- R.M. Boom (1)
- A. Brittijn (1)
- E. Burgerhout (2)
- A.C. Chinchilla (1)
- Roberta Croce (1)
- P. Davis (1)
- F. Devlieghere (2)
- A.M. Diez (2)
- E.H. Drosinos (1)
- L.C. Dutari (1)
- Ismael Díez-Pérez (1)
- Maria Elena Antinori (1)
- D. Foley (1)
- S.M.O. Gomez (1)
- Martin Goossen (1)
- Pau Gorostiza (1)
- E.M. Gómez (1)
- G. Hagelaar (1)
- L. Jacxsens (10)
- I. Jaime (4)
- P.A. Jansen (1)
- V. Jasson (2)
- Jaap Keijer (1)
- K.K. Kirezieva (1)
- K. Kirezieva (1)
- M. Koesta (1)
- M. Kousta (1)
- J. Kussaga (2)
- J.R. Loaiza (1)
- P.A. Luning (13)
- Montse López-Martínez (1)
- Manuel López-Ortiz (1)
- W.J. Marcelis (6)
- B. Melero (1)
- M.J. Miller (1)
- S. Márquez (1)
- Alba Nin-Hill (1)
- S.M. Oses (3)
- S. Oses Gomez (4)
- S.M. Osés (1)
- A.P. Palstra (6)
- J. Pecor (1)
- J.V. Planas (6)
- M.J. Pongsiri (1)
- M. Radtke (1)
- D. Rizo-Roca (1)
- E. Rodriguez (1)
- Carme Rovira (1)
- J. Rovira (13)
- M. Rovira (6)
- J.R. Rovira (1)
- O.I. Sanjur (1)
- S. Santillana (1)
- Karin Schroen (1)
- C.G.P.H. Schroën (1)
- H.P. Spaink (2)
- M. Spiegel van der (2)
- G.E.E.J.M. Thillart (1)
- J.R. Torrella (1)
- C. Tudorache (1)
- M. Uyttendaele (7)
- Emilie Wientjes (1)
- D. Wilches-Pérez (1)
- E.A. Zwan van der (1)
Electrochemically Gated Long-Distance Charge Transport in Photosystem I
López-Martínez, Montse ; López-Ortiz, Manuel ; Antinori, Maria Elena ; Wientjes, Emilie ; Nin-Hill, Alba ; Rovira, Carme ; Croce, Roberta ; Díez-Pérez, Ismael ; Gorostiza, Pau - \ 2019
Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 58 (2019)38. - ISSN 1433-7851 - p. 13280 - 13284.
current decay - electrochemical gating - electron transfer - photosynthesis - scanning tunneling microscopy
The transport of electrons along photosynthetic and respiratory chains involves a series of enzymatic reactions that are coupled through redox mediators, including proteins and small molecules. The use of native and synthetic redox probes is key to understanding charge transport mechanisms and to the design of bioelectronic sensors and solar energy conversion devices. However, redox probes have limited tunability to exchange charge at the desired electrochemical potentials (energy levels) and at different protein sites. Herein, we take advantage of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) to control the Fermi level and nanometric position of the ECSTM probe in order to study electron transport in individual photosystem I (PSI) complexes. Current–distance measurements at different potentiostatic conditions indicate that PSI supports long-distance transport that is electrochemically gated near the redox potential of P700, with current extending farther under hole injection conditions.
Control of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes in suckling-lamb meat evaluated using microbial challenge tests
Osés, S.M. ; Diez, A.M. ; Gómez, E.M. ; Wilches-Pérez, D. ; Luning, P.A. ; Jaime, I. ; Rovira, J. - \ 2015
Meat Science 110 (2015). - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 262 - 269.
Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes microbial challenge tests were performed on fresh suckling-lamb meat. Hind leg slices were chilly stored under two modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) environments (A: 15%O2/60%CO2/25%N2, B: 15%O2/30%CO2/55%N2) and vacuum packaging (V). Only E. coli was reduced between 0.72–1.25 log cfu/g from day 1 to day 4 by the combined use of MAP/V, chilling storage and the growth of native lactic acid bacteria. However, L. monocytogenes was not inhibited by the application of V or MAP. Even do, in inoculated samples, this pathogen increased between 1.2–2.7 log cfu/g throughout the study. Consequently, a second experiment that combined the effects of MAP/V and a protective culture (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides PCK 18) against L. monocytogenes was designed. Two different levels of protective cultures were assayed (4 and 6 log cfu/g). Lc. pseudomesenteroides PCK 18 was able to control the growth of L. monocytogenes when the differences between them are higher than 2 log cfu/g. Moreover, when high level of protective culture was used a significant reduction of L. monocytogenes counts were noticed in samples packaged in 60% of CO2 along the storage period, although sensory properties were also affected.
Performance assessment of food safety management systems in animal-based food companies in view of their context characteristics: A European study
Luning, P.A. ; Kirezieva, K. ; Hagelaar, G. ; Rovira, J. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Jacxsens, L. - \ 2015
Food Control 49 (2015). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 11 - 22.
critical control point - hazard analysis - processing plants - united-states - microbial-contamination - haccp implementation - escherichia-coli - pasteurized milk - quality - meat
Recurrently the question arises if efforts in food safety management system (FSMS) have resulted in effective systems in animal-based food production systems. The aim of this study was to gain an insight in the performance of FSMS in European animal-based food production companies in view of their typical context characteristics. Hundred European companies (from Belgium, Spain, The Netherlands, Greece, Italy, and Hungary) varying in company size, and producing different types of fresh and processed animal-derived products (dairy, beef/lamb, poultry, and pork) were assed using a diagnostic instrument. Results indicated that most participating companies adapted adequately their food safety management systems to the riskiness of their context characteristics resulting in rather good safety output scores. Only a small group have overall basic systems and operate in a moderate or moderate-high risk context, which was reflected in lower safety output scores. Companies tend to invest first in the control strategies whereas assurance activities such as verification and validation seem to require more time and effort to achieve advanced levels. Our study demonstrated that also small and medium enterprises managed to have advanced systems, and achieve a good safety output. However, their typical organisational characteristics such as less resources (educated staff, laboratory facilities, time), more restricted formalisation (restricted use of procedures and formal meetings), limited information systems, but more stable workforce, might require more tailored support from government and/or branch organisations to develop towards advanced systems in the case of high-risk products and processes. More in-depth studies to successful SMEs could give insight in best practices to improve FSMS performance.
|Physiological and molecular effects of quercetin
Keijer, Jaap - \ 2014
Swimming-induced exercise promotes hypertrophy and vascularization of fast skeletal muscle fibres and activation of myogenic and angiogenic transcriptional programs in adult zebrafish
Palstra, A.P. ; Rovira, M. ; Rizo-Roca, D. ; Torrella, J.R. ; Spaink, H.P. ; Planas, J.V. - \ 2014
BMC Genomics 15 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 47 p.
satellite cell - gene-expression - danio-rerio - muscular-dystrophies - molecular regulation - cluster-analysis - axial muscle - growth - mass - atrophy
Background The adult skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue with a remarkable ability to adapt to different levels of activity by altering its excitability, its contractile and metabolic phenotype and its mass. We previously reported on the potential of adult zebrafish as a tractable experimental model for exercise physiology, established its optimal swimming speed and showed that swimming-induced contractile activity potentiated somatic growth. Given that the underlying exercise-induced transcriptional mechanisms regulating muscle mass in vertebrates are not fully understood, here we investigated the cellular and molecular adaptive mechanisms taking place in fast skeletal muscle of adult zebrafish in response to swimming. Results Fish were trained at low swimming speed (0.1 m/s; non-exercised) or at their optimal swimming speed (0.4 m/s; exercised). A significant increase in fibre cross-sectional area (1.290¿±¿88 vs. 1.665¿±¿106 µm2) and vascularization (298¿±¿23 vs. 458¿±¿38 capillaries/mm2) was found in exercised over non-exercised fish. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis evidenced the activation of a series of complex transcriptional networks of extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules and pathways involved in the regulation of muscle mass (e.g. IGF-1/PI3K/mTOR, BMP, MSTN), myogenesis and satellite cell activation (e.g. PAX3, FGF, Notch, Wnt, MEF2, Hh, EphrinB2) and angiogenesis (e.g. VEGF, HIF, Notch, EphrinB2, KLF2), some of which had not been previously associated with exercise-induced contractile activity. Conclusions The results from the present study show that exercise-induced contractile activity in adult zebrafish promotes a coordinated adaptive response in fast muscle that leads to increased muscle mass by hypertrophy and increased vascularization by angiogenesis. We propose that these phenotypic adaptations are the result of extensive transcriptional changes induced by exercise. Analysis of the transcriptional networks that are activated in response to exercise in the adult zebrafish fast muscle resulted in the identification of key signaling pathways and factors for the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, myogenesis and angiogenesis that have been remarkably conserved during evolution from fish to mammals. These results further support the validity of the adult zebrafish as an exercise model to decipher the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms governing skeletal muscle mass and function in vertebrates.
