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The Role and Need for Space-Based Forest Biomass-Related Measurements in Environmental Management and Policy
Herold, Martin ; Carter, Sarah ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Espejo, Andrés B. ; Jonckheere, Inge ; Lucas, Richard ; McRoberts, Ronald E. ; Næsset, Erik ; Nightingale, Joanne ; Petersen, Rachael ; Reiche, Johannes ; Romijn, Erika ; Rosenqvist, Ake ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Seifert, Frank Martin ; Sanz, María J. ; Sy, V. de - \ 2019
Surveys in Geophysics 40 (2019)4. - ISSN 0169-3298 - p. 757 - 778.
The achievement of international goals and national commitments related to forest conservation and management, climate change, and sustainable development requires credible, accurate, and reliable monitoring of stocks and changes in forest biomass and carbon. Most prominently, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals in particular require data on biomass to monitor progress. Unprecedented opportunities to provide forest biomass data are created by a series of upcoming space-based missions, many of which provide open data targeted at large areas and better spatial resolution biomass monitoring than has previously been achieved. We assess various policy needs for biomass data and recommend a long-term collaborative effort among forest biomass data producers and users to meet these needs. A gap remains, however, between what can be achieved in the research domain and what is required to support policy making and meet reporting requirements. There is no single biomass dataset that serves all users in terms of definition and type of biomass measurement, geographic area, and uncertainty requirements, and whether there is need for the most recent up-to-date biomass estimate or a long-term biomass trend. The research and user communities should embrace the potential strength of the multitude of upcoming missions in combination to provide for these varying needs and to ensure continuity for long-term data provision which one-off research missions cannot provide. International coordination bodies such as Global Forest Observations Initiative (GFOI), Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), and Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics (GOFC‐GOLD) will be integral in addressing these issues in a way that fulfils these needs in a timely fashion. Further coordination work should particularly look into how space-based data can be better linked with field reference data sources such as forest plot networks, and there is also a need to ensure that reference data cover a range of forest types, management regimes, and disturbance regimes worldwide.
Allopolyploidization in Cucumis contributes to delayed leaf maturation with repression of redundant homoeologous genes
Yu, Xiaqing ; Wang, Xixi ; Hyldgaard, Benita ; Zhu, Zaobing ; Zhou, Rong ; Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Lou, Qunfeng ; Li, Ji ; Cai, Qingsheng ; Rosenqvist, Eva ; Ottosen, Carl-Otto ; Chen, Jinfeng - \ 2018
The Plant Journal 94 (2018)2. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 393 - 404.
The important role of polyploidy in plant evolution is widely recognized. However, many questions remain to be explored to address how polyploidy affects the phenotype of the plant. To shed light on the phenotypic and molecular impacts of allopolyploidy, we investigated the leaf development of a synthesized allotetraploid (Cucumis × hytivus), with an emphasis on chlorophyll development. Delayed leaf maturation was identified in C. × hytivus, based on delayed leaf expansion, initial chlorophyll deficiency in the leaves and disordered sink‐source transition. Anatomical observations also revealed disturbed chloroplast development in C. ×hytivus. The determination of chlorophyll biosynthesis intermediates suggested that the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway of C. × hytivus is blocked at the site at which uroporphyrinogen III is catalysed to coproporphyrinogen III. Three chlorophyll biosynthesis‐related genes, HEMA1, HEME2 and POR, were significantly repressed in C. × hytivus. Sequence alignment showed both synonymous and non‐synonymous substitutions in the HEMA1, HEME2 and POR genes of the parents. Cloning of the chlorophyll biosynthetic genes suggested the retention of homoeologs. In addition, a chimeric clone of the HEMA1 gene that consisted of homologous genes from the parents was identified in C. × hytivus. Overall, our results showed that allopolyploidization in Cucumis has resulted in disturbed chloroplast development and reduced chlorophyll biosynthesis caused by the repressed expression of duplicated homologous genes, which further led to delayed leaf maturation in the allotetraploid, C. × hytivus. The preferential retention/loss of certain types of genes and non‐reciprocal homoeologous recombination were also supported in the present study, which provides new insights into the impact of allopolyploidy.
