Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Light response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of rose leaves in the canopy profile : The effect of lighting on the adaxial and the abaxial sides
    Paradiso, Roberta ; Visser, Pieter H.B. De; Arena, Carmen ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2020
    Functional Plant Biology (2020). - ISSN 1445-4408
    absorptance - bent shoot - hydroponics - mechanistic model - reflectance - Rosa hybrida - transmittance

    We investigated the light response of leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and optical properties in rose plants grown in a glasshouse with bending technique. Leaves were lighted from the adaxial or the abaxial side during measurements, performed in four positions in the upright and bent shoots: top leaves, middle leaves, bottom leaves, and bent shoot leaves. Moreover, the effect of the irradiation on the adaxial or abaxial leaf side on whole canopy photosynthesis was estimated through model simulation. No significant differences were found in light transmission, reflection and absorption of leaves and in photosynthesis light response curves among the four positions. In all the leaf positions, light absorption, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were higher when leaves were lighted from the adaxial compared with the abaxial side. The model showed that a substantial part of the light absorbed by the crop originated from light reflected from the greenhouse floor, and thus the abaxial leaf properties have impact on whole crop light absorbance and photosynthesis. Simulations were performed for crops with leaf area index (LAI) 1, 2 and 3. Simulation at LAI 1 showed the highest reduction of simulated crop photosynthesis considering abaxial properties however, to a lesser extent photosynthesis was also reduced at LAI 2 and 3. The overall results showed that the model may be helpful in designing crop systems for improved light utilisation by changing lamp position or level of leaf bending and pruning.

    Estimating crop yield supply responses to be used for market outlook models : Application to major developed and developing countries
    Jongeneel, Roel ; Gonzalez-Martinez, Ana Rosa - \ 2020
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 92 (2020). - ISSN 1573-5214
    Mixed estimation - Prior information - Yield price responsiveness

    The evolution of yields is one of the driving factors explaining crop supply growth. Part of this is explained by how yields react to prices, though there is a lot of uncertainty about the price-responsiveness of yields. Using information from various sources such as agronomy, economic theory and economic literature an in-depth assessment of yield price responsiveness is made. The result is used as a set of prior-information, which is subsequently taken into account to re-estimate yield price supply responses for 20 main crops in major producing developed and developing countries, using OLS and Mixed Estimation (ME) approaches. The outcomes indicate that price-responsiveness is usually low. Moreover, the ME results are different than the current estimates used in the OECD-FAO's market outlook model, showing stronger differentiation among crops/countries. The Mixed Estimation is found useful to overcome typical problems encountered when estimating yield-price responsiveness, such as violations of economic theory, insignificance of estimated parameters and inconsistencies with agronomic knowledge regarding the size of the estimated responses.

    Diversification and Management Practices in Selected European Regions. A Data-analysis of Arable Crops Production and soil organic carbon
    Bene, Claudia Di; Francaviglia, Rosa ; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge ; Gai, Lingtong ; Regina, Kristiina ; Turtola, Eila - \ 2020
    Zenodo
    crop diversification - intercropping - multiple cropping - rotations - tillage - fertilizer - cropping systems - agriculture - soil organic carbon - crop yield
    This data set contains a data-mining performed to assess the impact of intercropping, tillage and fertilizer type on soil organic carbon and crop yield in arable crops from four selected European pedoclimatic regions and typical cropping systems in the Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean North, and Mediterranean South regions. A further meta-analysis was performed with these data.
    Climate change impacts on agricultural suitability and yield reduction in a Mediterranean region
    Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K. ; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam ; Jordán, Antonio ; Anaya-Romero, Mariá ; Phillips, Jonathan D. ; Laurence, Jones ; Zhang, Zhenhua ; Pereira, Paulo ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Ploeg, Martine van der; Rosa, Diego de la - \ 2020
    Geoderma 374 (2020). - ISSN 0016-7061
    Crop yield - Decision support systems - GIS - Global warming - Land suitability

