Multiple stress by repeated use of plant protection products in agricultural areas
Luttik, R. ; Zorn, M.I. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Roex, E.W.M. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der - \ 2017
Bilthoven : National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM report 2016-0152) - 70
Current risk assessment of plant protection products is performed on a formulated-product-by-formulated-product basis and does not take into account the fact that products may be mixed and/or that different products are used sequentially within a growing season. This report evaluates three possibilities for taking these aspects into account in the future that target the risks for surface water. The investigated methods have been shown to be able to take ‘multiple stresses’ into consideration. Further investigation is needed to check if these methods are sufficient. In this report, three different methods were used to assess the multiple stresses caused by parallel and sequential applications of plant protection products according to realistic application scenarios during the growing season of a tuber crop and an orchard crop. The methods show the effects of the different products on the organisms living in a ditch at the edge of a field. The first method used is the so-called Toxic Unit method, in which the contributions of the individual substances to the overall toxicity are summed and the maximum in time is calculated. The second method, the mixture toxic pressure method (msPAF), calculates the potentially affected fraction of aquatic organisms, taking into account differences in the sensitivity of the organisms to the various substances. The third method, the MASTEP population model, calculates the time necessary for a sensitive aquatic organism (an aquatic isopod) to recover from its exposure to the various substances. The Toxic Unit method (TU) is the one most comparable to the current authorization assessment. All three methods show that a few substances determine a large part of the calculated total effect. The TU-method and the mixture toxic pressure (msPAF) method are useful in identifying these active substances. These selected substances were then used in the MASTEP calculations. The MASTEP method, using Asellus aquaticus as indicator species, did indicate no or hardly any longer recovery times for the multiple applications in comparison with those calculated for the individual pesticide applications. This result applies to species with a high number of offspring. It is recommended that the MASTEP method is used with water organisms that have other survival strategies. At the moment, EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) undertakes activities to develop tools and guidance to assess the human and ecological risks of combined exposure to multiple active substances. This report can contribute to these activities.
Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering
Steeg, P. van der; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Roex, E. ; Mommer, L. - \ 2015
Deltares - 42
Grass dike - Dessa GrassMaster - grass reinforcement - dykes - grasses - cladding - hydraulic engineering - reinforcement - revetments - flood control - sports grounds - dijken - grassen - bekleding, bouw - waterbouwkunde - versterking - steunmuren - hoogwaterbeheersing - sportterreinen
Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is discussed.
A description of several aspects of grass dikes is given as well as other known reinforcement grass systems. A comparison between grass on sports fields and grass of grass dikes is made. Based on state-of-the art literature, requirements for Dessa GrassMaster® as a revetment under hydraulic loading are provided. Potential applications are identified and knowledge gaps are given. From the point of view of hydraulic engineering and based on theoretical and existing
knowledge, it is concluded that Dessa GrassMaster® may potentially be used as a dike revetment but more insight in the strength of this system is required/before it will be applied as a revetment. It is currently not clear what effect Dessa-Grasslvlaster'" will have on root volume and distribution in dike grasslands and how this influences overall strength of the grass cover. The strength of Dessa GrassMaster®can be determined by performing physical hydraulic experiments.
Several knowledge gaps concerning ecological, toxicological and environmental issues have been identified that may hamper the implementation of Dessa Grasslvlaster". It is recommended to perform tests to quantify these potential impacts on the environment in order to find solutions to mitigate potential negative effects. This will lead to increased societal acceptability of application of the product on dikes. For comprehensive conclusions, langerterm full-scale tests (2-4 years) are recommended.
A simulation study on effects of exposure to a combination of pesticides used in an orchard and tuber crop on the recovery time of a vulnerable aquatic invertebrate
Focks, A. ; Luttik, R. ; Zorn, M. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Roex, E. ; Linden, T. van der; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2014
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33 (2014)7. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1489 - 1498.
