Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Experimental Coxiella burnetii infection in non-pregnant goats and the effect of breeding
    Roest, Hendrik I.J. ; Dinkla, Annemieke ; Koets, Ad P. ; Post, Jacob ; Keulen, Lucien Van - \ 2020
    Veterinary Research 51 (2020)1. - ISSN 0928-4249

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In Europe, small ruminants are the main source of human Q fever. Small ruminant herds can be infectious during several lambing seasons. However, it is not clear how infection is maintained in a herd and what role non-pregnant animals play in the transmission of C. burnetii. We therefore inoculated nulliparous goats with C. burnetii, isolated from the outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands, to gain a better understanding of the role of non-pregnant goats. Seroconversion and excretion of C. burnetii were monitored after inoculation. To study the effect of breeding on the excretion of C. burnetii, the goats were naturally bred and monitored during gestation and after lambing. Our results indicate that C. burnetii infection prior to breeding did not result in infection of the placenta nor did it affect the gestation length or the number of kids born. However, one of the ten does did excrete C. burnetii in the colostrum post-partum and the bacterium was detected in the mammary gland and associated lymph nodes at necropsy. This result indicates that non-pregnant goats might play a role in maintaining Q fever in a goat herd as persistent carriers of infection.

    A data-driven methodology reveals novel myofiber clusters in older human muscles
    Raz, Yotam ; Akker, Erik B. van den; Roest, Tijmen ; Riaz, Muhammad ; Rest, Ondine van de; Suchiman, Eka D. ; Lakenberg, Nico ; Stassen, Stefanie A. ; Putten, Maaike van; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Reinders, Marcel J.T. ; Goeman, Jelle ; Beekman, Marian ; Raz, Vered ; Slagboom, Pieternella Eline - \ 2020
    FASEB Journal 34 (2020)4. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 5525 - 5537.
    bioinformatics - clustering - fibertyping - human - muscle - muscle health - myofiber - myosin heavy chain - RNA-sequencing - sarcomere

    Skeletal muscles control posture, mobility and strength, and influence whole-body metabolism. Muscles are built of different types of myofibers, each having specific metabolic, molecular, and contractile properties. Fiber classification is, therefore, regarded the key for understanding muscle biology, (patho-) physiology. The expression of three myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, MyHC-1, MyHC-2A, and MyHC-2X, marks myofibers in humans. Typically, myofiber classification is performed by an eye-based histological analysis. This classical approach is insufficient to capture complex fiber classes, expressing more than one MyHC-isoform. We, therefore, developed a methodological procedure for high-throughput characterization of myofibers on the basis of multiple isoforms. The mean fluorescence intensity of the three most abundant MyHC isoforms was measured per myofiber in muscle biopsies of 56 healthy elderly adults, and myofiber classes were identified using computational biology tools. Unsupervised clustering revealed the existence of six distinct myofiber clusters. A comparison with the visual assessment of myofibers using the same images showed that some of these myofiber clusters could not be detected or were frequently misclassified. The presence of these six clusters was reinforced by RNA expressions levels of sarcomeric genes. In addition, one of the clusters, expressing all three MyHC isoforms, correlated with histological measures of muscle health. To conclude, this methodological procedure enables deep characterization of the complex muscle heterogeneity. This study opens opportunities to further investigate myofiber composition in comparative studies.