|Swim training of adult zebrafish promotes hyptrophy and vascularization of fast skeletal muscle fibers through activation of myogenic and angiogenic transcriptional programs
Rovira, M. ; Palstra, A.P. ; Planas, J.V. - \ 2014
In: Book of abstracts of the International Congress on the Biology of Fish, 03-07 August 2014, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. - - p. 202 - 202.
In zebrafish, as in other teleost species, swimming-induced contractile activity under sustained conditions potentiates somatic growth. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular adaptative mechanisms that take place in the fast skeletal muscle of adult zebrafish in response to swimming. By performing microarray analysis we have identified over four thousand significantly differentially expressed genes in skeletal muscle that are involved in different processes such as muscle growth and development, muscle contraction, angiogenesis, metabolism and immune-related genes. Moreover, swim training increased fibre size (i.e. hypertrophy) and vascularization in fast muscle. These results show that exercise produces meaningful changes in the fast muscle transcriptome and suggest that fibre hypertrophy may be responsible for the growth-promoting effects of exercise accompained by a switch to a more oxidative capacity of white muscle fibres to fuel the energy demands imposed by swimming. These findings provide insight into the cellular and molecular adaptive mechanisms underlying the swimming-induced potentiation of growth.
|Transcriptome profiling of the adults zebrafish heart under swimming-induced exercise
Rovira, M. ; Burgerhout, E. ; Palstra, A.P. ; Planas, J.V. - \ 2014
In: Book of abstracts of the International Congress on the Biology of Fish, 03-07 August 2014, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. - - p. 202 - 202.
Cardiovascular research using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model species has made important contributions to cardiac cell specification, regeneration and function over the last decade. However, the response of the adult zebrafish heart to exercise, known in mammals to elicit important adaptations in this tissue, has not been evaluated to date. Our group is investigating the physiological effects of swimming in adult zebrafish and recently established a swim-training protocol under sustained exercise conditions (i.e. optimal swimming speed) (Palstra et al. PloS One, 5:e14483, 2010). Under these conditions, we subjected adult zebrafish to 20 days of swim-training and analyzed the transcriptomic response in the zebrafish heart by microarray analysis. We identified more than seven hundred differentially expressed genes involved in processes such as cell cycle and proliferation, extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton, muscle contraction, growth factors/signalling pathways and metabolism. These results provide insights into the molecular adaptative mechanisms taking place in the zebrafish heart in response to swimming-induced activity.
Exercise induction of cellular and molecular adaptations in skeletal muscle of adult zebrafish
Rovira, M. ; Palstra, A.P. ; Planas, J.V. - \ 2013
Amblyomma tapirellum (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from tropical forest canopy
Loaiza, J.R. ; Miller, M.J. ; Bermingham, E. ; Sanjur, O.I. ; Jansen, P.A. ; Rovira, J.R. ; Alvarez, E. ; Rodriguez, E. ; Davis, P. ; Dutari, L.C. ; Pecor, J. ; Foley, D. ; Radtke, M. ; Pongsiri, M.J. - \ 2013
F1000 Research 2 (2013). - ISSN 2046-1402
Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide–octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits.
