tobacco cultivation was a solution for that part of the rural population that otherwise would have been reduced to poverty. But also for the bigger farmers, the growing of some tobacco was attractive because of the price ratio between tobacco and grain.

    In the long term, the rise in tobacco cultivation may be interpreted as an accompaniment of the prolonged agricultural recession in the period from about 1650 to about 1750. The price ratio of inland tobacco to cereals shifted in favour of tobacco and the growers reacted to these economic changes by increasing the tobacco area.

    In the second half of the 18th Century, when grain prices went up again, many farmers gave up tobacco growing, because the prospects for cereals became more favourable. Moreover, potatoes then appeared as a crop, offering not only a cheap food for the peasants household but also an entirely new prospect for the small farmer. There was a marked recession of tobacco cultivation; its cultivation tended to concentrate around certain towns and in the areas where production was economically most favourable.

    In the 17th Century, Amsterdam had become the biggest staple market for Virginia and Maryland tobacco leaf and also for the several European tobaccos. The world market for tobacco was in Amsterdam and here merchants from all over Europe could place their orders. Given the incoming and outgoing stream of overseas tobacco, a significant tobacco-manufacturing industry could develop in Holland and specially in Amsterdam.

    Because Amsterdam was the staple market for overseas tobacco, Amsterdam tobacco spinners and cutters had ample opportunity to mix the imported English colonial tobacco with the much cheaper inland leaves. In rolling or spinning, inferior grades of tobacco were used for the insides while the better Virginia leaf was used as exterior 'wrapper', and this product was sometimes sold for 'Spanish' or real 'Virginia'. Interesting Dutch commercial methods! On the foreign markets for tobacco products, these Dutch mixtures could compete with the English pure Virginia spun, or cut tobacco, and with the Spanish tobacco, which - though better - was much more expensive. Especially in the Baltic, there was a great demand for the strong and heavy Dutch smoking and chewing tobacco, which was cheap.

    At the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th Century, the development of the. price ratios between Dutch and British colonial tobacco leaf benefitted Dutch tobacco manufacture. The prices of Virginia leaf nearly doubled during the long and vehement naval wars from 1688 till 1714 and remained high till about 1720. In contrast, the prices of Dutch tobacco leaf rose only slightly. The profitable and increasing price difference made the mixing of cheap Dutch and expensive Virginia leaf more and more attractive. The cheapest product consisted of one-third inland leaf and stalk cut up, plus two-thirds Virginia stalks (midribs). Amsterdam tobacco manufacturers demanded more and more inland leaf and this heavy demand greatly stimulated the inland crop. In this way, the Dutch could sweep their English rivals from the Baltic before a wave of cheap tobacco, both manufactured and leaf.

    To sum up: in the United Provinces, a close connexion existed between the development of the tobacco trade, the manufacturing industry and the expansion of inland cultivation. From its beginnings, the crop was stimulated by Amsterdam merchants. The great demand for cheap material from tobacco- spinning and tobacco-cutting houses resulted in an expanding cultivation at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th Century. At the same time, falling grain prices and increasing tobacco prices made tobacco growing attractive to small peasants, cottagers, agricultural labourers and villagers with access to garden plots. Consequently, an increasing amount of cheap inland tobacco leaf could be offered to the manufacturers.

    After 1720 but especially from the 1750s, the trend was reversed:

    1. Because of the changing price ratio of inland tobacco to cereals, the growing of tobacco became less attractive to the farmers.

    2. The general expansion of the British colonial trade during the 18th Century caused the Virginia leaf tobacco to be marketed in increasing amounts at steadily decreasing prices on the world market. Therefore Dutch tobacco leaf became less attractive to the Amsterdam tobacco spinners and cutters.

    3. The mercantile policy of many West European governments and the high customs tariffs worsened the market position of Dutch industrial products. An industrial decline, including one in tobacco manufacture, was inevitable in the United Provinces. During the 18th Century the Dutch tobacco export changed its character. Before 1720 the main export consisted of manufactured tobacco, but gradually the Dutch became primarily exporters of the raw material, the tobacco leaf, to the foreign factories.

    Despite the decline in the Amsterdam spinning and cutting houses during the 18th Century, the Dutch tobacco crop was able to almost maintain its position for some time. This was due to:

    1. The growing popularity of snuff all over Europe and the rising snuff prices. The Dutch leaf was specially suitable for snuff production and the growers changed the methods of cultivation to produce this kind of leaf, for instance by using much more manure.

    2. The increased export of leaf tobacco as a raw material for foreign manufacture.

    But in other European countries too, tobacco growing was encouraged. So, apart from the Virginia leaf, the competition with other cheap European tobacco leaf became increasingly severe.

    In the second half of the 18th Century, Virginia leaf tobacco started to dominate the Dutch and other European leaf tobacco, both by low prices and by increasing supply. Competition on the old terms was ended. Dutch tobacco farming recovered temporarily in times of war when seaborn supply from Virginia and Maryland stagnated, and prices rose, as during the American War of Independence and Napoleonic wars. In these periods of high tobacco prices we see a remarkably quick reaction by the farmers and cottagers, who temporarily expand their tobacco business.

    Dutch inland tobacco growing in the 17th and 18th Century demonstrates the interdependency between the rural sector and the town-centered manufacture and trade of the United Provinces. The growth of the Amsterdam tobacco manufacture and tobacco trade at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th Century mainly depended on the leaf produced by small farmers and peasants in the provinces of Utrecht and Guelderland.

    Within the producing regions tobacco growing gave new prospects to small peasants and poor labourers during a period of agricultural depression and provided additional employment in related crafts and trades.

    In some villages share cropping in tobacco had a far-reaching consequence for the social stratification: i.e. ' the rise of a group of small tobacco-cottagers between the labourers and small peasants. When tobacco growing decreased or ceased this group turned to other labour-intensive crops. On these small farms the potato was easily accepted as a new crop in the second half of the 18th Century. Later on some went over to horticulture. So tobacco promoted in a way the continuing intensification of husbandry on the small farm. Generally speaking tobacco cultivation with its side effects worked as a regional differentiator and can help to explain still existing regional or local differences.

    Het begin van de aardappelteelt en de aardappelconsumptie in Gelderland
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1976
    Nederlandse Historien 68 (1976)april. - p. 1 - 9.
    AAG Bijdragen 20
    Roessingh, H.K. - \ 1976
    Wageningen : Vakgroep Agrarische Geschiedenis
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