Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Soil nitrogen supply of peat grasslands estimated by degree days and soil organic matter content
    Pijlman, J. ; Holshof, G. ; Berg, W. van den; Ros, G.H. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Eekeren, N. van - \ 2020
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 117 (2020). - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 351 - 365.
    Fertilisation - Histosols - Mineralisation - Nitrogen efficiency - pH - Weather

    Accurate estimates of the quantity and rate of soil nitrogen supply (SNS) are essential to increase soil and farm N use efficiencies, in particular for soils high in organic matter. The objective of this work was to enhance the empirical understanding of the SNS of dairy grasslands on peat soils, using soil properties and weather variables. Data were collected from studies on herbage N uptake carried out between 1992 and 2017 in the western peat district of the Netherlands. For the period between March to mid October, SNS was estimated from the sum of mean growing season daily temperatures, soil organic matter (SOM) and applied calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) N with a residual standard error of 25–27 kg ha−1. Each °C growing season temperature sum affected SNS by 78–90 g ha−1 and each g SOM per 100 g dry soil affected SNS by 3.6–3.9 kg ha−1, respectively. SNS was equally estimated for conditions with and without CAN fertilisation. Validation with data from independent field trials showed similar impacts of SOM and growing season temperature sum on SNS. The error of prediction of the presented models, however, was still too large for direct on-farm application and led to underestimations for a specific site. Nevertheless, the obtained models allow for an increased understanding of soil and farm N balances. The models can therefore be used for improved temporal and spatial SNS-adapted farming practice advice, which can potentially lead to reduced soil and farm N surpluses.

    Beyond heat stress: Intestinal integrity disruption and mechanism-based intervention strategies
    Lian, Puqiao ; Braber, Saskia ; Garssen, Johan ; Wichers, Harry J. ; Folkerts, Gert ; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna ; Varasteh, Soheil - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Heat stress (HS) - Intestinal integrity - Nutritional supplements - Reactive oxygen species (ROS) - Resilience pathways

    The current climate changes have increased the prevalence and intensity of heat stress (HS) conditions. One of the initial consequences of HS is the impairment of the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity due to hyperthermia and hypoxia following blood repartition, which often results in a leaky gut followed by penetration and transfer of luminal antigens, endotoxins, and pathogenic bacteria. Under extreme conditions, HS may culminate in the onset of “heat stroke”, a potential lethal condition if remaining untreated. HS-induced alterations of the gastrointestinal epithelium, which is associated with a leaky gut, are due to cellular oxidative stress, disruption of intestinal integrity, and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This review summarizes the possible resilience mechanisms based on in vitro and in vivo data and the potential interventions with a group of nutritional supplements, which may increase the resilience to HS-induced intestinal integrity disruption and maintain intestinal homeostasis.

    Enhanced biosynthesis of the natural antimicrobial glyceollins in soybean seedlings by priming and elicitation
    Kalli, Sylvia ; Araya-Cloutier, Carla ; Lin, Yiran ; Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Chapman, John ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry 317 (2020). - ISSN 0308-8146
    Elicitation - Fungus - Glyceollins - Priming - Reactive oxygen species - Soybeans

    Glyceollins are a class of antimicrobial prenylated pterocarpans produced in soybean seedlings upon fungus elicitation. Priming with reactive oxygen species (ROS) prior to elicitation with Rhizopus oligosporus/oryzae (R) was investigated for its potential to enhance glyceollin production. ROS-priming prior to R-elicitation (ROS + R) increased glyceollin production (8.6 ± 0.9 µmol/g dry weight (DW)) more than 4-fold compared to elicitation without priming (1.9 ± 0.4 µmol/g DW). Furthermore, ROS-priming was superior to two physical primers which were used as benchmark primers, namely slicing (5.0 ± 0.6 µmol glyceollins/g DW) and sonication (4.8 ± 1.0 µmol glyceollins/g DW). Subsequently, the robustness of ROS + R was assessed by applying it to another soybean cultivar, where it also resulted in a significantly higher glyceollin content than R-elicitation without priming. ROS-priming prior to elicitation provides opportunities for improving the yield in large-scale production of natural antimicrobials due to the ease of application and the robustness of the effect across cultivars.