    Climate change impacts are a serious threat to food provisioning, security and the economy. Thus, assessing agricultural suitability and yield reduction under climate change is crucial for sustainable agricultural production. In this study, we used two sub-models of the agro-ecological decision support system MicroLEIS (Terraza and Cervatana) to evaluate the impacts of climate change on land capability and yield reduction or wheat and sunflower as major rainfed crops in different Mediterranean soil types (in Andalucia, Southern Spain). The Terraza sub-model provides an experimental prediction for the bioclimate deficiency and yield reduction, while the Cervatana sub-model predicts the general land use suitability for specific agricultural uses. Sixty-two districts in Southern Spain were modeled and mapped using soil data and the A1B climate scenario (balanced scenario) for three 30-year periods ending in 2040, 2070 and 2100, respectively. Our results showed that the majority of agricultural soils were suitable for wheat production, and less for sunflowers, especially under projected climate change scenarios. Extreme impacts of climate change were observed in the soil types Typic Xerofluvents and Calcic Haploxerepts, where the land capability was reduced from Good and Moderate classes to the Marginal class. This was especially observed in sunflower crops by 2100. Yield reduction of sunflower was much higher than the reduction for wheat, especially under the projected climate periods, where the results for 2100 showed the severest effect on crop yields with about 95% of the sunflower area showing yield reductions. This high variability of the evaluation results demonstrates the importance of using soil factors, climate and crop information in conjunction in decision-making regarding the formulation of site-specific soil use and management strategies.

    Regulation of lipid droplet homeostasis by hypoxia inducible lipid droplet associated HILPDA
    Rosa Rodriguez, Montserrat A. de la; Kersten, Sander - \ 2020
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 1865 (2020)9. - ISSN 1388-1981
    ATGL - Fatty acids - Hypoxia - Lipid droplets - Lipolysis - Triglycerides

    Nearly all cell types have the ability to store excess energy as triglycerides in specialized organelles called lipid droplets. The formation and degradation of lipid droplets is governed by a diverse set of enzymes and lipid droplet-associated proteins. One of the lipid droplet-associated proteins is Hypoxia Inducible Lipid Droplet Associated (HILPDA). HILPDA was originally discovered in a screen to identify novel hypoxia-inducible proteins. Apart from hypoxia, levels of HILPDA are induced by fatty acids and adrenergic agonists. HILPDA is a small protein of 63 amino acids in humans and 64 amino acids in mice. Inside cells, HILPDA is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and around lipid droplets. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments have demonstrated that HILPDA promotes lipid storage in hepatocytes, macrophages and cancer cells. HILPDA increases lipid droplet accumulation at least partly by inhibiting triglyceride hydrolysis via ATGL and stimulating triglyceride synthesis via DGAT1. Overall, HILPDA is a novel regulatory signal that adjusts triglyceride storage and the intracellular availability of fatty acids to the external fatty acid supply and the capacity for oxidation.

    Diversification and management practices in selected European regions. A data analysis of arable crops production
    Francaviglia, Rosa ; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge ; Bene, Claudia Di; Gai, Lingtong ; Regina, Kristiina ; Turtola, Eila - \ 2020
    Agronomy 10 (2020)2. - ISSN 2073-4395
    Arable crops - Crop production - Diversification - Fertilization management - Tillage management

    In the European Union, various crop diversification systems such as crop rotation, intercropping and multiple cropping, as well as low-input management practices, have been promoted to sustain crop productivity while maintaining environmental quality and ecosystem services. We conducted a data analysis to identify the benefits of crop associations, alternative agricultural practices and strategies in four selected regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean North and Mediterranean South) in terms of crop production (CP). The dataset was derived from 54 references with a total of 750 comparisons and included site characteristics, crop information (diversification system, crop production, tillage and fertilization management) and soil parameters. We analyzed each effect separately, comparing CP under tillage management (e.g., conventional tillage vs. no tillage), crop diversification (e.g., monoculture vs. rotation), and fertilization management (e.g., mineral fertilization vs. organic fertilization). Compared with conventional tillage (CT), CP was higher by 12% in no tillage (NT), in fine- and medium-textured soils (8–9%) and in arid and semiarid sites located in the Mediterranean Region (24%). Compared to monoculture, diversified cropping systems with longer crop rotations increased CP by 12%, and by 12% in soils with coarse and medium textures. In relation to fertilization, CP was increased with the use of slurry (40%), and when crop residues were incorporated (39%) or mulched (74%). Results showed that conversion to alternative diversified systems through the use of crop rotations, with NT and organic fertilization, results in a better crop performance. However, regional differences related to climate and soil-texture-specific responses should be considered to target local measures to improve soil management.