Current remote sensing approaches to monitoring forest degradation in support of countries measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems for REDD+
Mitchell, Anthea L. ; Rosenqvist, Ake ; Mora, Brice - \ 2017
Carbon Balance and Management 12 (2017)1. - ISSN 1750-0680
Above-ground biomass - Carbon emissions - Degradation - Disturbance - Forests - Measurement reporting and verification - Monitoring - REDD+ - Time-series
Forest degradation is a global phenomenon and while being an important indicator and precursor to further forest loss, carbon emissions due to degradation should also be accounted for in national reporting within the frame of UN REDD+. At regional to country scales, methods have been progressively developed to detect and map forest degradation, with these based on multi-resolution optical, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and/or LiDAR data. However, there is no one single method that can be applied to monitor forest degradation, largely due to the specific nature of the degradation type or process and the timeframe over which it is observed. The review assesses two main approaches to monitoring forest degradation: first, where detection is indicated by a change in canopy cover or proxies, and second, the quantification of loss (or gain) in above ground biomass (AGB). The discussion only considers degradation that has a visible impact on the forest canopy and is thus detectable by remote sensing. The first approach encompasses methods that characterise the type of degradation and track disturbance, detect gaps in, and fragmentation of, the forest canopy, and proxies that provide evidence of forestry activity. Progress in these topics has seen the extension of methods to higher resolution (both spatial and temporal) data to better capture the disturbance signal, distinguish degraded and intact forest, and monitor regrowth. Improvements in the reliability of mapping methods are anticipated by SAR-optical data fusion and use of very high resolution data. The second approach exploits EO sensors with known sensitivity to forest structure and biomass and discusses monitoring efforts using repeat LiDAR and SAR data. There has been progress in the capacity to discriminate forest age and growth stage using data fusion methods and LiDAR height metrics. Interferometric SAR and LiDAR have found new application in linking forest structure change to degradation in tropical forests. Estimates of AGB change have been demonstrated at national level using SAR and LiDAR-assisted approaches. Future improvements are anticipated with the availability of next generation LiDAR sensors. Improved access to relevant satellite data and best available methods are key to operational forest degradation monitoring. Countries will need to prioritise their monitoring efforts depending on the significance of the degradation, balanced against available resources. A better understanding of the drivers and impacts of degradation will help guide monitoring and restoration efforts. Ultimately we want to restore ecosystem service and function in degraded forests before the change is irreversible.
Combining satellite data for better tropical forest monitoring
Reiche, Johannes ; Lucas, Richard ; Mitchell, A.L. ; Verbesselt, Jan ; Hoekman, D.H. ; Haarpaintner, Jörg ; Kellndorfer, J.M. ; Rosenqvist, Ake ; Lehmann, E.A. ; Woodcock, C.E. ; Seifert, Frank Martin ; Herold, Martin - \ 2016
Nature Climate Change 6 (2016)2. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 120 - 122.
Implementation of policies to reduce forest loss challenges the Earth observation community to improve forest monitoring. An important avenue for progress is the use of new satellite missions and the combining of optical and synthetic aperture radar sensor data.
|Global forest monitoring with radar (SAR) data
Lucas, R. ; Rosenqvist, A. ; Kellndorfer, J. ; Hoekman, D.H. ; Shimada, M. - \ 2012
In: Global Forest Monitoring from Earth Observation / Achard, F., Hansen, M.C., CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9781466552012 - 354 p.
Mapping of peat swamp forests in Indonesia
Hoekman, D.H. ; Quinones, M.J. ; Vissers, M.A.M. - \ 2010
In: Global Environmental Monitoring by ALOS PALSAR / Shimada, M., Rosenqvist, A., Tsukuba Japan : JAXA - p. 70 - 71.
Consistent land cover change monitoring in Borneo
Hoekman, D.H. - \ 2010
In: Global Environmental Monitoring by ALOS PALSAR / Shimada, M., Rosenqvist, A., Tsukuba Japan : JAXA - p. 32 - 33.
Wide area land cover mapping of Borneo
Hoekman, D.H. ; Vissers, M.A.M. - \ 2010
In: Global Environmental Monitoring by ALOS PALSAR / Shimada, M., Rosenqvist, A., Tsukuba : JAXA - p. 30 - 31.
Water balance in afforestation chronosequences of common oak and Norway spruce on former arable land in Denmark and southern Sweden
Rosenqvist, L. ; Hansen, K. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Salm, C. van der - \ 2010
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150 (2010)2. - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 196 - 207.
forest - soil - transpiration - interception - evaporation - stands - beech - model - conductance - catchment
Precipitation, throughfall and soil moisture were measured, and interception, transpiration and water recharge were estimated in four afforestation chronosequences on former arable land at two Danish locations (Vestskoven and Gejlvang) and at one southern Swedish location (Tonnersjoheden). Afforestation was performed using Norway spruce (Picea abies (Karst.) L) and common oak (Quercus robur L.) at Vestskoven and only Norway spruce at Gejlvang and Tonnersjoheden. Four to five stands of different ages (5-92 years) were studied in each of these chronosequences. Hydrological fluxes were calculated using the soil hydrological model SWAP. Throughfall flux and soil water content were used for calibration of the model. The simulated water recharge decreased with increased stand age within 30-40 years of afforestation. This was mainly due to increased interception evaporation with age. The annual water recharge was higher below oak stands (149-192 mm yr(-1)) than below spruce stands (107-191 mm yr(-1)) of similar age. The relative water recharge was also considerably higher from the sandy glaciofluvial soils at Gejlvang and Tonnersjoheden than from the sandy loamy till soils at Vestskoven.