    Impact of polystyrene nanoparticles on marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi chain assemblages and consequences on their ecological role in marine ecosystems
    Bellingeri, Arianna ; Casablanca, Silvia ; Capellacci, Samuela ; Faleri, C. ; Paccagnini, Eugenio ; Lupetti, Pietro ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Penna, Antonella ; Corsi, Ilaria - \ 2020
    Environmental Pollution 262 (2020). - ISSN 0269-7491
    Marine diatoms have been identified among the most abundant taxa of microorganisms associated with plastic waste collected at sea. However, the impact of nano-sized plastic fragments (nanoplastics) at single cell and population level is almost unknown. We exposed the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi to model polystyrene nanoparticles with carboxylic acid groups (PS–COOH NPs, 90 nm) for 15 days (1, 10, 50 μg/mL). Growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and nano-bio-interactions were investigated. No effect on diatom growth was observed, however Dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated the formation of large PS aggregates which were localized at the diatoms’ fultoportula process (FPP), as shown by TEM images. Increase production of ROS and reduction in chain length were also observed upon PS NPs exposure (p < 0.005). The observed PS-diatom interaction could have serious consequences on diatoms ecological role on the biogeochemical cycle of carbon, by impairing the formation of fast-sinking aggregates responsible for atmospheric carbon fixation and sequestration in the ocean sea floor. S. marinoi exposure to PS NPs caused an increase of intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress, the reduction of diatom's chain length and the adhesion of PS NPs onto the algal surface.
    Chemokine CXCb1 stimulates formation of NETs in trunk kidney neutrophils of common carp
    Pijanowski, Lukasz ; Verburg van Kemenade, Lidy ; Chadzinska, Magdalena - \ 2020
    Developmental and Comparative Immunology 103 (2020). - ISSN 0145-305X
    CXC chemokines - Histone H3 - NADPH oxidase - Neutrophil elastase - Neutrophil extracellular traps

    Both in mammals and in fish, CXC chemokines activate leukocytes and regulate their migration both under normal physiological and inflammatory conditions. Moreover, in mammalian neutrophils CXC chemokines also stimulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here, we investigated the effects of recombinant carp CXCL8s and CXCb1 on NET formation in neutrophils from the head (HK) and trunk (TK) kidney of carp. We found that neither recombinant CXCL8s nor CXCb1 stimulated DNA release in HK-derived neutrophils, while in TK-derived cells rcCXCb1 stimulated the release of NETs, composed of extracellular DNA co-localized with citrulline H3 histone and neutrophil elastase. Furthermore, CXCb1-induced NET release required NADPH oxidase activity, while it did not change upon treatment with CXCR inhibitors. In conclusion, we demonstrated, for the first time in fish, that CXCb1 chemokine induces formation of NETs in TK-derived neutrophils and this process is ROS-dependent. The difference between HK and TK-derived neutrophils is probably related to differences in the maturation state of these cells.

    The ability to manipulate ROS metabolism in pepper may affect aphid virulence
    Sun, Mengjing ; Voorrips, Roeland E. ; Kaauwen, Martijn van; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Vosman, Ben - \ 2020
    Horticulture Research 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-7276

    Myzus persicae has severe economic impact on pepper (Capsicum) cultivation. Previously, we identified two populations of M. persicae, NL and SW, that were avirulent and virulent, respectively on C. baccatum accession PB2013071. The transcriptomics approach used in the current study, which is the first study to explore the pepper−aphid interaction at the whole genome gene expression level, revealed genes whose expression is differentially regulated in pepper accession PB2013071 upon infestation with these M. persicae populations. The NL population induced ROS production genes, while the SW population induced ROS scavenging genes and repressed ROS production genes. We also found that the SW population can induce the removal of ROS which accumulated in response to preinfestion with the NL population, and that preinfestation with the SW population significantly improved the performance of the NL population. This paper supports the hypothesis that M. persicae can overcome the resistance in accession PB2013071 probably because of its ability to manipulate plant defense response especially the ROS metabolism and such ability may benefit avirulent conspecific aphids.

