Excreta emissions in progeny of low and high enteric methane yield selection line sheep fed pasture of different qualities
Jonker, A. ; MacLean, S. ; Woyimo Woju, C. ; Garcia Rendon Calzada, M. ; Yu, W. ; Molano, G. ; Hickey, S. ; Pinares-Patiño, C.S. ; McEwan, J.C. ; Janssen, P.H. ; Sandoval, E. ; Lewis, S. ; Rowe, S. - \ 2019
Animal Feed Science and Technology 257 (2019). - ISSN 0377-8401
Animal variation - Breeding value - Greenhouse gas - Nitrous oxide - Repeatability - Urine
Selection of sheep with low enteric methane (CH4) emissions is a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option suitable for pastoral systems. However, the effect of breeding sheep with low enteric CH4 emissions on excreta output and associated CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and therefore total GHG emissions are not known. The objective of the current experiments were to determine excreta output, and estimate associated GHG emissions, from progeny of low and high enteric CH4 per unit of dry matter intake (DMI) selection line sheep (CH4/DMI). The animals were fed two qualities of cut perennial ryegrass-based pasture (very mature vs. vegetative, 12 animals per CH4/DMI line) in Exp. 1 and cut pasture in two repeated seasons (autumn and winter; 15 animals per CH4/DMI line × 2 seasons) in Exp. 2. Total faecal and urine output was determined on individual animals, followed by enteric CH4 emission measurements in respiration chambers. GHG emissions from urine (N2O) and faeces (CH4 and N2O) were estimated based on New Zealand Agricultural GHG Inventory methodology. There was no interaction between CH4/DMI selection line and diet quality in Exp. 1 or seasons in Exp.2. Total daily faecal output of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF; all g/d) and associated calculated faecal CH4 emissions were greater for low compared to high CH4/DMI sheep in Exp. 1 (P < 0.05), while being similar between CH4/DMI selection lines in Exp. 2. Nitrogen (N) excretion and N partitioning into urine, faeces and body retention, and calculated excreta N emissions, were mostly similar between CH4/DMI selection line sheep in both experiments. Except, faecal N output (g/d and per unit of N intake) and associated calculated direct faecal N2O-N emissions (g/d) were greater in low compared to high CH4/DMI sheep in Exp. 1 (P < 0.05). Enteric CH4 emissions were numerically 8% less (P = 0.15) in Exp.1 and 10% less (P = 0.004) in Exp. 2 and total animal level GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) were numerically 7% less (P = 0.21) in Exp. 1 and 8% less (P = 0.006) in Exp.2 for progeny of the low compared to the high CH4/DMI line sheep. In conclusion, the magnitude of difference in enteric CH4 (expressed as CO2-equivalent) between low and high CH4/DMI selection line sheep were still present when CH4 from faeces and N2O emissions from urine and faeces were also accounted for. The animal genetic traits were expressed independent of environmental factors, i.e. pasture quality and season.
Currently legislated decreases in nitrogen deposition will yield only limited plant species recovery in European forests
Dirnböck, Thomas ; Pröll, Gisela ; Austnes, Kari ; Beloica, Jelena ; Beudert, Burkhard ; Canullo, Roberto ; Marco, Alessandra De; Fornasier, Maria Francesca ; Futter, Martyn ; Goergen, Klaus ; Grandin, Ulf ; Holmberg, Maria ; Lindroos, Antti Jussi ; Mirtl, Michael ; Neirynck, Johan ; Pecka, Tomasz ; Nieminen, Tiina Maileena ; Nordbakken, Jørn Frode ; Posch, Maximilian ; Reinds, Gert Jan ; Rowe, Edwin C. ; Salemaa, Maija ; Scheuschner, Thomas ; Starlinger, Franz ; Uziȩbło, Aldona Katarzyna ; Valinia, Salar ; Weldon, James ; Wamelink, Wieger G.W. ; Forsius, Martin - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)12. - ISSN 1748-9318
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution is considered responsible for a substantial decline in plant species richness and for altered community structures in terrestrial habitats worldwide. Nitrogen affects habitats through direct toxicity, soil acidification, and in particular by favoring fast-growing species. Pressure from N pollution is decreasing in some areas. In Europe (EU28), overall emissions of NO x declined by more than 50% while NH 3 declined by less than 30% between the years 1990 and 2015, and further decreases may be achieved. The timescale over which these improvements will affect ecosystems is uncertain. Here we use 23 European forest research sites with high quality long-term data on deposition, climate, soil recovery, and understory vegetation to assess benefits of currently legislated N deposition reductions in forest understory vegetation. A dynamic soil model coupled to a statistical plant species niche model was applied with site-based climate and deposition. We use indicators of N deposition and climate warming effects such as the change in the occurrence of oligophilic, acidophilic, and cold-tolerant plant species to compare the present with projections for 2030 and 2050. The decrease in N deposition under current legislation emission (CLE) reduction targets until 2030 is not expected to result in a release from eutrophication. Albeit the model predictions show considerable uncertainty when compared with observations, they indicate that oligophilic forest understory plant species will further decrease. This result is partially due to confounding processes related to climate effects and to major decreases in sulphur deposition and consequent recovery from soil acidification, but shows that decreases in N deposition under CLE will most likely be insufficient to allow recovery from eutrophication.