Inundation Mapping for global wetlands regions: The ALOS Kyoto & Carbon initiative wetlands products
Hess, L. ; Rosenqvist, A. ; Lowry, J. ; Costa, M. ; Hoekman, D.H. ; Toan, T. Le; Lucas, R. ; Mc.Donald, K. ; Milne, A. ; Rebelo, A.G. ; Salas, W. ; Telmer, K. - \ 2009
|Guidelines for planning afforestation of former arable land
Hansen, K. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Muys, B. ; Gilliams, S. ; Rosenqvist, L. ; Salm, C. van der; Elemans, M. ; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. ; Gundersen, P. ; Johansson, M.B. ; Orshoven, J. van; Heil, G.W. ; Kros, H. ; Bleeker, A. ; Deursen, W. van; Stendahl, J. - \ 2007
In: Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe / Heil, G.W., Muys, B., Hansen, K., Dordrecht : Springer (Plant and Vegetation 1) - ISBN 9781402045677 - p. 249 - 291.
|Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe
Vesterdal, L. ; Rosenqvist, L. ; Salm, C. van der; Hansen, K. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Johansson, M.B. - \ 2007
In: Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe / Heil, G.W., Muys, B., Hansen, K., Dordrecht : Springer (Plant and Vegetation 1) - ISBN 9781402045677 - p. 19 - 51.
|Nitrogen deposition and nitrate leaching following afforestation: Experiences from oak and Norway spruce chronosequences in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands.
Rosenqvist, L. ; Hansen, K. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. ; Salm, C. van der; Bleeker, A. ; Johansson, M. - \ 2007
In: Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe / Heil, G.W., Muys, B., Hansen, K., Dordrecht : Springer (Plant and Vegetation 1) - ISBN 9781402045677 - p. 79 - 108.
|Interception and water recharge following afforestation: Experiences from oak and Norway spruce chronosequences in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands.
Salm, C. van der; Rosenqvist, L. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Hansen, K. ; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. ; Bleeker, A. ; Wieggers, R. ; Toorn, A. van den - \ 2007
In: Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe. Dordrecht : Springer (Plant and Vegetation 1) - ISBN 9781402045677 - p. 53 - 77.
|The ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative Science Plan
Chapman, B. ; Cihlar, J. ; Costa, M. ; Grandi, F. De; Dobson, C. ; Santos, J. dos; Finlayson, M. ; Hallikainen, M. ; Hess, L. ; Hoekman, D.H. ; Igarashi, T. ; Krug, T. ; Toan, T. Le; Lowry, J. ; Lucas, R. ; McDonald, K. ; Milne, T. ; Moreira, A. ; Olsen, H. ; Quegan, S. ; Rosenqvist, A. ; Running, S. ; Salas, B. ; Sawada, H. ; Schmullius, C. ; Shimada, M. ; Siqueira, P. ; Tadono, T. ; Tateishi, R. ; Taylor, D. ; Telmer, K. ; Townshend, J. ; Tschirley, J. ; Yamagata, Y. ; Yasuoka, Y. ; Zimmermann, R. - \ 2005
[S.l.] : S.n. (Pre-launch version 1.0 ) - 105 p.
|Chlorophyll Fluorescence : a general description and nomenclature
Rosenqvist, E. ; Kooten, O. van - \ 2003
In: Practical Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Plant Biology / Dell, J.R., Toivonen, P.M.A., Dordrecht, the Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers - ISBN 1402074409 - p. 31 - 77.
fluorescentie - chlorofyl - source-sink relaties - fluorescence - chlorophyll - source sink relations
A general description and nomenclature of chlorophyll fluorescence with attention to: where chlorophyll fluorescence comes from, how it is measured and what do the measurements reflect
|An Introduction to Chlorophyll Fluorescence
Harbinson, J. ; Rosenqvist, E. - \ 2003
In: Practical Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Plant Biology / Dell, J.R., Toivonen, P.M.A., Dordrecht, the Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers - ISBN 1402074409 - p. 1 - 29.
fluorescentie - chlorofyl - fotosynthese - fluorescence - chlorophyll - photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a physiological process that couples the energy of light to certain metabolic changes in biochemical reactions, via photochemical processess. It is the purpose of this chapter to lay out the basic physical and physiological processess associated with this coupling and to show how the biochemical changes are linked to other physical processess that allow us to measure the operation and progress of the coupling of light-absorption to physiology