Characterization by culture-dependent and culture-1 independent methods of the 2 bacterial population of suckling-lamb packaged in different atmospheres
Oses, S.M. ; Diez, A.M. ; Melero, B. ; Luning, P.A. ; Jaime, I. ; Rovira, J. - \ 2013
Food Microbiology 36 (2013)2. - ISSN 0740-0020 - p. 216 - 222.
spoilage-related microbiota - escherichia-coli o157-h7 - korean fermented seafood - european quality label - sp-nov. - shelf-life - molecular characterization - processing plants - virulence genes - healthy sheep
This study offers insight into the dynamics of bacterial populations in fresh cuts of suckling lamb under four different atmospheric conditions: air (A), and three Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) environments, 15%O2/30%CO2/55%N2 (C, commercial), 70%O2/30%CO2 (O), and 15%O2/85%CO2 (H) for 18 days. Microbial analyses by both conventional methods and PCR-DGGE were performed. Controversial and surprising results emerged from comparing both methods in relation to the genus Pseudomonas. Thus, conventional methods detected the presence of high numbers of Pseudomonas colonies, although PCR-DGGE only detected this genus in air-packaged samples. PCR-DGGE detected higher microbial diversity in the control samples (A) than in the modified atmospheres (C, O, H), having atmosphere H the fewest number of species. Brochothrix thermosphacta, LAB (Carnobacterium divergens and Lactobacillus sakei), and Escherichia spp. were detected in all the atmospheres throughout storage. Moreover, previously undescribed bacteria from lamb meat such as Enterobacter hormaechei, Staphylococcus equorum and Jeotgalicoccus spp. were also isolated in this study by DGGE. Additionally, qPCR analysis was used to detect and characterize strains of Escherichia coli. Virulence genes (stx1, stx2 and eae) were detected throughout storage in 97% of the samples. A high CO2 atmosphere was the most effective packaging combination doubling storage time in comparison with commercial atmosphere.
Performance of safety management systems in Spanish food service establishments in view of their context characteristics
Luning, P.A. ; Chinchilla, A.C. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Kirezieva, K.K. ; Rovira, J. - \ 2013
Food Control 30 (2013)1. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 331 - 340.
critical control point - foodborne disease outbreaks - techno-managerial approach - microbiological quality - hazard analysis - processing plants - catering industry - french fries - haccp - implementation
Food service establishments (FSE) operate under restricted technological and organisational circumstances, making them susceptible to food safety problems as reported frequently. Aim of this study was to get insight in Food Safety Management System (FSMS) performance in different types of FSE in view of their context characteristics. Assessment of fifty Spanish FSE indicated that all work with high-risk products and processes, are at a vulnerable chain position, provide different organisational support, and adapted differently their FSMS to their high-risk context. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed four clusters of FSE differing in organisational characteristics and FSMS activity levels. The largest cluster, including all small restaurants, showed lowest FSMS performance levels and limited organisational support, i.e. lack of safety expertise/support, restricted requirements on operator competences, limited training, restricted employee involvement, and no formalisation. Overall, they apparently did not use sector guidelines or any expert knowledge to design their FSMS. However, some crucial control measures (like cooling and cooking) performed at an average level; they use professional equipment with known capability with only sometimes unstable performance. Only a small cluster of FSE provided supportive organisational conditions and their systems perform at an average to advanced level. They invested in best available equipment, some tested and adapted to their circumstances, and acquired expertise support to design and independently evaluate their system. FSE with insufficient organisational conditions suffer both a risky context and low activity levels of control and assurance activities, which increases the risk of insufficient safety of meals served. The insights of this study could support food authorities to target their attention to specific groups of FSE and enhance supporting activities.