    HILPDA Uncouples Lipid Droplet Accumulation in Adipose Tissue Macrophages from Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation
    Dierendonck, Xanthe A.M.H. van; Rosa Rodriguez, Montserrat A. de la; Georgiadi, Anastasia ; Mattijssen, Frits ; Dijk, Wieneke ; Weeghel, Michel van; Singh, Rajat ; Borst, Jan Willem ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Kersten, Sander - \ 2020
    Cell Reports 30 (2020)6. - ISSN 2211-1247 - p. 1811 - 1822.e6.
    ATGL - fatty acid metabolism - Hilpda - inflammation - lipid droplets - macrophages - obesity

    Obesity leads to a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation that features the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in adipose tissue. Here, we determined the role of macrophage lipid-droplet accumulation in the development of obesity-induced adipose-tissue inflammation, using mice with myeloid-specific deficiency of the lipid-inducible HILPDA protein. HILPDA deficiency markedly reduced intracellular lipid levels and accumulation of fluorescently labeled fatty acids. Decreased lipid storage in HILPDA-deficient macrophages can be rescued by inhibition of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and is associated with increased oxidative metabolism. In diet-induced obese mice, HILPDA deficiency does not alter inflammatory and metabolic parameters, despite markedly reducing lipid accumulation in macrophages. Overall, we find that HILPDA is a lipid-inducible, physiological inhibitor of ATGL-mediated lipolysis in macrophages and uncouples lipid storage in adipose tissue macrophages from inflammation and metabolic dysregulation. Our data question the contribution of lipid droplet accumulation in adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic dysregulation.

    A note on knowledge discovery and machine learning in digital soil mapping
    Wadoux, Alexandre M.J.C. ; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro ; Poggio, Laura ; Mulder, Vera Leatitia - \ 2020
    European Journal of Soil Science 71 (2020)2. - ISSN 1351-0754 - p. 133 - 136.
    mapping - pedometrics - random forest - soil science - variable selection

    In digital soil mapping, machine learning (ML) techniques are being used to infer a relationship between a soil property and the covariates. The information derived from this process is often translated into pedological knowledge. This mechanism is referred to as knowledge discovery. This study shows that knowledge discovery based on ML must be treated with caution. We show how pseudo-covariates can be used to accurately predict soil organic carbon in a hypothetical case study. We demonstrate that ML methods can find relevant patterns even when the covariates are meaningless and not related to soil-forming factors and processes. We argue that pattern recognition for prediction should not be equated with knowledge discovery. Knowledge discovery requires more than the recognition of patterns and successful prediction. It requires the pre-selection and preprocessing of pedologically relevant environmental covariates and the posterior interpretation and evaluation of the recognized patterns. We argue that important ML covariates could serve the purpose of providing elements to postulate hypotheses about soil processes that, once validated through experiments, could result in new pedological knowledge. Highlights: We discuss the rationale of knowledge discovery based on the most important machine learning covariates We use pseudo-covariates to predict topsoil organic carbon with random forest Soil organic carbon was accurately predicted in a hypothetical case study Pattern recognition by random forest should not be equated to knowledge discovery.

    Climate conditions and spray treatments induce shifts in health promoting compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruits
    Correia, Sofia ; Aires, Alfredo ; Queirós, Filipa ; Carvalho, Rosa ; Schouten, Rob ; Silva, Ana Paula ; Gonçalves, Berta - \ 2020
    Scientia Horticulturae 263 (2020). - ISSN 0304-4238
    Ascorbic acid - Calcium - Carotenoids - Growth regulators - Phenolic compounds - Sweet cherry