asellus-aquaticus - risk-assessment - gammarus-pulex - life-history - sensitivity - ecosystems - contamination - chlorpyrifos - chemicals - toxicity
The aim of the present study was to assess whether population effects and recovery times increase when a population of a vulnerable aquatic invertebrate is exposed to concentrations of 1 or multiple pesticides. The 2 sets of pesticide combinations tested are typical for orchard and tuber crops in The Netherlands. Exposure concentrations were predicted using the FOCUS step 3 modeling framework and the Dutch drainage ditch scenario. Recovery times were assessed using the MASTEP population model. We simulated the population dynamics and pesticide effects in a Monte Carlo style by using median effective concentration values drawn from an arthropod species sensitivity distribution. In the tuber scenario, exposure to ¿-cyhalothrin resulted in long-term effects, whereas exposure to the co-occurring compound fluazinam hardly resulted in (additional) effects. In the orchard scenario, 3 pesticides resulted in large effects just after exposure, but pulse exposures to these compounds did not coincide. The probabilities of effects for the single compounds added up for the combination; in contrast, the recovery times were not higher for the combination compared to those associated with exposure to the individual compounds. The conclusion from the present study's simulations is that exposure to the evaluated pesticide packages may lead to increased mortality probabilities and effect sizes of the combination, but does not lead to longer recovery times for populations with synchronized reproduction than when exposed to the individual compounds.
Aquatic effect assessment for plant protection products
Brock, T.C.M. ; Arts, G.H.P. ; Hulscher, T.E.M. ten; Jong, F.M.W. de; Luttik, R. ; Roex, E. ; Smit, C.E. ; Vliet, P.J.M. van - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2235) - 140
zoetwaterorganismen - pesticiden - ecotoxicologie - aquatische ecologie - waterverontreiniging - sloten - ecologische risicoschatting - kaderrichtlijn water - nederland - freshwater organisms - pesticides - ecotoxicology - aquatic ecology - water pollution - ditches - ecological risk assessment - water framework directive - netherlands
In this report new proposals for the aquatic effects assessment of plant protection products (pesticides) in the Netherlands are described for edge-of-field surface waters (drainage ditches) falling under the domain of the Plant Protection Product Regulation (pre-registration) and for water bodies falling under the domain of the Water Framework Directive (post-registration). These methods are developed on request of two Dutch ministries (Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation; Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment). They are based on specific protection goals proposed by the responsible risk managers of the Dutch ministries, the current European aquatic risk assessment procedures for plant protection products, state-of-the-art knowledge on the ecotoxicology of these chemicals and different aims/claims of the Plant Protection Product Regulation (1107/2009/EC) and the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC).
|Farm animal welfare in Hungary: A study of Hungarian producers, its food retail market and of Hungarian consumers
Roe, E. ; Kjaernes, U. ; Bock, B.B. ; Higgin, M. ; Huik, M.M. van; Cowan, C. - \ 2009
In: Farm Animal Welfare within the Supply Chain: Regulation, Agriculture, and Geography / Kjærnes, U., Bock, B.B., Higgin, M., Roex, J,, Cardiff : Cardiff University Press (Welfare Quality Report 8) - ISBN 9781902647845 - p. 147 - 214.
Towards implementation of bioavailability measurements in the Dutch regulatory framework
Brand, E. ; Peijnenburg, W. ; Goenenberg, B. ; Vink, J. ; Hulscher, D. ten; Jonker, C. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Roex, E. - \ 2009
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM report / National Institute for Public Health and the Environment 711701084/2009)
bodemverontreiniging - risicoschatting - ecotoxicologie - soil pollution - risk assessment - ecotoxicology
A research group composed of RIVM, Alterra, Deltares, IRAS and RWS has selected several methods that can improve the accuracy when used to perform risk assessments of contaminated soils. These methods can be employed to determine which fraction of the contaminants present in the soil is actually biologically available and forms a risk to plants and animals living in the soil. Scientific studies have proven that only the bioavailable fraction of the contaminant is able to exert negative effects on the soil ecosystem. Not all of the contaminants, both in terms of quantity and species, are taken up by plants or animals. The proposed methods can supplement the current approach used to perform risk assessments of soil ecosystems in the Netherlands
|Cattle Farmers and Animal Welfare: A Study of Beliefs, Attitudes and Behaviour of Cattle Producers across Europe
Bock, B.B. ; Huik, M.M. van - \ 2008
In: Consumption, Distribution and Production of Farm Animal Welfare / Kjaernes, U., Bock, B.B., Roe, E., Roex, J., Cardiff : School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University - ISBN 9781902647784 - p. 255 - 331.