Microbial performance of food safety management systems implemented in the lamb production chain
Oses, S.M. ; Luning, P.A. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Santillana, S. ; Jaime, I. ; Rovira, J. - \ 2012
Journal of Food Protection 75 (2012)1. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 95 - 103.
escherichia-coli o157 - beef processing plants - aerobic-bacteria - red meat - carcasses - prevalence - contamination - enterobacteriaceae - campylobacter - salmonella
The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety management system (FSMS) that was implemented according to legislative requirements. Microbial safety level profiles were constructed for each establishment and provided clear indications of which pathogens, hygiene indicators, or utility parameters required attention to improve the performance of the microbiological control protocols of the implemented FSMS. The highest contamination was found in the slaughterhouses in samples taken from the meat products (aerobic mesophilic plate counts [AMPs] of 3.40 to 6.63 log CFU/cm(2) and Enterobacteriaceae counts of 1.00 to 4.62 log CFU/cm(2)), contact surfaces (AMPs of 2.44 to 8.92 log CFU/cm(2)), and operators' hands and/or gloves (AMPs of 2.84 to 8.09 log CFU/cm(2)), especially after hide removal and evisceration. The microbial assessment scheme is a useful tool for providing insight into the actual microbiological results achieved with an FSMS implemented in establishments at various stages along the lamb production chain.
Food safety management systems performance in the lamb production chain
Oses, S.M. ; Luning, P.A. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Jaime, I. ; Rovira, J. - \ 2012
Food Control 25 (2012)2. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 493 - 500.
escherichia-coli o157-h7 - beef processing plants - haccp-based approach - lactic-acid - steam pasteurization - pathogenic bacteria - bovine carcasses - spray washes - supply chain - hot-water
This study describes a performance measurement of implemented food safety management system (FSMS) along the lamb chain using an FSMS-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI) and a Microbiological Assessment Scheme (MAS). Three slaughterhouses, 1 processing plant and 5 butcher shops were evaluated. All the actors along the lamb chain achieved a moderate risky contextual situation, operating in a basic-average FSMS, which was not enough to obtain a good food safety output. Different suggestions are advised for each actor along the lamb chain for improvements towards higher FSMS activity levels or lower risk levels in context characteristics. The combined assessment is a useful tool to identify the possible causes of poor food safety performance in the lamb chain using few sampling locations, saving time and money.
Analysis of myokine gene expression in zebrafish skeletal muscle in response to swimming-induced activity
Rovira, M. ; Palstra, A.P. ; Planas, J.V. - \ 2012
In: Conference of European comparative endocrinologists, Zurich 21-25 August 2012 Zurich : University of Zurich - p. 31 - 32.
Tools for the performance assessment and improvement of food safety management systems ; review
Jacxsens, L. ; Luning, P.A. ; Marcelis, W.J. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Rovira, J. ; Oses Gomez, S. ; Kousta, M. ; Drosinos, E.H. ; Jasson, V. ; Uyttendaele, M. - \ 2011
Trends in Food Science and Technology 22 (2011)Suppl.1. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. S80 - S89.
assurance systems - hazard analysis - poultry meat - quality - implementation - enterprises - adoption - pork
Food business operators are challenged to combine requirements from different stakeholders (e.g. government, retailers) into a company specific Food Safety Management System (FSMS). Tools to diagnose the performance of an implemented FSMS (diagnostic tools), tools to help a selection process (selection tools), and tools to improve the FSMS performance (improvement tools) are presented. These tools have been validated in European food processing industries (meat and dairy chain). They are organised towards an on-line freely available FSMS support application which can be used for the internal auditing process. These tools should empower food business operators to improve the performance of FSMS and to produce safer food products.
Establishing zebrafish as a novel exercise model
Palstra, A.P. ; Tudorache, C. ; Rovira, M. ; Márquez, S. ; Brittijn, A. ; Burgerhout, E. ; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M. ; Spaink, H.P. ; Planas, J.V. - \ 2011
A tool to diagnose context riskiness in view of food safety activities and microbiological safety output
Luning, P.A. ; Marcelis, W.J. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Rovira, J. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Jacxsens, L. - \ 2011
Trends in Food Science and Technology 22 (2011)1. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. S67 - S79.
critical control point - techno-managerial approach - quality management - hazard analysis - catering establishments - 3rd-party certification - listeria-monocytogenes - haccp implementation - small businesses - supply chain
Stakeholders entail increasing demands on food safety management systems (FSMS) stimulating ongoing efforts of companies to progress to more advanced systems. However, the actual microbiological food safety (FS) output is not only a result of the performance of an FSMS, but it also depends on the system’s context. Based on the assumption that companies in a high-risk context need advanced control and assurance activities, while in a low-risk context lower levels might be sufficient to realise a good FS output, this paper describes a diagnostic tool to assess riskiness of the context of an FSMS. Four major context factors product, process, organisation, and production chain environment have been described with sets of indicators and grids with descriptions of different risk levels. Finally, the paper discusses how advanced FSMS activities can better deal with a high-risk context
A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries
Luning, P.A. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Rovira, J. ; Oses Gomez, S. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Marcelis, W.J. - \ 2011
Food Control 22 (2011)3/4. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 555 - 565.