    Effects of repeated sprayings expected to affect phenolic, anthocyanin, carotenoid and ascorbic acid content in ‘Skeena’ and ‘Sweetheart’ cherries were observed during two years (without addition of calcium (Ca) in 2015, and with Ca in 2016). A shift in phytonutrients, with higher phenolic and carotenoid- and lower ascorbic acid content was observed when comparing Ca and the control (water) treatments in 2016 compared to 2015. Higher radiation, higher temperatures and less precipitation in 2015 compared to 2016 likely contributed to this shift. Gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and glycine betaine (GB) sprays increased anthocyanin content in 2015 and for ‘Skeena’ cherries in 2016. GA3 and GB induced lower carotenoid content for ‘Skeena’- in 2015 and for ‘Sweetheart’ cherries in 2016 and lowered ascorbic acid content for ‘Sweetheart’ cherries. GA3 sprays induced the largest changes, increasing anthocyanin- (42 %), lowering carotenoid (19 %) and ascorbic acid content (53 %) compared to control. Ascophyllum nodosum, one of the novel spray treatments next to GB, appears to induce an effect opposite to GB, increasing carotenoid and ascorbic acid, but lowering phenolic content. Whether these phytonutrient shifts, due to climate conditions or to spray treatments, are beneficial to consumer health is unclear.

    A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics
    Rovero, Francesco ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Sheil, Douglas ; Alvarez, Patricia ; Boekee, Kelly ; Espinosa, Santiago ; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; O'Brien, Timothy G. ; Salvador, Julia ; Santos, Fernanda ; Rosa, Melissa ; Zvoleff, Alexander ; Sutherland, Chris ; Tenan, Simone - \ 2020
    Ecography 43 (2020)1. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 75 - 84.
    The understanding of global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110–200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g. habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here, we used standardized camera trapping data and a novel analytical method that accounts for imperfect detection to assess how the functional composition of terrestrial mammal communities for two traits – trophic guild and body mass – varies across 16 protected areas in tropical forests and three continents, in relation to the extent of protected habitat and anthropogenic pressures. We found that despite their taxonomic differences, communities generally have a consistent trophic guild composition, and respond similarly to these factors. Insectivores were found to be sensitive to the size of protected habitat and surrounding human population density. Body mass distribution varied little among communities both in terms of central tendency and spread, and interestingly, community average body mass declined with proximity to human settlements. Results indicate predicted trait convergence among assemblages at the coarse scale reflects consistent functional composition among communities at the local scale, suggesting that broadly similar habitats and selective pressures shaped communities with similar trophic strategies and responses to drivers of change. These similarities provide a foundation for assessing assemblages under anthropogenic threats and sharing conservation measures.
    Disentangling the effects of photosynthetically active radiation and red to far-red ratio on plant photosynthesis under canopy shading. A simulation study using a functional-structural plant model
    Zhang, Ningyi ; Westreenen, Arian Van; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Evers, Jochem B. ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2019
    Annals of Botany (2019). - ISSN 0305-7364
    Background and Aims
    Shading by an overhead canopy (i.e., canopy shading) entails simultaneous changes in both photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red to far-red ratio (R:FR). As plant responses to PAR (e.g. changes in leaf photosynthesis) are different from responses to R:FR (e.g. changes in plant architecture), and these responses occur at both organ and plant levels, understanding plant photosynthesis responses to canopy shading needs separate analysis of responses to reductions in PAR and R:FR at different levels.
    Methods
    In a greenhouse experiment we subjected plants of woody perennial rose (Rosa hybrida) to different light treatments, and so separately quantified the effects of reductions in PAR and R:FR on leaf photosynthetic- and plant architectural traits. Using a functional-structural plant model, we separately quantified the effects of responses in these traits on plant photosynthesis, and evaluated the relative importance of changes of individual traits for plant photosynthesis under mild and heavy shading caused by virtual overhead canopies.
    Key Results
    Model simulations showed that the individual trait responses to canopy shading could have positive and negative effects on plant photosynthesis. Under mild canopy shading, trait responses to reduced R:FR on photosynthesis were generally negative and with a larger magnitude than effects of responses to reduced PAR. Conversely, under heavy canopy shading, the positive effects of trait responses to reduced PAR became dominant. The combined effects of low-R:FR responses and low-PAR responses on plant photosynthesis were not equal to the sum of the separate effects, indicating interactions between individual trait responses.
    Conclusions
    Our simulation results indicate that under canopy shading, the relative importance of plant responses to PAR and R:FR for plant photosynthesis changes with shade levels. This suggests that the adaptive significance of plant plasticity responses to one shading factor depends on plant responses to the other.
    Diversified arable cropping systems and management schemes in selected european regions have positive effects on soil organic carbon content
    Francaviglia, Rosa ; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge ; Bene, Claudia Di; Gai, Lingtong ; Regina, Kristiina ; Turtola, Eila - \ 2019
    Agriculture 9 (2019)12. - ISSN 2077-0472
    Crop diversification - Fertilization - Soil organic carbon - Tillage