|Consumption, Distribution and Production of Farm Animal Welfare
Kjaernes, U. ; Bock, B.B. ; Roe, E. ; Roex, J. - \ 2008
Cardiff : School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University (Welfare and quality reports no. 7) - ISBN 9781902647784 - 367
dierenwelzijn - voedselconsumptie - consumentengedrag - marketing voor de detailhandel - rundveeteelt - attitudes - gedrag - europa - ketenmanagement - animal welfare - food consumption - consumer behaviour - retail marketing - cattle farming - attitudes - behaviour - europe - supply chain management
|Attitudes, beliefs and behaviour of pig farmers
Bock, B.B. ; Huik, M.M. van - \ 2007
In: Attitudes of consumers, retailers and producers to farm animal welfare / Kjaernes, U., Miele, M., Roex, J., Cardiff : Cardiff University Press (Welfare Quality Reports 2) - ISBN 9781902647739 - p. 73 - 126.
|Review of socio-political and market developments of animal welfare schemes
Bock, B.B. ; Leeuwen, F.A.C. van - \ 2005
In: Farm Animal Welfare Concerns. Consumers, retailers and producers / Roex, J., Miele, M., Cardiff : Cardiff University Press (Welfare Quality Report 1) - ISBN 9781902647524 - p. 115 - 150.
Binnekamp, M.H.A. - \ 2005
In: Farm Animal Welfare Concerns : Consumers, Retailers and Producers / Roex, J., Miele, M., Wales : Cardiff University (Welfare Quality Reports 1) - p. 93 - 96.
The use of a microsomal in vitro assay to study phase I biotransformation of chlorobornanes (toxaphene(r)) in marine mammals and birds.
Boon, J.P. ; Sleiderink, H.M. ; Helle, M.S. ; Dekker, M. ; Schanke, A. van; Roex, E. ; Hillebrand, M.T.J. ; Klamer, H.J.C. ; Govers, B. ; Pastor, D. ; Morse, D. ; Wester, P.G. ; Boer, J. de - \ 1998
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. C, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology 121 (1998). - ISSN 1532-0456 - p. 385 - 403.
Bedrijfsstijlen en kengetallen : zicht op informatie
Ploeg, J.D. van der; Roex, J. ; Koole, B. - \ 1996
Den Haag etc. : LEI-DLO [etc.] (Onderzoekverslag / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 144) - ISBN 9789052423371 - 94
melkvee - melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - bedrijfsvoering - nederland - statistische gegevens - dairy cattle - dairy farming - farm management - farm planning - management - netherlands - statistical data
Low hepatic 7-ethoxypresofurin-o-deethylase (erod)activity and minor alterations in retinoid and thyroid hormone levels in flounder (Platichtys flesus) exposed to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, clophen A50.
Besselink, H.T. ; Beusekom, S. van; Roex, E. ; Vethaak, A.D. ; Koeman, J.H. ; Brouwer, A. - \ 1996
Environmental Pollution 92 (1996). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 267 - 274.
|De ontwikkeling van in-vitro essay voor de bepaling van de invloed van biotransformatie op de bioaccumulatie van lipofiele organohalogeenverbindingen in mariene top-predatoren. 1 Validatie van de assay met PCBs en de eerste testresultaten met toxafee
Boon, J.P. ; Schanke, A. van; Roex, E. ; Boer, J. de; Wester, P. - \ 1995
Unknown Publisher (BEON rapport 95-4)
|Farmer initiatives as countervailing power: a new approach to sustainable agricultural development.
Bruin, R. de; Roex, J. - \ 1994
In: Proc. 15th Eur. Congr. Rural Sociology, Wageningen 1993. Agricultural restructuring and rural change in Europe, D. Symes, A.J. Jansen (eds.). Wageningse Sociologische Studies 37 - p. 195 - 209.
|De Crisis. Een bespreking van de eerste Boerderij-enquête voor het Nationaal Landbouwdebat.
Ploeg, J.D. van der; Ettema, M. ; Roex, J. - \ 1994
Doetinchem : Misset Uitgeverij bv - 45 p.
|Meerdere vergelijkingen en veel onbekenden.
Ploeg, J.D. van der; Renting, H. ; Roex, J. - \ 1994
Unknown Publisher - 112 p.
|Searching for adequate forms of sustainable agricultural development: farmers' initiatives as countervailing powers.
Bruin, R. de; Roex, J. - \ 1993
In: Agricultural change, rural society and the state, Wageningen - p. 77 - 77.
Review: T. Marsden, P. Lowe & S. Whatmore: Labour and locality. Uneven development and the rural labour process, 1992.
Roex, J. - \ 1993
Sociologia Ruralis 33 (1993). - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 385 - 386.