Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    City region food system governance : guiding principles and lessons learned from case studies around the world
    Roosendaal, Lotte ; Herens, Marion ; Roo, Nina de; Stuiver, Marian ; Pittore, Katherine ; Soma, Katrine ; Hetterscheid, Bas - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (Report / Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation WCDI-20-118) - 37
    The report ‘City Region Food System Governance – Guiding principles and lessons learned from case studies around the world’ is a harvest of insights from a wealth of case studies that focus on food system governance (in its broadest sense, or focusing specifically on food policy) in an urban context. These insights are complemented by key principles as formulated in guiding documents such as policy agendas and supporting frameworks that focus on urban food governance. Together, these insights come together in five guiding principles for city region food system (CRFS) governance. These guiding principles, together with a reflection on the findings from this endeavour, provide input for a knowledge agenda and future interventions that aim to contribute to more sustainable, resilient and equitable food systems in city regions around the world.
    Transition pathways - analyzing transitions in food systems : A synthesis of seven case studies
    Dengerink, Just ; Roo, Nina de; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, Marijke ; Bos, Bram ; Hetterscheid, Bas ; Kraan, Marloes ; Bonnand, Johann ; Haas, Wim de; Linderhof, Vincent - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Field Crops (Report / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit FieldCrops WPR-838) - 55
    Strategy in complexity: the shaping of communities and environments
    Assche, Kristof van; Beunen, R. ; Duineveld, M. - \ 2020
    In: Handbook on Planning and Complexity / de Roo, Gert, Yamu, Claudia, Zuidema, Christian, Edward Elgar (Research Handbooks in Planning series ) - ISBN 9781786439178 - p. 151 - 170.
    In this chapter, we reflect on the possibilities of purposeful community development in a non-linear understanding of society. Although the complexity and uncertainty that characterize the world put forward challenges for planning and steering, it doesn’t imply that purposive interventions are unlikely to be successful or that planning has become obsolete. It does, however, require a different understanding of how societies organize themselves and about how collective strategies sort reality-effects. Planning, as spatial planning, is a subset of strategy and provides a set of tools for others. In this chapter we highlight the importance of strategy in a world where many of the traditional planning rules and certainties have been challenged. We deepen the discussion about community development by placing it in the context of governance understood as a set of co-evolving actors, institutions, and power/knowledge configurations. Within these ever changing governance systems, forms of organization are necessarily linked to and co-evolve with narratives on identity, community, and governance itself, as the taking of collectively binding decisions. Taking into account the complexity and non-linearity that characterizes these co-evolutionary processes we discuss the links between community formation and the organization and transformation of space through planning. We explore how strategy should be understood in this context and we identify which forms of strategy can work under the structural conditions revealed through the lens of complexity theory and governance theory.
    31P NMR Quantification of Phospholipids and Lysophospholipids in Food Emulsions
    Mayar, Morwarid ; Roo, Niels De; Hoos, Peter ; Duynhoven, John Van - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)17. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 5009 - 5017.
    cholate - egg yolk - enzymatically modified egg yolk - lysophospholipids - mayonnaise - NMR - phospholipids - solubilization

    For food emulsions containing enzymatically modified egg yolk, the conventional Folch extraction does not fully recover the polar lysophospholipids. This can be overcome by repeated methanol extractions. After solvent evaporation, the extracted (lyso)phospholipids are solubilized into mixed micelles with cholate as a detergent. The solubilized (lyso)phospholipids can be accurately quantified by 31P NMR with recoveries ranging between 96% and 108%. Detection at a high (16.4 T) relative to a mainstream (9.4 T) magnetic field strength did not offer a significant advantage since the slow molecular tumbling of the mixed micelles increased line widths. This was due to field-strength-dependent chemical shift anisotropy relaxation. Method precision is similar at 9.4 and 16.4 T, with within-laboratory reproducibilities of 7-22% and 12-25%, respectively. The method can be implemented as a routine analytical procedure at 9.4 T (400 MHz NMR spectrometer), and the limits of detection and quantification are adequate for the verification of the standard of identity of a mayonnaise prepared with enzymatically modified egg yolk.