    “We are what we eat”: How diet impacts the gut microbiota in adulthood
    Wang, Taojun ; Roest, Dominique I.M. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. - \ 2019
    In: How Fermented Foods Feed a Healthy Gut Microbiota / Azcarate-Peril, M.A., Arnold, R.R., Bruno-Bárcena, J.M., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030287368 - p. 259 - 283.
    Adult microbiome - Intestinal microbial metabolites - Microbial stability - Resilience of the gut microbiome - Traditional diet - Western diet

    The important role of the microbes residing in our gut, collectively called the microbiota, in human health is widely acknowledged. There are numerous factors that have an impact on the microbiota in the gut of which diet is considered a crucial one. In this chapter we highlight our current knowledge on the ecology of the microbiota in adults and how it is affected by diet. We summarize observations from different cross-sectional and intervention studies that focused on the impact of diet on microbiota composition and activity. Special attention is paid to which microbial metabolites can be produced in the gut; how these are affected by different dietary components such as carbohydrates, fat, and proteins; and how these are associated to human health. Finally, we provide recommendations for future intervention studies in order to improve our understanding of the complex interplay between microbes, diet, and ourselves.

    SusPigSys: Assessment and feedback of sustainability of pig production systems.
    Ruckli, A.K. ; Leeb, C. ; Roest, K. De; Gebska, M. ; Guy, J. ; Heinonen, M. ; Helmerichs, J. ; Hörtenhuber, S. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Valros, A. ; Dippel, S. - \ 2019
    In: Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863396 - p. 482 - 482.
    Forensic microbiology reveals that Neisseria animaloris infections in harbour porpoises follow traumatic injuries by grey seals
    Foster, Geoffrey ; Whatmore, Adrian M. ; Dagleish, Mark P. ; Malnick, Henry ; Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Begeman, Lineke ; Macgregor, Shaheed K. ; Davison, Nicholas J. ; Roest, Hendrik Jan ; Jepson, Paul ; Howie, Fiona ; Muchowski, Jakub ; Brownlow, Andrew C. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Kik, Marja J.L. ; Deaville, Rob ; Doeschate, Mariel T.I. ten; Barley, Jason ; Hunter, Laura ; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. - \ 2019
    Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

    Neisseria animaloris is considered to be a commensal of the canine and feline oral cavities. It is able to cause systemic infections in animals as well as humans, usually after a biting trauma has occurred. We recovered N. animaloris from chronically inflamed bite wounds on pectoral fins and tailstocks, from lungs and other internal organs of eight harbour porpoises. Gross and histopathological evidence suggest that fatal disseminated N. animaloris infections had occurred due to traumatic injury from grey seals. We therefore conclude that these porpoises survived a grey seal predatory attack, with the bite lesions representing the subsequent portal of entry for bacteria to infect the animals causing abscesses in multiple tissues, and eventually death. We demonstrate that forensic microbiology provides a useful tool for linking a perpetrator to its victim. Moreover, N. animaloris should be added to the list of potential zoonotic bacteria following interactions with seals, as the finding of systemic transfer to the lungs and other tissues of the harbour porpoises may suggest a potential to do likewise in humans.

    Phylogeographic distribution of human and hare Francisella tularenses susp. holarctica strains in the Netherlands and its pathology in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus)
    Koene, M.G.J. ; Rijks, Jolianne M. ; Maas, Miriam ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Kik, Marja ; IJzer, Jooske ; Notermans, Daan ; Vries, Maaike de; Fanoy, Ewout ; Pijnacker, Roan ; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H. ; Bavelaar, Herjan ; Berkhout, Hanneke ; Sankatsing, Sanjay ; Diepersloot, Rob ; Myrtennas, Kerstin ; Granberg, Malin ; Forsman, Mats ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Gröne, Andrea - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 9 (2019). - ISSN 2235-2988 - 11 p.
    Sequence-based typing of Francisella tularensis has led to insights in the evolutionary developments of tularemia. In Europe, two major basal clades of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica exist, with a distinct geographical distribution. Basal clade B.6 is primarily found in Western Europe, while basal clade B.12 occurs predominantly in the central and eastern parts of Europe. There are indications that tularemia is geographically expanding and that strains from the two clades might differ in pathogenicity, with basal clade B.6 strains being potentially more virulent than basal clade B.12. This study provides information on genotypes detected in the Netherlands during 2011–2017. Data are presented for seven autochthonous human cases and for 29 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) with laboratory confirmed tularemia. Associated disease patterns are described for 25 European brown hares which underwent post-mortem examination. The basal clades B.6 and B.12 are present both in humans and in European brown hares in the Netherlands, with a patchy geographical distribution. For both genotypes the main pathological findings in hares associated with tularemia were severe (sub)acute necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis as well as necrotizing lesions and hemorrhages in several other organs. Pneumonia was significantly more common in the B.6 than in the B.12 cases. In conclusion, the two major basal clades present in different parts in Europe are both present in the Netherlands. In hares found dead, both genotypes were associated with severe acute disease affecting multiple organs. Hepatitis and splenitis were common pathological findings in hares infected with either genotype, but pneumonia occurred significantly more frequently in hares infected with the B.6 genotype compared to hares infected with the B.12 genotype.
    Pooling of genital swabs for detection by PCR of Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of contagious equine metritis
    Mawhinney, I. ; Errington, J. ; Stamper, N. ; Torrens, N. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2019
    Equine Veterinary Journal 51 (2019)2. - ISSN 0425-1644 - p. 227 - 230.
    diagnosis - horse - infection - validation