techno-managerial approach - listeria-monocytogenes - spp. contamination - campylobacter spp. - poultry - quality - hygiene - plant - beef - environment
Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by microbiological testing. This paper discusses the usefulness of a concurrent diagnosis of FSMS performance and FS output using new tools; illustrated for three meat-processing companies. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. (food safety indicators), Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae (hygiene indicators), and total viable counts TVC (overall performance) were analysed at ten critical sampling locations covering both product and environmental samples, using the Microbial Assessment Scheme diagnosis. Riskiness of FSMS context and performance of core FSMS activities were assessed using a diagnostic tool (including 51 indicators and corresponding grids with level descriptions). For the (large) beef meat processor, the FS output diagnosis showed too high TVC but the high activity scores of their FSMS indicated that this problem could be only solved by supplier measures. Likewise, for the (medium-size) poultry meat processor, the activity/context diagnosis showed a clear dependency on suppliers. However, the FS output diagnosis revealed a broader contamination problem, and additional measures to improve, amongst others, sanitation program, compliance to procedures, personal hygienic requirements seem necessary. The FS output diagnosis of the (small) lamb meat processor showed various contamination problems (but no pathogens) corresponding with various low activity levels in combination with he high-risk context. The combined diagnosis provided clear directions for improvement to move towards more advanced FSMS activity levels or to reduce riskiness in context
|Desarrollo de diferentes estrategias para aumentar la seguridad y la vida util en productos de carne de cordero a lo largo de la cadena alimentaria
Gomez, S.M.O. - \ 2010
Universidad de Burgos. Promotor(en): Pieternel Luning, co-promotor(en): J. Rovira Carballido. -
Tools to support the self assessment of the performance of Food Safety Management Systems
Luning, P.A. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Jasson, V. ; Marcelis, W.J. ; Kussaga, J. ; Spiegel, M. van der; Koesta, M. ; Oses Gomez, S. ; Rovira, J. ; Devlieghere, F. ; Uyttendaele, M. - \ 2010
In: im&c Madrid : Burgos: Instituto Tomás Pascual Sanz; Universidad de Burgos - ISBN 9788478670543 - p. 31 - 43.
Changes in food supply chains, health and demographic situations, lifestyle and social situations, environmental conditions, and increased legislative requirements have led to significant efforts in the development of quality and safety management systems in agribusiness and food industry worldwide (Ropkins and Beck, 2000; Efstratiadis, Karirti, and Arvanitoyannis, 2000; Jacxsens, et al, 2009a, Luning and Marcelis, 2009a). Nowadays, companies have implemented various quality assurance (QA) guidelines and standards, such as GMP and HACCP guidelines (like General Principles of food hygiene (Codex Alimentarius 2003), GFSI guidance document (GFSI (2007), and quality assurance standards (like ISO 9001:2008 (2008), ISO22000:2005 (2005), BRC (2008), and IFS (2007) into their company own food safety management system. The performance of such systems in practice is, however, still variable. Moreover, the continuous pressure on food safety management system (FSMS) performance and the dynamic environment wherein the systems operate (such as emerging pathogens, changing consumer demands, developments in preservation techniques) require that they can be systematically analysed to determine opportunities for improvement (Wallace, et al, 2005; Manning et al, 2006; Van der Spiegel et al, 2006; Cornier et al, 2007; Luning et al, 2009a). Within the European project entitled ‘PathogenCombat- EU FOOD-CT-2005-007081’ various tools have been developed to support food companies and establishments in systematically analysing and judging their food safety management system and its microbiological performance as basis for strategic choices on interventions to improve the FSMS performance. This chapter describes briefly principles of the major tools that have been developed and some others, which are still under still under construction.