    From Extra Virgin Olive Oil to Refined Products : Intensity and Balance Shifts of the Volatile Compounds versus Odor
    Yan, Jing ; Alewijn, Martin ; Ruth, Saskia M. van - \ 2020
    Molecules 25 (2020)11. - ISSN 1420-3049
    extra virgin olive oil - odor quality - processing grades - quantitation - VOCs proportion

    To explore relationships between the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different grades of olive oils (OOs) (extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), refined olive oil (ROO), and pomace olive oil (POO)) and odor quality, VOCs were measured in the headspace of the oils by proton transfer reaction quadrupole ion guide time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The concentrations of most VOCs differed significantly between the grades (EVOO>ROO>POO), whereas the abundance of m/z 47.012 (formic acid), m/z 49.016 (fragments), m/z 49.027 (fragments), and m/z 115.111 (heptanal/heptanone) increased in that order. Although the refined oils had considerably lower VOC abundance, the extent of the decline varied with the VOCs. This results in differences in VOCs proportions. The high VOC abundance in the EVOO headspace in comparison to ROO and POO results in a richer and more complex odor. The identified C5-C6 compounds are expected to contribute mainly to the green odor notes, while the identified C1-C4 and C7-C15 are mainly responsible for odor defects of OOs. Current results reveal that processing strongly affects both the quantitative and relative abundance of the VOCs and, therefore, the odor quality of the various grades of OOs.

    Evaluation of food-grade vegetable oils using ultrasonic velocity measurement and fatty acid composition
    Yan, Jing ; Wright, William M.D. ; Roos, Yrjo ; Ruth, Saskia M. Van - \ 2019
    In: 2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2019. - IEEE computer society (IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS ) - ISBN 9781728145969 - p. 2435 - 2438.
    density - extra virgin olive oil - fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) test - oil viscosity - ultrasonic velocity

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a high-value food commodity and is often a target for food fraud, in which the EVOO is adulterated with lower grade oils such as refined olive oil (ROO), pomace olive oil (POO) and other vegetable oils of nut or seed origin such as rapeseed or canola oil (RSO), peanut oil (PNO) and sunflower oil (SFO). The objective of this study is to investigate ultrasonic techniques to distinguish between different food-grade oils based on their fatty acid (FA) composition. An ultrasonic pulse-echo system was used to measure the propagation delay and hence the velocity of ultrasonic waves at 5 MHz in three different types of olive oil (EVOO, POO and ROO) and three other vegetable oils of nut or seed origin (PNO, RSO and SFO). The ultrasonic system was temperature controlled in a heated water bath at 23.5°C±0.05°C. The ultrasonic velocity was determined using the differential propagation delay from four 2.00 mm increments in the propagation path, determined using a micrometer to ±0.005 mm to eliminate any uncertainty in the initial propagation path. The FA content of each oil was determined using an ISO 12966-2 (2017) automatic BF3 transmethylation procedure followed by gas chromatography according to ISO 12966-4 (2015) using an Agilent HP7890A Gas Chromatograph. 80 different samples were tested, using extra virgin olive oil (n=30), refined olive oil (n=15), pomace olive oil (n=15), rapeseed/canola oil (n=10), sunflower oil (n=5), and peanut oil (n=5). The FA composition and ultrasonic velocity of each sample were measured. A statistically significant correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and ultrasonic velocity, and a statistically significant negative correlation between monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid (MUFA and SFA) content and ultrasonic velocity, were noted. The ultrasonic velocity may thus be used to help distinguish between different food-grade vegetable oils that have a high PUFA content, such as sunflower oil and rapeseed/canola oil, and those with a high MUFA content such as olive oil and peanut oil. The FA composition appears to influence the density and compressibility of the oil, which determine the ultrasound velocity.

    Handheld Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Distinction of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Other Olive Oil Grades Substantiated by Compositional Data
    Yan, Jing ; Stuijvenberg, Louka van; Ruth, Saskia M. van - \ 2019
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 121 (2019)12. - ISSN 1438-7697
    food fraud - in-situ - one-class classification - pigments - portable