Modelling impacts of atmospheric deposition and temperature on long-term DOC trends
Sawicka, Kasia ; Rowe, E.C. ; Evans, C.D. ; Monteith, D.T. ; Vanguelova, E.I. ; Wade, A.J. ; Clark, J.M. - \ 2017
Science of the Total Environment 578 (2017). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 323 - 336.
It is increasingly recognised that widespread and substantial increases in Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in remote surface, and soil, waters in recent decades are linked to declining acid deposition. Effects of rising pH and declining ionic strength on DOC solubility have been proposed as potential dominant mechanisms. However, since DOC in these systems is derived mainly from recently-fixed carbon, and since organic matter decomposition rates are considered sensitive to temperature, uncertainty persists over the extent to which other drivers that could influence DOC production. Such potential drivers include fertilisation by nitrogen (N) and global warming. We therefore ran the dynamic soil chemistry model MADOC for a range of UK soils, for which time series data are available, to consider the likely relative importance of decreased deposition of sulphate and chloride, accumulation of reactive N, and higher temperatures, on soil DOC production in different soils. Modelled patterns of DOC change generally agreed favourably with measurements collated over 10–20 years, but differed markedly between sites. While the acidifying effect of sulphur deposition appeared to be the predominant control on the observed soil water DOC trends in all the soils considered other than a blanket peat, the model suggested that over the long term, the effects of nitrogen deposition on N-limited soils may have been sufficient to raise the “acid recovery DOC baseline” significantly. In contrast, reductions in non-marine chloride deposition and effects of long term warming appeared to have been relatively unimportant. The suggestion that future DOC concentrations might exceed preindustrial levels as a consequence of nitrogen pollution has important implications for drinking water catchment management and the setting and pursuit of appropriate restoration targets, but findings still require validation from reliable centennial-scale proxy records, such as those being developed using palaeolimnological techniques.
Love food, hate the brand that I waste: The effects of product waste on brand evaluations
Herpen, E. van; Hooge, I.E. de - \ 2016
- p. 59 - 60.
In 2010, the total generation of waste in the European Union amounted to 2 506 million tons (Eurostat). This represents a huge loss of resources and of ‘unused utility’: throwing away of functioning appliances, unused products, and edible foods. Yet, wasting is not a carefree activity for consumers. Consumers follow complex procedures in managing the residual value of discarded food items to lessen anxieties about wastage (Evans, 2012; Graham-Rowe et al., 2014; Parizeau et al., 2015). Moreover, a distaste for waste affects consumers’ choices, such as favoring options with less unused utility (Bolton and Alba, 2012) or persevering in a failing project when stopping would involve waste (Arkes, 1996). The current research provides insights into this contradiction between wasting a lot and not wanting to waste, and reveals the consequences of waste for brand evaluations.
Waste and brand evaluations
Waste can be understood as the result of not using a product to its full capacity. Whereas both throwing away a food container that still holds leftovers and throwing away an emptied food container would lead to the generation of waste, there is an important difference in the unused utility that is wasted, in this example in the form of uneaten food. This salient unused utility is aversive for consumers (Bolton and Alba, 2012). According to cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957), the occurrence of “nonfitting” relations among cognitive elements (which could entail attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors) is unpleasant and leads to psychological discomfort (also termed dissonance). Thus, consumers would like to solve this dissonance in the current waste situation. Because attitudes can be altered more easily than previously displayed behaviors, attitude change is a common way in which people reduce dissonance (Galinsky et al., 2008; Simon et al., 1995; Starzyk et al., 2009). Therefore, we expect that wasting a product with left-over utility would generate cognitive dissonance, and that this dissonance would be solved by decreasing evaluations of the wasted brand.