    Aphid populations showing differential levels of virulence on Capsicum accessions
    Sun, Mengjing ; Voorrips, Roeland E. ; Vosman, Ben - \ 2020
    Insect Science 27 (2020)2. - ISSN 1672-9609 - p. 336 - 348.
    callose deposition - EPG - plant immunity - plant–aphid interaction - ROS accumulation - virulence

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most threatening pests in pepper cultivation and growers would benefit from resistant varieties. Previously, we identified two Capsicum accessions as susceptible and three as resistant to M. persicae using an aphid population originating from the Netherlands (NL). Later on we identified an aphid population originating from a different geographical region (Switserland, SW) that was virulent on all tested Capsicum accessions. The objective of the current work is to describe in detail different aspects of the interaction between two aphid populations and two selected Capsicum accessions (one that was susceptible [PB2013046] and one that was resistant [PB2013071] to population NL), including biochemical processes involved. Electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings showed similar feeding activities for both aphid populations on PB2013046. On accession PB2013071 the aphid population SW was able to devote significantly more time to phloem ingestion than population NL. We also studied plant defense response and found that plants of accession PB2013046 could not induce an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and callose formation after infestation with either aphid population. However, plants of PB2013071 induced a stronger defense response after infestation by population NL than after infestation by population SW. Based on these results, population SW of M. persicae seems to have overcome the resistance of PB2013071 that prevented feeding of aphids from NL population. The potential mechanism by which SW population overcomes the resistance is discussed.