    Miniaturization of analytical technology has paved the way for in-situ screening of foods. In the current study, the spectral features of olive oils are examined by handheld near-infrared spectroscopy to explore the technology's capabilities to distinguish extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from lower grade oils. Eighty EVOO, forty refined olive oil (ROO), and ten pomace olive oil (POO) samples are analysed for their spectral and compositional features. The latter included analysis of the fatty acids (FAs), the chlorophylls and carotenoids, chromatic coordinates and moisture contents. The 1350–1570 nm wavelength range appeared most suitable for distinction of the oils. One-class classification models with three different classifiers are subsequently estimated using this range, and their quantitative performance is assessed from probabilistic data. Soft independent modeling of class analogies models appears to predict the identity of the oils with a high success rate. Compared to the other oils, POO comprises a significantly higher and lower proportion of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated FAs, respectively. Higher contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and moisture are noted for EVOO. The relevant spectral information for distinction of the oils correlates strongly with the degree of unsaturation of the oils as well as their levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and moisture. Practical Applications: The findings of this study demonstrate that the handheld NIRS technique is promising for future rapid screening of olive oil grades. The statistical methods used and the robust validation procedure will help potential users to select the optimal strategy for multivariate data analysis. In addition, the exploration of correlations with compositional characteristics provides insight into the handheld NIRS working mechanism in regard to EVOO authentication.

    Full 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignment of conjugated valerolactone metabolites isolated from urine of black tea consumers by means of SPE-prepLC–MS–LC–MS-NMR
    Roo, Niels de; Wilmsen, Sanne M.J. ; Mihaleva, Velitchka V. ; Jacobs, Doris M. ; Duynhoven, John P.M. van - \ 2019
    Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry 57 (2019)9. - ISSN 0749-1581 - p. 548 - 557.
    Polyphenols - SPE - tea - urine - valerolactones

    The health benefits of black tea have been linked to polyphenol metabolites that target specific modes of action in the human body. A major bottleneck in unravelling the underlying mechanisms is the preparative isolation of these metabolites, which hampers their structural elucidation and assessment of in vitro bioactivity. A solid phase extraction (SPE)-preparative liquid chromatography (prepLC)–MS–LC–MS-NMR workflow was implemented for preparative isolation of conjugated valerolactone metabolites of catechin-based polyphenols from urine of black tea consumers. First, the urine was cleaned and preconcentrated using an SPE method. Subsequently, the clean urine concentrate was injected on a preparative LC column, and conjugated valerolactones were obtained by MS-guided collection. Reconstituted fractions were further separated on an analytical LC column, and valerolactone fractions were collected in an MS-guided manner. These were reconstituted in methanol-d4 and identified and quantified using 1D and 2D homo- and hetereonuclear NMR experiments (at a field strength of 14.1 T), in combination with mass spectrometry. This resulted in the full spectral 1H and 13C NMR assignments of five conjugated valerolactones. These metabolites were collected in quantities of 8–160 μg and purities of 70–91%. The SPE-prepLC–MS–LC–MS-NMR workflow is suitable for isolating metabolites that occur at sub-μM concentrations in a complex biofluid such as urine. The workflow also provides an alternative for cumbersome and expensive de novo synthesis of tea metabolites for testing in bioactivity assays or for use as authentic analytical standards for quantification by mass spectrometry.

    Scaling modern technology or scaling exclusion? The socio-political dynamics of accessing in malt barley innovation in two highland communities in Southern Ethiopia
    Roo, N. de; Almekinders, C.J.M. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Tefera, Tewodros - \ 2019
    Agricultural Systems 174 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 52 - 62.
    In this article we explore whether and how the dynamics of access shape the scaling of modern agricultural technologies. It is based on the experience of an agricultural research for development (AR4D) project called CASCAPE, which aims to validate and scale agricultural best practices for smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. The socio-political dynamics of external interventions are often taken for granted contextual factors in AR4D projects.By contrast, this article takes this context as the point of departure for its analysis. The aim of this in-depth case study is to unpack the concept of access as condition for scaling of agricultural technologies. We identify and analyse the mechanisms that determine access to the various components of a malt barley technology package which was introduced in two highland communities in southern Ethiopia (and later ‘scaled’ to a range of other communities). Our research approach is technographic, implying that we consider the technology to contain both material and social components. The findings suggest that social and clan-based exchange mechanisms(such as clan-based loyalty, reciprocity and vertical accountability) are often rendered invisible even though they are of critical importance in governing access to the material and social components of modern agricultural technologies. Ignoring this socio-political context in the malt barley interventions resulted in an unintended scaling effect in terms of widening the social and economic gap between a few better off farmers and a larger group of poor farmers. The paper thus provides evidence that the socio-political dynamics of access to technology can have an important influence on its wide spread application and may complicate efforts to scale the uptake of technology. Paying more attention to such processes would help to improve the effectiveness of AR4D efforts.
    On-farm trials as 'infection points'? a response to Wall et al.
    Andersson, J.A. ; Krupnik, T.J. ; Roo, N. De - \ 2019
    Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)2. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 195 - 199.