Importantly, when a product with left-over utility is discarded, the left-over utility is not necessarily wasted. Different disposition behaviors are possible: throwing it away, giving it away, trading it, and selling it (Jacoby et al., 1977). If unused utility can be transferred to another person, the level of psychological discomfort should be lower than if unused utility is lost. Thus, we expect that wasting a product with left-over utility leads to more cognitive dissonance and more decreased brand evaluations than other ways of disposing a product.
Finally, the predicted effect should depend on brand salience. Dissonance reduction through brand evaluations should be less likely when the brand itself is not salient when wasting the product (i.e., when the brand is not visible, and there is thus no reminder of the brand name).
We tested our hypotheses in four studies. The first three studies were scenario studies. Study 1 examined the effect of different ways of disposing products on dissonance feelings. Results showed that wasting a product (irrespective of whether it was thrown away or recycled) lead to more dissonance than transferring utility to another person (irrespective of whether the product was used in its original intended purpose). Study 2 tested the effects of wasting on brand evaluations. Respondents imagined that they had purchased a drink they could not consume entirely, and that they either threw the remaining product in the bin (waste condition) or gave it to a friend (no-waste condition). Brand evaluations were lower in the waste condition than in the no-waste condition. Study 3 ruled out alternative explanations (transfer of disgust, cf. Morales and Fitzsimons, 2007, and attribution of waste to the brand).
Study 4 investigated waste in a situation with real product consumption, to generalize our results beyond imagined situations. It also tested the moderating effect of brand salience. Respondents prepared and ate a salad in the lab. In the brand-salient condition, product containers with the same brand name were placed next to bowls with ingredients, whereas in the brand-not-salient condition only unlabeled bowls were provided. In both conditions, respondents were aware of the brand through the instructions. The amount of ingredients provided ensured that there were leftover ingredients. As dissonance is more likely when people believe that they freely choose their behavior (Harmon-Jones, 2000), in the waste condition respondents could ask for sandwich bags to take leftover ingredients home or put leftover ingredients in a bin (only six respondents asked for bags). In the no-waste condition, respondents could take leftover ingredients home or leave these on the table for future respondents (none took ingredients home). All participants then evaluated the brand.
Our results showed the expected waste x salience interaction effect (F(1, 120) = 5.32, p = .023). When the brand was not salient, wasting did not affect brand evaluations (p = .156). In contrast, when brand was salient, brand evaluations were marginally higher when ingredients were left on the table (M = 5.19) than when these were wasted (M = 4.75, p = .069). Mediation analyses showed that dissonance was a mediator when salience was high (b = 0.27, CI [0.05, 0.58]) but not when salience was low (b = 0.13, CI [-0.15, 0.48]).
Our research shows that consumers can reduce dissonance from wasting a product with unused utility by decreasing their brand evaluations. This was found both in scenario studies and in a food consumption context. Results furthermore reveal that brand devaluation does not occur when the brand is not salient at the moment of wasting. This provides new insights to literature on consumer disposition behavior that help clarify the paradox in which consumers both waste products and do not want to waste. It also has important managerial implications. The realization that brand evaluations suffer when consumers waste products with unused utility could inspire companies to spend additional efforts on preventing this. It also provides brand managers with compelling arguments to tackle the waste issue.
Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming
Crowther, T.W. ; Todd-Brown, K.E.O. ; Rowe, C.W. ; Wieder, W.R. ; Carey, J.C. ; Machmuller, M.B. ; Snoek, B.L. ; Fang, S. ; Zhou, G. ; Allison, S.D. ; Blair, J.M. ; Bridgham, S.D. ; Burton, A.J. ; Carrillo, Y. ; Reich, P.B. ; Clark, J.S. ; Classen, A.T. ; Dijkstra, F.A. ; Elberling, B. ; Emmett, B.A. ; Estiarte, M. ; Frey, S.D. ; Guo, J. ; Harte, J. ; Jiang, L. ; Johnson, B.R. ; Kröel-Dulay, G. ; Larsen, K.S. ; Laudon, H. ; Lavallee, J.M. ; Luo, Y. ; Lupascu, M. ; Ma, L.N. ; Marhan, S. ; Michelsen, A. ; Mohan, J. ; Niu, S. ; Pendall, E. ; Peñuelas, J. ; Pfeifer-Meister, L. ; Poll, C. ; Reinsch, S. ; Reynolds, L.L. ; Schmidt, I.K. ; Sistla, S. ; Sokol, N.W. ; Templer, P.H. ; Treseder, K.K. ; Welker, J.M. ; Bradford, M.A. - \ 2016
Nature 540 (2016)7631. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 104 - 108.