    Background: Sets of genital swabs are routinely taken from horses to screen for the presence of Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of contagious equine metritis. Typically, two to four different sites are swabbed at a time and tested by culture or PCR. Objectives: This study explored the feasibility of pooling these swabs for a single PCR test per animal instead of testing each swab individually. Study design: In vitro. Methods: PCR signal strengths (Ct values) from 149 historical PCR positive genital swabs, together with historical data on the number of swabs in a set expected to be positive, were used to assess the suitability of pooling for screening horses for T. equigenitalis infection in the population at large. Twenty-four sets of four equine genital swabs were tested. The sets were prepared in the laboratory using one or more swabs positive for T. equigenitalis from naturally infected cases. Positive and negative swabs were selected to reflect a typical range of PCR Ct values expected in field cases of T. equigenitalis infection. These pools were tested by an established PCR to assess the impact and suitability of a PCR test on pooled swabs compared to individual swab testing, by comparing the Ct values. Results: Pooling one positive swab with three negative swabs produced a small drop in Ct value but all pools were still clearly positive. Main limitations: Large numbers of field positive horses are not available, but the proof of concept approach with laboratory prepared pools shows the method is applicable to field cases. Conclusions: It was concluded that pooling of swabs would confer no appreciable drop in the ability to detect a positive animal compared to individual swab testing; pooling is therefore a suitable alternative to individual swab testing with reduced costs. The Summary is available in Spanish – see Supporting Information.

    Francisella tularensis isolated from human clinical infections
    Koene, M.G.J. ; Rijks, Jolianne M. ; Maas, Miriam ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Kik, Marja ; IJzer, Jooske ; Notermans, Daan ; Vries, Maaike de; Fanoy, Ewout ; Pijnacker, Roan ; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H. ; Bavelaar, Herjan ; Berkhout, Hanneke ; Sankatsing, Sanjay ; Diepersloot, Rob ; Myrtennas, Kerstin ; Granberg, Malin ; Forsman, Mats ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Gröne, Andrea - \ 2018
    Wageningen UR
    PRJEB27514 - PRJEB27514 - ERP109601 - Francisella tularensis
    Genome sequences of Francisella tularensis samples, isolated from human infections in the Netherlands in 2015 and 2016.
    Biological and anthropological drivers for emerging zoonoses from an interdisciplinary perspective
    Swanenburg, M. ; Lauwere, C.C. de; Roest, H.I.J. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Boer, F. de; Vaandrager, L. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Petie, R. ; Vos-de Jong, C.J. de - \ 2018
    Biological and anthropological drivers for emerging zoonoses from an interdisciplinary perspective
    Swanenburg, M. ; Lauwere, C.C. de; Roest, H.I.J. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Boer, F. De; Vaandrager, L. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Vos-de Jong, C.J. de - \ 2018
    Viable coxiella burnetii induces differential cytokine responses in chronic Q fever patients compared to Heat-Killed Coxiella burnetii
    Jansen, Anne F.M. ; Dinkla, Annemieke ; Roest, Hendrik Jan ; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. ; Schoffelen, Teske ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Wever, Peter C. ; Deuren, Marcel van; Koets, Ad P. - \ 2018
    Infection and Immunity 86 (2018)10. - ISSN 0019-9567
    Chronic Q fever - Coxiella burnetii - Cytokines - Immune response