    In their response to our paper on the problems of using on-farm trials in efforts to scale-out new crop production technologies and practices among smallholder farmers, Wall et al. (2018) focus on our descriptions of on-farm trials in just one of the three case studies of Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) projects that were presented. They argue we did not understand the projects' philosophy and that the biases in farmer and site selection we discussed, do not exist in the southern Africa case study.

    Assessing the impact of human interventions on floods and low flows in the Wei River Basin in China using the LISFLOOD model
    Gai, Lingtong ; Nunes, João P. ; Baartman, Jantiene E.M. ; Zhang, Hongming ; Wang, Fei ; Roo, Ad de; Ritsema, Coen J. ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 653 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1077 - 1094.
    Flood return period - Hydrological model - Land use - LISFLOOD - Reservoir - Water diversion

    Floods are extreme hydroclimatic events that threaten societies and ecosystems. The effects of these events are greatly influenced by the changes that humans have imposed on the environment. The LISFLOOD model is a physically based rainfall-runoff model that simulates the hydrological processes in a catchment. Using globally available land cover, soil, and vegetation as well as meteorological and geographical datasets as input, the LISFLOOD model has the potential to be applied worldwide, even for regions where data are lacking. This study first calibrated and validated the LISFLOOD model in the Wei River Basin in China (432,000 km2) for the years between 2000 and 2010 at 0.05° resolution with a monthly Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of 0.79 at the Huaxian station located at the catchment outlet. The outlets of 17 tributaries draining into the main river were then identified in order to assess the contribution of each tributary to the total runoff occurring as a result of flooding. Four categories of scenarios focusing on human interventions in the basin were created and evaluated: 1) Business as usual, 2) Additional reservoirs constructed in different catchments, 3) Land use as in 1980, and 4) Water diversion plan with a pipeline injection of a fixed daily inflow from an adjacent catchment. The results of the scenarios are presented for three strategically important cities located on the floodplain. In general, the construction of the reservoirs could have an effect on reducing peak flows and decreasing the flood return periods while increasing the low flows. The water diversion plan scenarios increased the low flow by 41 times averaged for the three cities. In conclusion, the LISFLOOD model is a sophisticated model for land and water management planning on the catchment scale for reducing the effects of flood and drought.

    On-farm trials for development impact? the organisation of research and the scaling of agricultural technologies
    Roo, Nina de; Andersson, Jens A. ; Krupnik, Timothy J. - \ 2019
    Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)2. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 163 - 184.
    Changes in donor priorities have meant that agronomists working in the tropics find themselves in a fundamentally new operational space, one that demands rapid improvements in farmers' livelihoods resulting from the large-scale adoption of new technologies and crop management practices. As a result, on-farm trials in contemporary Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) are increasingly implemented both to collect data and to spur farmer adoption. We examine the different interpretations and organisational practices of AR4D organisations in this new operational space, and reflect on the usefulness of on-farm trials for agricultural technology scaling. Three case studies are presented to address these questions – two in sub-Saharan Africa and one in South Asia. Each study is considered in light of Science and Technology Studies theory and locates science as a politically situated practice, recognising the tension that scientists face between providing evidence and persuading selected audiences. The case studies show that this tension results in the introduction of several biases that limit the scalability of the technologies under investigation. These include biases at the level of the trial location, host-farmer selection, trial design, management and evaluation. We conclude by discussing how the contemporary political and institutional environment of AR4D produces project beneficiaries and research outcomes on selected farms, but not necessarily impacts at scale.
    Quantification of food polysaccharide mixtures by ¹H NMR
    Merkx, Donny W.H. ; Westphal, Yvonne ; Velzen, Ewoud J.J. van; Thakoer, Kavish V. ; Roo, Niels de; Duynhoven, John P.M. van - \ 2018
    Carbohydrate Polymers 179 (2018). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 379 - 385.
    Food polysaccharides - Mixture analysis - Non-instantaneous monosaccharide release - qNMR - Saeman hydrolysis