The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ± 161 petagrams of carbon under one degree of warming, depending on the rate at which the effects of warming are realized. Under the conservative assumption that the response of soil carbon to warming occurs within a year, a business-as-usual climate scenario would drive the loss of 55 ± 50 petagrams of carbon from the upper soil horizons by 2050. This value is around 12–17 per cent of the expected anthropogenic emissions over this period. Despite the considerable uncertainty in our estimates, the direction of the global soil carbon response is consistent across all scenarios. This provides strong empirical support for the idea that rising temperatures will stimulate the net loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere, driving a positive land carbon–climate feedback that could accelerate climate change.
Risk/Benefit Communication about Food—A Systematic Review of the Literature
Frewer, L.J. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Brennan, M. ; Bánáti, D. ; Lion, R. ; Meertens, R.M. ; Rowe, G. ; Siegrist, M. ; Verbeke, W. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. - \ 2016
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56 (2016)10. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 1728 - 1745.
benefit communication - food hazard - food safety - risk communication - Risk perception - trust
A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviors. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest to researchers than others, perhaps reflecting the occurrence of a crisis, or policy concern. Three broad themes relevant to the development of best practice in risk (benefit) communication were identified: the characteristics of the target population; the contents of the information; and the characteristics of the information sources. Within these themes, independent and dependent variables differed considerably. Overall, acute risk (benefit) communication will require advances in communication process whereas chronic communication needs to identify audience requirements. Both citizen's risk/benefit perceptions and (if relevant) related behaviors need to be taken into account, and recommendations for behavioral change need to be concrete and actionable. The application of theoretical frameworks to the study of risk (benefit) communication was infrequent, and developing predictive models of effective risk (benefit) communication may be contingent on improved theoretical perspectives.
Modeling soil processes : Review, key challenges, and new perspectives
Vereecken, H. ; Schnepf, A. ; Hopmans, J.W. ; Javaux, M. ; Or, D. ; Roose, T. ; Vanderborght, J. ; Young, M.H. ; Amelung, W. ; Aitkenhead, M. ; Allison, S.D. ; Assouline, S. ; Baveye, P. ; Berli, M. ; Brüggemann, N. ; Finke, P. ; Flury, M. ; Gaiser, T. ; Govers, G. ; Ghezzehei, T. ; Hallett, P. ; Hendricks Franssen, H.J. ; Heppell, J. ; Horn, R. ; Huisman, J.A. ; Jacques, D. ; Jonard, F. ; Kollet, S. ; Lafolie, F. ; Lamorski, K. ; Leitner, D. ; Mcbratney, A. ; Minasny, B. ; Montzka, C. ; Nowak, W. ; Pachepsky, Y. ; Padarian, J. ; Romano, N. ; Roth, K. ; Rothfuss, Y. ; Rowe, E.C. ; Schwen, A. ; Šimůnek, J. ; Tiktak, A. ; Dam, Jos van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Vogel, H.J. ; Vrugt, J.A. ; Wöhling, T. ; Wöhling, T. ; Young, I.M. - \ 2016
Vadose Zone Journal 15 (2016)5. - ISSN 1539-1663 - 57 p.