    In the last few decades, various crop diversification strategies and management practices have been promoted to improve or at least maintain environmental quality and agroecosystem services. We conducted a data-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of alternatives for crop diversification and environmentally friendly farming management for arable crops in four selected European pedoclimatic regions and typical cropping systems in the Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean North, and Mediterranean South regions. The dataset was retrieved from 38 references and included data on site-specific environmental conditions, soil tillage, crop rotation, fertilization, and final soil organic carbon content (SOC). No tillage (NT) was more effective (7%) in increasing SOC content than minimum tillage (MT) across the studied depths (from 5 to 40 cm). Conservation tillage as whole, including NT, MT, and rotational tillage (RT) positively affected SOC content in the top 10 cm (28%) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT). Compared to monoculture, longer crop rotations (3–5 years) and the introduction of legumes resulted in higher increases in SOC contents (18%), that were higher in semiarid conditions (11%) than under humid and sub-humid climates (3.2%). The effect of fertilization on SOC contents was higher in the Mediterranean North region (28%), and organic fertilization showed the highest increases (25%) compared to the control with mineral fertilization. Higher increases in SOC contents with tillage and fertilization management were found in sites with lower SOC contents in the control treatment (conventional tillage and mineral fertilization respectively). The data analysis indicated that various European arable agroecosystems benefit both from diversified cropping systems and the adoption of environmentally friendly farming management and are thereby capable to increase SOC contents.

    Quantifying the contribution of bent shoots to plant photosynthesis and biomass production of flower shoots in rose (Rosa hybrida) using a functional–structural plant model
    Zhang, Ningyi ; Westreenen, Arian Van; Evers, Jochem B. ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2019
    Annals of Botany (2019). - ISSN 0305-7364
    Background and Aims
    The success of using bent shoots in cut-rose (Rosa hybrida) production to improve flower shoot quality has been attributed to bent shoots capturing more light and thus providing more assimilates for flower shoot growth. We aimed at quantifying this contribution of photosynthesis by bent shoots to flower shoot growth.
    Methods
    Rose plants were grown with four upright flower shoots and with no, one or three bent shoots per plant. Plant architectural traits, leaf photosynthetic parameters and organ dry weight were measured. A functional–structural plant (FSP) model of rose was used to calculate photosynthesis of upright shoots and bent shoots separately, taking into account the heterogeneous canopy structure of these plants.
    Key Results
    Bent shoots contributed to 43–53 % of total assimilated CO2 by the plant. Plant photosynthesis increased by 73 and 117 % in plants with, respectively, one and three bent shoots compared with plants without bent shoots. Upright shoot photosynthesis was not significantly affected by the presence of bent shoots. However, upright shoot dry weight increased by 35 and 59 % in plants with, respectively, one and three bent shoots compared with plants without bent shoots. The increased upright shoot dry weight was entirely due to the contribution of extra photosynthesis by bent shoots, as this was the only source that could induce differences in upright shoot growth apart from their own photosynthesis. At least 47–51 % of the photosynthesis by bent shoots was translocated to upright shoots to support their biomass increase.
    Conclusions
    Based on model simulations, we conclude that the positive effect of shoot bending on flower shoot growth and quality in cut-rose production system can almost entirely be attributed to assimilate supply from bent shoots. FSP modelling is a useful tool to quantify the contributions of photosynthesis by different parts of heterogeneous canopies.
    Resistance against oil palm expansion: experiences from West Kalimantan
    Vos, Rosa de - \ 2019
    Oral presentation in panel “Resistance: Anti-corporate Activism in Asia” Presentation not publicly available
    Oil Palm Smallholders in Central Kalimantan: an interdisciplinary study on livelihoods and biodiversity
    Vos, Rosa de - \ 2019
    Evolutionary diversity is associated with wood productivity in Amazonian forests
    Coelho de Souza, Fernanda ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Pennington, Toby R. ; Neves, Danilo ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban ; Alves, Átila ; Amaral, Ieda ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragao, Luis E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmilla ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Bánki, Olaf ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Barroso, Jorcely G. ; Boot, Rene G.A. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Brown, Foster ; Camargo, José Luís C. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Chave, Jerome ; Cogollo, Alvaro ; Comiskey, James A. ; Cornejo-Valverde, Fernando ; Costa, Antonio Lola da; Camargo, Plínio B. de; Fiore, Anthony Di; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David R. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Goodman, Rosa C. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Laurance, Susan ; Laurance, William F. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Thomas E. ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Neill, David A. ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Peñuela Mora, Maria C. ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Prieto, Adriana ; Ramirez, Freddy ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustin ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Silva, Natalino ; Silveira, Marcos ; Singh, James ; Stropp, Juliana ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel ; Umetsu, Ricardo K. ; Vasquez, Rodolfo V. ; Célia-Vieira, Ima ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vos, Vincent A. ; Zagt, Roderick J. ; Baker, Timothy R. - \ 2019
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1754 - 1761.