    Cytokine responses of chronic Q fever patients to the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii have mostly been studied using ex vivo stimulation of immune cells with heat-killed C. burnetii due to the extensive measures needed to work with viable biosafety level 3 agents. Whether research with heat-killed C. burnetii can be translated to immune responses to viable C. burnetii is imperative for the interpretation of previous and future studies with heat-killed C. burnetii. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of chronic Q fever patients (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10) were stimulated with heat-killed or viable C. burnetii of two strains, Nine Mile and the Dutch outbreak strain 3262, for 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days in the absence or presence of serum containing anti-C. burnetii antibodies. When stimulated with viable C. burnetii, PBMCs of chronic Q fever patients and controls produced fewer proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-1β) after 24 h than after stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii. In the presence of Q fever seronegative serum, IL-10 production was higher after stimulation with viable rather than heat-killed C. burnetii; however, when incubating with anti-C. burnetii antibody serum, the effect on IL-10 production was reduced. Levels of adaptive, merely T-cell-derived cytokine (gamma interferon, IL-17, and IL-22) and CXCL9 production were not different between heat-killed and viable C. burnetii stimulatory conditions. Results from previous and future research with heat-killed C. burnetii should be interpreted with caution for innate cytokines, but heat-killed C. burnetii-induced adaptive cytokine production is representative of stimulation with viable bacteria.

    Brucella pinnipedialis in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands
    Kroese, Michiel V. ; Beckers, Lisa ; Bisselink, Yvette J.W.M. ; Brasseur, Sophie ; Tulden, Peter W. van; Koene, Miriam G.J. ; Roest, Hendrik I.J. ; Ruuls, Robin C. ; Backer, Jantien A. ; Ijzer, Jooske ; Giessen, Joke W.B. van der; Willemsen, Peter T.J. - \ 2018
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases 54 (2018)3. - ISSN 0090-3558 - p. 439 - 449.
    Brucella pinnipedialis - Halichoerus grypus - MALDI-TOF MS - Marine mammals - MLST - MLVA-16 - Phoca vitulina - The Netherlands