The remarkable complexity of soil and its importance to a wide range of ecosystem services presents major challenges to the modeling of soil processes. Although major progress in soil models has occurred in the last decades, models of soil processes remain disjointed between disciplines or ecosystem services, with considerable uncertainty remaining in the quality of predictions and several challenges that remain yet to be addressed. First, there is a need to improve exchange of knowledge and experience among the different disciplines in soil science and to reach out to other Earth science communities. Second, the community needs to develop a new generation of soil models based on a systemic approach comprising relevant physical, chemical, and biological processes to address critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of soil processes and their interactions. Overcoming these challenges will facilitate exchanges between soil modeling and climate, plant, and social science modeling communities. It will allow us to contribute to preserve and improve our assessment of ecosystem services and advance our understanding of climate-change feedback mechanisms, among others, thereby facilitating and strengthening communication among scientific disciplines and society. We review the role of modeling soil processes in quantifying key soil processes that shape ecosystem services, with a focus on provisioning and regulating services. We then identify key challenges in modeling soil processes, including the systematic incorporation of heterogeneity and uncertainty, the integration of data and models, and strategies for effective integration of knowledge on physical, chemical, and biological soil processes. We discuss how the soil modeling community could best interface with modern modeling activities in other disciplines, such as climate, ecology, and plant research, and how to weave novel observation and measurement techniques into soil models. We propose the establishment of an international soil modeling consortium to coherently advance soil modeling activities and foster communication with other Earth science disciplines. Such a consortium should promote soil modeling platforms and data repository for model development, calibration and intercomparison essential for addressing contemporary challenges.
Matrix-free hydrodynamic study on the size distribution and conformation of three technical lignins from wood and non-wood
Alzahrani, Q.E. ; Adams, G.G. ; Gillis, R.B. ; Besong, T.M.D. ; Kök, M.S. ; Fong, Emily ; Harding, R.A. ; Dam, J.E.G. Van; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Rowe, A.J. ; Harding, S.E. - \ 2016
Holzforschung 70 (2016)2. - ISSN 0018-3830 - p. 117 - 125.
Alcell L - analytical ultracentrifugation - disc shape - DMSO - kraft L - soda L - viscometry
Molecular weight (MW) and related conformational data of three commercially available technical lignins (Alcell L, kraft L, and soda L) have been studied by means of analytical ultracentrifugation, taking advantage of some recent developments in both sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium determinations. The lignins were dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide (with ca. 90% solubility), and solutions were studied with regards to their oligomeric state, heterogeneity profiles (distribution of sedimentation coefficients), and molecular weight distributions (MWD). Alcell L and soda L have similar properties showing one major low MW component and two minor high MW components, whereas kraft L appears to be larger and more uniform, i.e., it shows a more monodisperse MWD. Weight average molecular weight (Mw) data from sedimentation equilibrium obtained by the new SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure in conjunction with MULTISIG analysis were found to be ~18 kDa (Alcell L), 25 kDa (kraft L), and 15 kDa (soda L). Further analysis of the data by means of the routines MULTISIG and M-INVEQ confirmed the presence of additional components in Alcell L and soda L, and the larger size and high degree of monodispersity of kraft L. The intrinsic viscosity data of the three lignins were found to be very similar in the range of 22-24 ml g-1, and all data were consistent with an elongated plate shape molecular structure with an equivalent discoid aspect ratio ~30.
Field survey based models for exploring nitrogen and acidity effects on plant species diversity and assessing long-term critical loads
Rowe, E.C. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Smart, S.M. ; Butler, A. ; Henrys, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Reinds, G.J. ; Evans, C. ; Kros, J. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
In: Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Environmental Pollution / de Vries, W., Hettelingh, J.P., Posch, M., Springer Verlag - ISBN 9789401795081 - p. 297 - 326.
Empirical critical loads are based on current evidence for relationships between the rate of pollutant deposition and changes to ecosystems observed in experiments and surveys. When considering longer-term change and effects of changes in deposition rate after periods of deposition in excess of the critical load, dynamic modelling approaches are useful. This chapter describes two soil-vegetation-floristics model chains, similar in concept, that are being applied in the Netherlands and the UK to explore pollution scenarios and calculate long-term critical loads for acidity and nutrient-N. These model chains consist of dynamic models of soil and vegetation biogeochemistry, combined with environmental suitability models that define the realised niche for the species or assemblage. The environmental suitability models described in this chapter are based on empirical relationships between species (MOVE, PROPS, MultiMOVE) or assemblage (NTM3) occurrence and environmental conditions, defined on multiple axes. They are driven by different biogeochemical models, forming the model chains SMART2-(SUMO2)-PROPS/NTM3 and MADOC-MultiMOVE. In this chapter these model chains are described in detail, and applications to scenario exploration and setting critical loads are demonstrated.