    Higher levels of taxonomic and evolutionary diversity are expected to maximize ecosystem function, yet their relative importance in driving variation in ecosystem function at large scales in diverse forests is unknown. Using 90 inventory plots across intact, lowland, terra firme, Amazonian forests and a new phylogeny including 526 angiosperm genera, we investigated the association between taxonomic and evolutionary metrics of diversity and two key measures of ecosystem function: aboveground wood productivity and biomass storage. While taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity were not important predictors of variation in biomass, both emerged as independent predictors of wood productivity. Amazon forests that contain greater evolutionary diversity and a higher proportion of rare species have higher productivity. While climatic and edaphic variables are together the strongest predictors of productivity, our results show that the evolutionary diversity of tree species in diverse forest stands also influences productivity. As our models accounted for wood density and tree size, they also suggest that additional, unstudied, evolutionarily correlated traits have significant effects on ecosystem function in tropical forests. Overall, our pan-Amazonian analysis shows that greater phylogenetic diversity translates into higher levels of ecosystem function: tropical forest communities with more distantly related taxa have greater wood productivity.

    Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics
    Rovero, Francesco ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Jansen, Patrick ; Sheil, Douglas ; Alvarez, Patricia ; Boekee, Kelly ; Espinosa, Santiago ; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; O'Brien, Timothy G. ; Salvador, Julia ; Santos, Fernanda ; Rosa, Melissa ; Sutherland, Chris ; Tenan, Simone - \ 2019
    University of Florence
    community structure - conservation - functional traits - mammals - trophic guild - tropical forest - camera traps
    Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here, we used standardized camera trapping data and a novel analytical method that accounts for imperfect detection to assess how the functional composition of terrestrial mammal communities for two traits – trophic guild and body mass – varies across 16 protected areas in tropical forests and three continents, in relation to the extent of protected habitat and anthropogenic pressures. We found that despite their taxonomic differences, communities generally have a consistent trophic guild composition, and respond similarly to these factors. Insectivores were found to be sensitive to the size of protected habitat and surrounding human population density. Body mass distribution varied little among communities both in terms of central tendency and spread, and interestingly, community average body mass declined with proximity to human settlements. Results indicate predicted trait convergence among assemblages at the coarse scale reflects consistent functional composition among communities at the local scale, suggesting that broadly similar habitats and selective pressures shaped communities with similar trophic strategies and responses to drivers of change. These similarities provide a foundation for assessing assemblages under anthropogenic threats and sharing conservation measures.Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here, we used standardized camera trapping data and a novel analytical method that accounts for imperfect detection to assess how the functional composition of terrestrial mammal communities for two traits – trophic guild and body mass – varies across 16 protected areas in tropical forests and three continents, in relation to the extent of protected habitat and anthropogenic pressures. We found that despite their taxonomic differences, communities generally have a consistent trophic guild composition, and respond similarly to these factors. Insectivores were found to be sensitive to the size of protected habitat and surrounding human population density. Body mass distribution varied little among communities both in terms of central tendency and spread, and interestingly, community average body mass declined with proximity to human settlements. Results indicate predicted trait convergence among assemblages at the coarse scale reflects consistent functional composition among communities at the local scale, suggesting that broadly similar habitats and selective pressures shaped communities with similar trophic strategies and responses to drivers of change. These similarities provide a foundation for assessing assemblages under anthropogenic threats and sharing conservation measures.
    Global distribution of earthworm diversity
    Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
    Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.

    Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

    Low air humidity during cultivation promotes stomatal closure ability in rose
    Fanourakis, Dimitrios ; Giday, Habtamu ; Hyldgaard, Benita ; Bouranis, Dimitris ; Körner, Oliver ; Ottosen, Carl Otto - \ 2019
    European Journal of Horticultural Science 84 (2019)4. - ISSN 1611-4426 - p. 245 - 252.
    Evaporative demand - Stomata - Transpiration - Vapour pressure deficit

    In greenhouse horticulture, evaporative demand varies between seasons. For instance, plants are typically exposed to low relative air humidity (RH) during summer, whereas elevated RH prevails in winter. Since high RH during cultivation impairs stomatal functioning, some opposite changes might be expected, when plants are subjected to long-term low RH. To investigate this, Rosa hybrida ‘Pasadena’ was cultivated at 40, 60 or 90% RH. Plant performance, transpiration, stomatal closing ability and anatomy were recorded. As RH increased from 40 to 60% as well as from 60 to 90%, plants showed larger leaf area and thinner leaves. Plant water loss was mainly determined by ambient RH in the growing environment, with stomatal conductance (gs) being of secondary importance. With increasing RH, plant transpiration declined at growth environment. Larger stomata were found at 90% RH, as compared to 40 or 60%. Stomatal physiology was considerably affected by 90% RH, including reduced gs oscillations within the photoperiod, attenuated opening response following dark/light transition, as well as reduced closing response upon darkening. The plants cultivated at 90% RH had a reduced ability to control water loss upon water deprivation, compared to those grown at 60%. In contrast, cultivation at 40% RH resulted in stomata, which were much more responsive to water stress, compared to 60% RH-grown plants. This superiority was dual: lower transpiration rate combined with less severe leaf drying to induce stomatal closure. In conclusion, low RH during cultivation, which is typical during summer, leads to thicker leaves with very responsive stomata.

    Stomatal anatomy and closing ability is affected by supplementary light intensity in rose (Rosa hybrida L.)
    Fanourakis, Dimitrios ; Hyldgaard, Benita ; Giday, Habtamu ; Aulik, Isaac ; Bouranis, Dimitris ; Körner, Oliver ; Ottosen, Carl Otto - \ 2019
    Horticultural Science 46 (2019)2. - ISSN 0862-867X - p. 81 - 89.
    Cuticular water loss - Photosynthesis - Stomatal size - Transpiration

    Increasing the light level in protected cultivation of ornamental crops via supplementary lighting is critical to enhance both production and external quality especially during the periods of low light availability. Despite wide applications the effects of light intensities were not previously addressed on water loss pathways. In this study rose plants were cultivated at 100, 200 or 400 μmol/(m2 s) photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The stomatal responsiveness to desiccation, stomatal anatomical features and cuticular transpiration were determined. Plant biomass as well as photosynthesis response to light and CO2 were also assessed. Increasing growth PPFD led to a considerable increase in plant biomass (85 and 57% for 100 to 200 and 200 to 400 μmol/(m2 s) respectively). Photosynthesis was marginally affected by increasing growth PPFD from 100 to 200 μmol/(m2 s) while a further rise to 400 μmol/(m2 s) considerably increased photosynthetic rate at high light intensities. Higher PPFD during cultivation generally led to larger stomata with bigger pores. A PPFD increase from 100 to 200 μmol/(m2 s) had a small negative effect on stomatal closing ability whereas a further rise to 400 μmol/(m2 s) had a substantial stimulatory effect. Cultivation at a PPFD higher than 100 μmol/(m2 s) led to lower rates of cuticular transpiration. In conclusion, high growth PPFD (> 200 μmol/(m2 s)) enchanced both photosynthetic and stomatal anatomical traits. High light intensity (> 200 μmol/(m2 s)) also led to a better control of water loss due to more responsive stomata and decreased cuticular permeability.

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