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with terrestrial or marine wildlife animals as potential reservoirs for the disease in livestock and human populations. The primary aim of this study was to assess the presence of Brucella pinnipedialis in marine mammals living along the Dutch coast and to observe a possible correlation between the presence of B. pinnipedialis and accompanying pathology found in infected animals. The overall prevalence of Brucella spp. antibodies in sera from healthy wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus; n=11) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina; n=40), collected between 2007 and 2013 ranged from 25% to 43%. Additionally, tissue samples of harbor seals collected along the Dutch shores between 2009 and 2012, were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. In total, 77% (30/ 39) seals were found to be positive for Brucella by IS711 real-time PCR in one or more tissue samples, including pulmonary nematodes. Viable Brucella was cultured from 40% (12/30) real-time PCR-positive seals, and was isolated from liver, lung, pulmonary lymph node, pulmonary nematode, or spleen, but not from any PCR-negative seals. Tissue samples from lung and pulmonary lymph nodes were the main source of viable Brucella bacteria. All isolates were typed as B. pinnipedialis by multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis-16 clustering and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and of sequence type ST25 by multilocus sequence typing analysis. No correlation was observed between Brucella infection and pathology. This report displays the isolation and identification of B. pinnipedialis in marine mammals in the Dutch part of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Brucella suis infection in dog fed raw meat, the Netherlands
    Dijk, Marloes A.M. van; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Visser, Vanessa X.N. ; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H. ; Holtslag, Marjolijn E. ; Willemsen, Peter T.J. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Broens, Els M. ; Roest, Hendrik I.J. - \ 2018
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 24 (2018)6. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 1127 - 1129.
    A Brucella suis biovar 1 infection was diagnosed in a dog without typical exposure risks, but the dog had been fed a raw meat–based diet (hare carcasses imported from Argen-tina). Track and trace investigations revealed that the most likely source of infection was the dog’s raw meat diet.
    High-resolution melting PCR analysis for rapid genotyping of Burkholderia mallei
    Girault, G. ; Wattiau, P. ; Saqib, M. ; Martin, B. ; Vorimore, F. ; Singha, H. ; Engelsma, M. ; Roest, H.J. ; Spicic, S. ; Grunow, R. ; Vicari, N. ; Keersmaecker, S.C.J. De; Roosens, N.H.C. ; Fabbi, M. ; Tripathi, B.N. ; Zientara, S. ; Madani, N. ; Laroucau, K. - \ 2018
    Infection, Genetics and Evolution 63 (2018). - ISSN 1567-1348 - p. 1 - 4.
    Burkholderia mallei - Genotyping - HRM

    Burkholderia (B.) mallei is the causative agent of glanders. A previous work conducted on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) extracted from the whole genome sequences of 45 B. mallei isolates identified 3 lineages for this species. In this study, we designed a high-resolution melting (HRM) method for the screening of 15 phylogenetically informative SNPs within the genome of B. mallei that subtype the species into 3 lineages and 12 branches/sub-branches/groups. The present results demonstrate that SNP-based genotyping represent an interesting approach for the molecular epidemiology analysis of B. mallei.