    The ability to manipulate ROS metabolism in pepper may affect aphid virulence
    Sun, Mengjing ; Voorrips, Roeland ; Kaauwen, Martijn van; Visser, Richard ; Vosman, Ben - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    PRJEB35311 - ERP118348 - Myzus persicae
    Myzus persicae has severe economic impact on pepper (Capsicum) cultivation. We tested two populations of M. persicae, NL and SW (avirulent and virulent) respectively on C. baccatum accession PB2013071. The transcriptomics approach used in the current study, which is the first study to explore the pepper-aphid interaction at the whole genome gene expression level, revealed genes whose expression is differentially regulated in pepper accession PB2013071 upon infestation with these M. persicae populations. The NL population induced ROS production genes, while the SW population induced ROS scavenging genes and repressed ROS production genes. We also found that the SW population can induce the removal of ROS which accumulated in response to pre-infestion with the NL population, and that pre-infestation with the SW population significantly improved the performance of the NL population.
    Promising management approaches to maintain crop yields, increase nutrient use efficiency and improve soil quality in NL
    Haan, Janjo de; Ros, Gerard - \ 2019
    Meten van bodemkwaliteit en de Open Bodemindex
    Haan, Janjo de; Ros, Gerard - \ 2019
    Development and testing of site-specific fertiliser formulations for rice in sub-Saharan Africa
    Leenaars, J.G.B. ; Egmond, F.M. van; Bosch, H. van den; Ruiperez Gonzalez, M. ; Kempen, B. ; Cisse, L. ; Bocar, A. ; Ros, G.H. ; Vries, W. de; Kros, J. ; Heinen, M. ; Walvoort, D.J.J. ; Oort, P.A.J. van; Saito, Kazuki - \ 2019
    - p. 36 - 36.
    Herkomst Nutriënten in het landelijk gebied van Schieland
    Schipper, Peter ; Gerven, Luuk van; Boekel, Erwin van; Renaud, Leo ; Ros, Gerard - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2969) - 71
    De Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) schrijft voor dat het oppervlaktewater in 2027 voldoende schoon en ecologisch gezond is. In veel Nederlandse wateren is de nutriëntenbelasting (nog) te hoog om de doelen voor de KRW te halen. Het Hoogheemraadschap van Schieland en de Krimpenerwaard (HHSK) wil ter voorbereiding van besluiten over verbetering van de waterkwaliteit beter inzicht krijgen in de herkomst van de nutriënten in hun wateren. In dit onderzoek is de nutriëntenbelasting van de oppervlaktewateren (en herkomst daarvan) gekwantificeerd voor de periode 2000-2013 voor negen polders in het landelijke gebied van Schieland. Ook zijn effecten van autonoom mestbeleid en enkele landbouwmaatregelen indicatief berekend en zijn de fosfaat- en stikstoftoestand van de toplaag van de landbouwgronden ruimtelijk in kaart gebracht.De nutriëntenbelasting (en herkomst daarvan) in de beschouwde polders verschilt sterk door de grote verschillen in landgebruik, bodemtype en hydrologie. De totale nutriëntenbelasting per hectare is het grootst in polders met veel glastuinbouw, gevolgd door polders met veel akkerbouw. Af- en uitspoeling vanuit landbouwgronden leveren de grootste bijdrage aan de stikstofbelasting (gemiddeld 44%). Dit komt vooral door actuele mestgiften. De rest van de stikstofbelasting komt vooral door diffuse lozingen vanuit glastuinbouw en diffuse bronnen in stedelijk gebied. Af- en uitspoeling leveren ook voor fosfor de grootste bijdrage (gemiddeld 52%). Deze af- en uitspoeling worden niet zozeer door actuele mestgiften bepaald, maar meer door nalevering, historische mestgiften en kwel. De rest van de fosforbelasting komt – net als stikstof – vooral door glastuinbouw en diffuse bronnen in stedelijk gebied. De berekeningen geven aan dat met autonoom mestbeleid en de beschouwde additionele landbouwmaatregelen de nutriëntenbelasting weinig zal afnemen. Wel levert volledige aansluiting van de glastuinbouw een aanzienlijke verlaging van de belasting in de polders met veel glastuinbouw. Dit is al enkele jaren in gang gezet. Vooral in Bleiswijk zal de belasting hierdoor naar verwachting verder afnemen. Trefwoorden: Kaderrichtlijn Water, oppervlaktewater kwaliteit, nutriënten belasting, stikstof, fosfor, herkomst, uitspoeling, afspoeling, bemesting, glastuinbouw, bodemverbetering, kringloopwijzer, fosfaattoestand, stikstof leverend vermogen.
    An influential meal: host plant dependent transcriptional variation in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    Breeschoten, Thijmen ; Ros, Vera I.D. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Simon, Sabrina - \ 2019
    BMC Genomics 20 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2164
    BackgroundTo understand the genetic mechanisms of insect herbivory, the transcriptional response of insects feeding on different host plant species has to be studied. Here, we generated gene expression data of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) feeding on three selected host plant species and a control (artificial diet). The host plant species used in this study –cabbage (Brassica oleracea), maize (Zea mays) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)- are members of different plant families that each employ specific defence mechanisms and toxins.ResultsSpodoptera exigua larvae had a higher growth rate, indicator for herbivore success, when feeding on Z. mays compared to larvae feeding on B. oleracea or N. tabacum. Larvae feeding on the different host plant species showed divergent transcriptional responses. We identified shared and unique gene expression patterns dependent of the host plant species the larvae fed on. Unique gene expression patterns, containing uniquely upregulated transcripts including specific detoxification genes, were found for larvae feeding on either B. oleracea or N. tabacum. No diet-specific gene cluster was identified for larvae feeding on the host for which larvae showed optimal herbivore success, Z. mays, or artificial diet. In contrast, for larvae feeding on hosts for which they showed low herbivore success, specific diet-dependent gene clusters were identified. Functional annotation of these clusters indicates that S. exigua larvae deploy particular host plant-specific genes for digestion and detoxification.ConclusionsThe lack of a host plant-specific gene activity for larvae feeding on Z. mays and the artificial diet suggest a general and non-specific gene activity for host plants with optimal herbivore success. Whereas the finding of specific gene clusters containing particular digestion and detoxifying genes expressed in larvae feeding on B. oleracea and N. tabacum, with low herbivore success, imply a host plant-specific gene activity for larvae feeding on host plants with suboptimal herbivore success. This observation leads to the conclusion that a polyphagous herbivore is able to feed on a large variation of host plants due to the flexibility and diversity of genes involved in digestion and detoxification that are deployed in response to particular host plant species.
    FgPex3, a Peroxisome Biogenesis Factor, Is Involved in Regulating Vegetative Growth, Conidiation, Sexual Development, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum
    Kong, Xiangjiu ; Zhang, Hao ; Wang, Xiaoliang ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Diepeningen, A.D. van; Brankovics, Balázs ; Xu, Jin ; Xu, Jingsheng ; Chen, Wanquan ; Feng, Jie - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X
    Peroxisomes are involved in a wide range of important cellular functions. Here, the role of the peroxisomal membrane protein PEX3 in the plant-pathogen and mycotoxin producer Fusarium graminearum was studied using knock-out and complemented strains. To fluorescently label peroxisomes’ punctate structures, GFP and RFP fusions with the PTS1 and PTS2 localization signal were transformed into the wild type PH- 1 and 1FgPex3 knock-out strains. The GFP and RFP transformants in the 1FgPex3 background showed a diffuse fluorescence pattern across the cytoplasm suggesting the absence of mature peroxisomes. The 1FgPex3 strain showed a minor, non-significant reduction in growth on various sugar carbon sources. In contrast, deletion of FgPex3 affected fatty acid b-oxidation in F. graminearum and significantly reduced the utilization of fatty acids. Furthermore, the 1FgPex3 mutant was sensitive to osmotic stressors
    as well as to cell wall-damaging agents. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the mutant had increased significantly, which may be linked to the reduced longevity of cultured strains. The mutant also showed reduced production of conidiospores, while sexual reproduction was completely impaired. The pathogenicity of 1FgPex3, especially during the process of systemic infection, was strongly reduced on both tomato and on wheat, while to production of deoxynivalenol (DON), an important factor for virulence, appeared to be unaffected.
    Seed maturation and post-harvest ripening negatively affect arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis
    Wu, Han ; Chen, Baojian ; Fiers, Martijn ; Wróbel-Marek, Justyna ; Kodde, Jan ; Groot, Steven P.C. ; Angenent, Gerco ; Feng, Hui ; Bentsink, Leónie ; Boutilier, Kim - \ 2019
    Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture: an international journal on in vitro culture of higher plants 139 (2019)1. - ISSN 0167-6857 - p. 17 - 27.
    ABA - Arabidopsis - Auxin - Post-harvest ripening - ROS - Seed maturation - Somatic embryogenesis