    Polysaccharides are food ingredients that critically determine rheological properties and shelf life. A qualitative and quantitative assessment on food-specific polysaccharide mixtures by 1H NMR is presented. The method is based on the identification of intact polysaccharides, combined with a quantitative analysis of their monosaccharide constituents. Identification of the polysaccharides is achieved by 1H NMR line shape fitting with pure compound spectra. The monomeric composition was determined using the Saeman hydrolysis procedure, followed by direct monosaccharide quantification by 1H NMR. In the quantification, both the monosaccharide degradation during hydrolysis, as well as a correction for the non-instantaneous polysaccharide dissolution were taken into account. These factors were particularly important for the quantification of pectins. The method showed overall good repeatability (RSDr = 4.1 ± 0.9%) and within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR = 6.1 ± 1.4%) for various food polysaccharides. Polysaccharide mixtures were quantitatively resolved by a non-negative least squares estimation, using identified polysaccharides and their molar monosaccharide stoichiometry as prior knowledge. The accuracy and precision of the presented method make it applicable to a wide range of food polysaccharide mixtures with complex and overlapping 1H NMR spectra.

    Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations
    Jacobs, Doris M. ; Smolders, Lotte ; Lin, Yuguang ; Roo, Niels de; Trautwein, Elke A. ; Duynhoven, John van; Mensink, Ronald P. ; Plat, Jogchum ; Mihaleva, Velitchka V. - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences 4 (2017)AUG. - ISSN 2296-889X
    HDL - Lipoprotein - NMR - PLS model - Theobromine
    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.
    Human-water interface in hydrological modelling : Current status and future directions
    Wada, Yoshihide ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Roo, Ad de; Dirmeyer, Paul A. ; Famiglietti, James S. ; Hanasaki, Naota ; Konar, Megan ; Liu, Junguo ; Schmied, Hannes Möller ; Oki, Taikan ; Pokhrel, Yadu ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Troy, Tara J. ; Dijk, Albert I.J.M. Van; Emmerik, Tim Van; Huijgevoort, Marjolein H.J. Van; Lanen, Henny A.J. van; Vörösmarty, Charles J. ; Wanders, Niko ; Wheater, Howard - \ 2017
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 21 (2017)8. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 4169 - 4193.

    Over recent decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes to an unprecedented extent. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g. irrigation, artificial dams, and water diversion) and at various scales (from a watershed to the globe). During the early 1990s, awareness of the potential for increased water scarcity led to the first detailed global water resource assessments. Shortly thereafter, in order to analyse the human perturbation on terrestrial water resources, the first generation of largescale hydrological models (LHMs) was produced. However, at this early stage few models considered the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes and human activities, including water use and reservoir regulation, and even fewer models distinguished water use from surface water and groundwater resources. Since the early 2000s, a growing number of LHMs have incorporated human impacts on the hydrological cycle, yet the representation of human activities in hydrological models remains challenging. In this paper we provide a synthesis of progress in the development and application of human impact modelling in LHMs. We highlight a number of key challenges and discuss possible improvements in order to better represent the human-water interface in hydrological models.