    Voorkomen en bestrijden emissies kasteelten : Fase I: 2017
    Beerling, Ellen ; Blok, Chris ; Cornelissen, Emile ; Eveleens-Clark, Barbara ; Gozales, Jorge ; Harmsen, Danny ; Koeman, Nienke ; Leyh, Romain ; Os, Eric van; Palmen, Luc ; Roest, Els van der; Ruijven, Jim van; Stijger, Ineke ; Voogt, Wim - \ 2018
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport WPR 748) - 46
    In this project, solutions are developed to minimise leaching of nutrients and pesticides from greenhouses to the environment (esp. surface water), in order to comply with legislation and societal demands. In 2017 the following questions have been addressed: To prevent emission, drain solutions are reused or purified. Other water flows may deviate in compositionand possibilities for reuse or purification. The option for reuse or purification for these water flows has been investigated, and a working methodology for the end of a cultivation (e.g. cleaning) has been developed. Applications of Forward Osmosis in horticulture have been investigated. Water extracted from the discharge flow with Forward Osmosis using the concentrated nutrient solution holds prospects, but extracting irrigation water from brackish groundwater seems less feasible. In a long-term experiment, sodium (Na) standards for sweet pepper have been reinterpreted. It was shown that an increase in the Na standard up to 8-10 mmol/l causes no damage or loss in pepper production. Inaddition, it was shown that the split-root system can be used for uptake of extra Na without growth hampering. Furthermore, applying humate can prevent negative sodium effects at high sodium levels (Chinese cabbage). Finally, insight was gained into the risks associated with the use of chlorinated cleaning products in zero-discharge cultivations.
    Farming, Q fever and public health : Agricultural practices and beyond
    Mori, Marcella ; Roest, Hendrik Jan - \ 2018
    Archives of Public Health 76 (2018)1. - ISSN 0778-7367
    Agricultural practices - Control - Coxiella burnetii - One health - Surveillance - Transmission
    Since the Neolithic period, humans have domesticated herbivores to have food readily at hand. The cohabitation with animals brought various advantages that drastically changed the human lifestyle but simultaneously led to the emergence of new epidemics. The majority of human pathogens known so far are zoonotic diseases and the development of both agricultural practices and human activities have provided new dynamics for transmission. This article provides a general overview of some factors that influence the epidemic potential of a zoonotic disease, Q fever. As an example of a disease where the interaction between the environment, animal (domestic or wildlife) and human populations determines the likelihood of the epidemic potential, the management of infection due to the Q fever agent, Coxiella burnetii, provides an interesting model for the application of the holistic One Health approach.
    A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species
    Heijne, Marloes ; Goot, Jeanet A. van der; Fijten, Helmi ; Giessen, Joke W. van der; Kuijt, Eric ; Maassen, Catharina B.M. ; Roon, Annika van; Wit, Ben ; Koets, Ad P. ; Roest, Hendrik I.J. - \ 2018
    PLoS ONE 13 (2018)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its avian pathogenicity and zoonotic potential have to be further elucidated. Within the Netherlands no data were available on the presence of Chlamydia on poultry farms. As part of a surveillance programme for zoonotic pathogens in farm animals, we investigated pooled faecal samples from 151 randomly selected layer farms. On a voluntary base, 69 farmers, family members or farm workers from these 151 farms submitted a throat swab. All samples were tested with a generic 23S Chlamydiaceae PCR followed by a species specific PCR for C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. psittaci. C. avium and psittaci DNA was not detected at any of the farms. At 71 farms the positive result could be confirmed as C. gallinacea. Variables significantly associated with the presence of C. gallinacea in a final multivariable model were ‘age of hens,’ ‘use of bedding material’ and ‘the presence of horses.’ The presence of C. gallinacea was associated with neither clinical signs, varying from respiratory symptoms, nasal and ocular discharges to diarrhoea, nor with a higher mortality rate the day before the visit. All throat swabs from farmers, family members or farm workers tested negative for Chlamydia DNA, giving no further indication for possible bird-to-human (or human-to-bird) transmission.
    Rural development: From practices and policies towards theory
    Ploeg, Jan Douwe Van Der; Renting, Henk ; Brunori, Gianluca ; Knickel, Karlheinz ; Mannion, Joe ; Marsden, Terry ; Roest, Kees De; Sevilla-Guzmán, Eduardo ; Ventura, Flaminia - \ 2017
    In: The Rural / Munton, R., Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9780754627210 - p. 201 - 218.
    The rural livelihood framework that has emerged from the debate on sustainable rural development is especially useful for analyzing rural development practices as actively constructed household strategies. Many scientists are finding it difficult to come to grips with the new model of rural development that emerges slowly but persistently in both policy and practice. Interactions with non-specific rural development policies at times are more important for their development. By stressing the dialectics between the real and the potential, rural development theory deviates intrinsically from the determinism of modernization approaches. If convincing and more comprehensive definitions are to emerge, it is essential that rural development be recognized as a multi-level process rooted in historical traditions. It is the complex institutional setting of rural development that makes it a multi-actor process. Perhaps the most dramatic expression of this has been the growing squeeze on agriculture and therefore on the rural economy in general.
    Adulteration and misbranding of fish products
    Spiegel, Marjolein Van Der; Roest, Joop Van Der - \ 2017
    In: Trends in Fish Processing Technologies CRC Press - ISBN 9781498729178 - p. 291 - 302.

    Fish are among the most internationally traded food commodities. However, due to the globalization of markets, illegal species substitution is becoming an important concern (Hellberg and Morrissey 2011, Martinsohn et al. 2011, Toldrá et al. 2013), which may have economical, health, and environmental consequences.

    Ziekte van Lyme als voorbeeld. Opkomende zoönosen in relatie tot een veranderende sociale, economische en ecologische omgeving
    Swanenburg, M. ; Vos-de Jong, C.J. de; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2017
    Lyme magazine (2017).
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