    Plant development is highly malleable, as evidenced by the ability of cultured cells, tissues and organs to regenerate into whole plants in vitro. The ability of plants to regenerate in vitro is influenced by many different factors, including the donor plant growth conditions and the type of explant. Empirical trial and error manipulation of these and other culture parameters is the basis for improving plant regeneration protocols, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of these parameters on plant regeneration are unknown. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a type of in vitro plant regeneration where somatic/vegetative cells are induced to form embryos. Here we show that seed maturation is one of the parameters that affects the ability of germinating embryos to undergo auxin-induced somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Late maturation stage seeds harvested from yellow siliques have a higher capacity for somatic embryogenesis than seeds harvested later from brown siliques, a process that can be mimicked by post-harvest storage. Physiological and genetic analyses suggest that an oxidizing environment and ABA metabolism enhance the rate at which germinating embryos lose capacity to reactivate embryogenic growth. Our data suggest that there is a narrow window during late seed maturation in which embryogenic competence is reduced, and that this process also takes place, albeit more slowly, during seed storage. This knowledge provides a framework for identifying new plant totipotency factors and for directing efficient SE in systems that make use of mature seed explants.

    Remote sensing and signaling in kidney proximal tubules stimulates gut microbiome-derived organic anion secretion
    Jansen, Jitske ; Jansen, Katja ; Neven, Ellen ; Poesen, Ruben ; Othman, Amr ; Mil, Alain van; Sluijter, Joost ; Torano, Javier Sastre ; Zaal, Esther A. ; Berkers, Celia R. ; Esser, Diederik ; Wichers, Harry J. ; Ede, Karin van; Duursen, Majorie van; Burtey, Stéphane ; Verhaar, Marianne C. ; Meijers, Björn ; Masereeuw, Rosalinde - \ 2019
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)32. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 16105 - 16110.
    Indoxyl sulfate - Kidney proximal tubule - Organic anion transporter 1 - Remote sensing and signaling

    Membrane transporters and receptors are responsible for balancing nutrient and metabolite levels to aid body homeostasis. Here, we report that proximal tubule cells in kidneys sense elevated endogenous, gut microbiome-derived, metabolite levels through EGF receptors and downstream signaling to induce their secretion by up-regulating the organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1). Remote metabolite sensing and signaling was observed in kidneys from healthy volunteers and rats in vivo, leading to induced OAT1 expression and increased removal of indoxyl sulfate, a prototypical microbiome-derived metabolite and uremic toxin. Using 2D and 3D human proximal tubule cell models, we show that indoxyl sulfate induces OAT1 via AhR and EGFR signaling, controlled by miR-223. Concomitantly produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) control OAT1 activity and are balanced by the glutathione pathway, as confirmed by cellular metabolomic profiling. Collectively, we demonstrate remote metabolite sensing and signaling as an effective OAT1 regulation mechanism to maintain plasma metabolite levels by controlling their secretion.