    Toward Reliable Lipoprotein Particle Predictions from NMR Spectra of Human Blood : An Interlaboratory Ring Test
    Monsonis Centelles, Sandra ; Hoefsloot, Huub C.J. ; Khakimov, Bekzod ; Ebrahimi, Parvaneh ; Lind, Mads V. ; Kristensen, Mette ; Roo, Niels De; Jacobs, Doris M. ; Duynhoven, John Van; Cannet, Claire ; Fang, Fang ; Humpfer, Eberhard ; Schäfer, Hartmut ; Spraul, Manfred ; Engelsen, Søren B. ; Smilde, Age K. - \ 2017
    Analytical Chemistry 89 (2017)15. - ISSN 0003-2700 - p. 8004 - 8012.
    Lipoprotein profiling of human blood by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a rapid and promising approach to monitor health and disease states in medicine and nutrition. However, lack of standardization of measurement protocols has prevented the use of NMR-based lipoprotein profiling in metastudies. In this study, a standardized NMR measurement protocol was applied in a ring test performed across three different laboratories in Europe on plasma and serum samples from 28 individuals. Data was evaluated in terms of (i) spectral differences, (ii) differences in LPD predictions obtained using an existing prediction model, and (iii) agreement of predictions with cholesterol concentrations in high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) particles measured by standardized clinical assays. ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) of the ring test spectral ensemble that contains methylene and methyl peaks (1.4-0.6 ppm) showed that 97.99% of the variance in the data is related to subject, 1.62% to sample type (serum or plasma), and 0.39% to laboratory. This interlaboratory variation is in fact smaller than the maximum acceptable intralaboratory variation on quality control samples. It is also shown that the reproducibility between laboratories is good enough for the LPD predictions to be exchangeable when the standardized NMR measurement protocol is followed. With the successful implementation of this protocol, which results in reproducible prediction of lipoprotein distributions across laboratories, a step is taken toward bringing NMR more into scope of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, reducing the need for less efficient methods such as ultracentrifugation or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
    System Analysis in AIS: Potentials and Pitfalls
    Schut, M. ; Roo, N. de; Salomons, M. ; Beshah, T. ; Hawkins, R. - \ 2017
    KIT Publishers
    Data from: Species-specific plant-soil feedback effects on above-ground plant-insect interactions
    Kos, Martine ; Tuijl, M.A.B. ; Roo, J. de; Mulder, Patrick ; Bezemer, T.M. - \ 2016
    Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)
    Brachycaudus cardui - plant-soil (below-ground) interactions - Aphis jacobaeae - Jacobaea vulgaris - Soil fungal community - amino acids - aphid - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
    1. Plant–soil feedback (PSF) effects on plant performance strongly depend on the plant species that conditioned the soil. Recent studies have shown that PSF can change above-ground plant–insect interactions via soil-mediated changes in plant quality, but whether these effects depend on species-specific soil conditioning is unknown. We examined how PSF effects of several plant species influence above-ground plant–aphid interactions. 2. We grew ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) in field soil conditioned specifically by 10 plant species, belonging to three functional groups (grasses, forbs and legumes), in a multispecies mixture of the conditioned soils and in control (unconditioned) field soil. We measured plant biomass, concentrations of primary (amino acids) and secondary (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) metabolites in phloem exudates, and performance of the generalist aphid Brachycaudus cardui and the specialist Aphis jacobaeae. 3. We observed that plant species, via species-specific effects on soil fungal communities, exerted unique plant–soil effects on J. vulgaris biomass, amino acid concentrations in phloem exudates and aphid performance. The direction and magnitude of the species-specific PSF effects on aphid performance differed between both aphid species. PSF effects on soil fungal communities, plant biomass and A. jacobaeae performance also differed between grasses, forbs and legumes, with soil conditioning by forbs resulting in lowest plant biomass and aphid performance. 4. Synthesis. Our study provides novel evidence that PSF effects on above-ground plant–insect interactions are highly species specific. Our results add a new dimension to the rapidly developing research fields of PSF and above-below-ground interactions, and highlights that these fields are tightly linked.
    Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : a possible involvement of reduced levels of circulating visfatin
    Santangelo, C. ; Filesi, C. ; Varì, R. ; Scazzocchio, B. ; Filardi, T. ; Fogliano, V. ; D’Archivio, M. ; Giovannini, C. ; Lenzi, A. ; Morano, S. ; Masella, R. - \ 2016
    Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 39 (2016)11. - ISSN 0391-4097 - p. 1295 - 1301.
    Cytokines - HbA1c - Olive oil - Polyphenols - Type 2 diabetes mellitus - Visfatin

    Aim: Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the metabolic control and the production of specific pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Methods: Eleven overweight T2D patients not in treatment with insulin were invited to follow their habitual diet for a total of 8 weeks. During the first 4 weeks (wash-out period), they were asked to consume refined olive oil (ROO, polyphenols not detectable) and then to replace ROO with HP-EVOO (25 mL/day, 577 mg of phenolic compounds/kg) for the remaining 4 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, plasma lipid profile, liver function and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, visfatin and apelin were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Results: HP-EVOO consumption significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.023) and HbA1c (P = 0.039) levels as well as BMI (P = 0.012) and body weight (P = 0.012). HP-EVOO ingestion determined a reduction in serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.0056) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.024). Serum visfatin levels strongly decreased after HP-EVOO ingestion (P = 0.0021). Conclusions: Daily consumption of polyphenol-rich EVOO might improve metabolic control and circulating inflammatory adipokines profile in overweight T2D patients.

    Promoting Sustainable Seed Sector Development
    Roo, N. de; Gildemacher, Peter - \ 2016
    Centre for Development Innovation - 84
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