    Cell death signaling and morphology in chemical-treated tobacco BY-2 suspension cultured cells
    Iakimova, Elena T. ; Yordanova, Zhenia P. ; Cristescu, Simona M. ; Harren, Frans J.M. ; Woltering, Ernst J. - \ 2019
    Environmental and Experimental Botany 164 (2019). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 157 - 169.
    Cell death - Ethylene - Lipid signaling - Reactive oxygen species - Tobacco BY-2 cells

    This study addressed the role of lipid-derived factors together with ethylene and ROS in programmed cell death (PCD) signaling in tobacco BY-2 suspension cultured cells. The cells were exposed to the chemical stress agents mastoparan (MP) and ethanol (EtOH). MP is an activator of membrane-associated heterotrimeric G-proteins and downstream phospholipids-dependent processes; EtOH is suggested to affect lipid-associated pathways. The effects of MP and EtOH were compared to cell death in response to CdSO4. All applied chemicals appeared potent cell death inducers. Ethylene and lipid signaling were found instrumental in chemical-induced cell death, presumably in conjunction with ROS. Cadmium and MP induced cell death of apoptotic-like phenotype. Lower EtOH concentrations (1–2%) induced vacuolar cell death associated with autophagy-associated formation of lysosome-like acidic organelles in part of the cells; in other cells in the same suspension apoptotic-like features were observed. At higher EtOH concentration (3%) the dead cells expressed exclusively apoptotic-like morphology. The results suggest that phospholipase D- and phospholipase C-derived phosphatidic acid triggers ROS generation that is responsible for the observed apoptotic-like PCD. Vacuolar cell death in EtOH-treated cells appeared dependent on phospholipase C - phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related pathway. The obtained results indicate that depending on the inducer and stress severity, similar or distinct regulatory pathways can be activated, and the signals may interact in the transmission of the cell death message.

    Wormenpoep bevat beschikbaar fosfaat
    Ros, M.B.H. - \ 2019

    Regenwormen vergroten de vruchtbaarheid van de bodem doordat ze gebonden fosfaat omzetten in beschikbaar fosfaat. Dat laat onderzoek van promovendus Mart Ros zien.

    Ruimtelijke allocatie van mesttoediening en ammoniakemissie : beschrijving mestverdelingsmodule INITIATOR versie 5
    Kros, Hans ; Os, Jaap van; Voogd, Jan Cees ; Groenendijk, Piet ; Bruggen, Cor van; Molder, Romuald te; Ros, Gerard - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2939) - 95
    Where the baculoviruses lead, the caterpillars follow baculovirus-induced alterations in caterpillar behaviour
    Gasque, Simone N. ; Oers, Monique M. van; Ros, Vera I.D. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Insect Science 33 (2019). - ISSN 2214-5745 - p. 30 - 36.

    Baculoviruses are well-known for altering the behaviour of their caterpillar hosts by inducing hyperactivity (enhanced locomotion) and/or tree-top disease (climbing to elevated positions before death). These features, along with the genomic small size of baculoviruses compared to non-viral parasites and the at hand techniques for producing mutants, imply that baculoviruses are excellent tools for unravelling the molecular mechanisms underlying parasitic alteration of host behaviour. Baculoviruses can be easily mutated, allowing an optimal experimental setup in comparative studies, where for instance host gene expression can be compared between insects infected with wild-type viruses or with mutant viruses lacking genes involved in behavioural manipulation. Recent studies have revealed the first insight into the underlying molecular pathways that lead to the typical behaviour of baculovirus-infected caterpillars and into the role of light therein. Since host behaviour in general is mediated through the host's central nervous system (CNS), a promising future step will be to study how baculoviruses regulate the neuronal activity of the host.

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