Effective stakeholder involvement in agri-food governance and policy development
Wentholt, M.T.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lynn Frewer, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer; G. Rowe. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461731234 - 196
beleid inzake voedsel - landbouwbeleid - voedsel - governance - beleid - risico - stakeholders - deskundigen - landbouw - delphimethode - food policy - agricultural policy - food - governance - policy - risk - stakeholders - experts - agriculture - delphi method
The aim of this thesis is to develop insight into optimal expert involvement practice within the agri-food governance and policy making domain. Following a systematic review of the published literature, it was determined that Delphi methodology appeared to be appropriate to elicit expert opinion and gather evidence in the complex policy domain associated with risk, food and agriculture. To this end, three Delphi studies in agri-food policy development were conducted.
|The road to genetic selection for methane emission from ruminants - a global approach
Haas, Y. de; Lassen, J. ; Pickering, N.K. ; Oddy, V.H. ; Wall, E. ; Gengler, N. ; Dehareng, F. ; Lovendahl, P. ; Rowe, S. - \ 2014
Expert involvement in policy development: A systematic review of current practice
Fischer, A.R.H. ; Wentholt, M.T.A. ; Rowe, E.J. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2014
Science and Public Policy 41 (2014)3. - ISSN 0302-3427 - p. 332 - 343.
participation - diseases - delphi - consultation - science
In what ways are experts involved in policy development, and with what results? This paper attempts to answer these questions through a structured review of the academic literature, focusing on the identification of ‘methodologies’ of expert involvement, and on analying the subsequent policy impact of those exercises. Coding was applied to 103 articles, revealing that only a small range of methods has been utilised, that method choice is infrequently justified, and with little evidence of evaluation (either of the expert involvement process or of policy impact). We argue that robust evaluative processes are necessary to refine the efficacy of involvement processes (and the accuracy with which involvement methods are aligned to specific types of policy questions) and to document policy translation of outcomes. We therefore propose a framework to identify appropriate consultation methods for specific policy questions, and suggest some criteria for reporting expert involvement processes in the future. Keywords: expert involvement; policy development; policy translation; stakeholder involvement; systematic review.
Attitudes and attitudinal ambivalence change towards nanotechnology applied to food production
Fischer, A.R.H. ; Dijk, H. van; Jonge, J. de; Rowe, G. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2013
Public Understanding of Science 22 (2013)7/8. - ISSN 0963-6625 - p. 817 - 831.
genetically-modified foods - emerging technologies - resisting persuasion - perceived benefits - public acceptance - health-risks - news media - trust - science - model
The strategic development of novel nanotechnologies will be determined by their public acceptance, which in turn may be influenced by public perceptions of the risks and benefits associated with the specific applications. At the present time, public opinions towards nanotechnologies remain largely inchoate, although this is likely to change with increasing public exposure to relevant information. In two experiments, a total of 618 participants, from the UK population, were provided with different risk–benefit information on nanotechnology application in food. The results show that the provision of both risk and benefit information does not influence average attitude, but results in some individuals becoming more positive and less ambivalent and others more negative and less ambivalent towards nanotechnologies. A third group maintained a neutral attitude and became more ambivalent. It is concluded that to understand public opinion formation about nanotechnology keeping track of polarization and ambivalence is important
The Impact of Balanced Risk-Benefit Information and Initial Attitudes on Post-Information Attitudes
Dijk, H. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Jonge, J. de; Rowe, G. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Applied Social Psychology 42 (2012)8. - ISSN 0021-9029 - p. 1958 - 1983.
genetically-modified foods - gene technology - perception - negativity - trust - polarization - pesticides - acceptance - resistance - persuasion
In a realistic social context, people are confronted with both positive and negative information, yet research on this topic is relatively scarce. We present 2 studies examining the role of initial attitudes on the impact of one-sided vs. balanced positive and negative information on attitudes toward food production methods. The first experiment demonstrated that one-sided information influenced postinformation attitudes congruent to the direction of the message content. The second experiment showed that the effect of balanced information on post-information attitudes may depend on initial attitudes. These results demonstrate that negativity effects are dominant for people with initial positive attitudes, but change into positivity effects for people with initial negative attitudes. Implications for communicating both positive and negative information are discussed.
Consumer response to novel agri-food technologies: Implications for predicting consumer acceptance of emerging food technologies
Frewer, L.J. ; Bergmann, K. ; Brennan, M. ; Lion, R. ; Meertens, R. ; Rowe, G. ; Siegrist, M. ; Vereijken, C. - \ 2011
Trends in Food Science and Technology 22 (2011)8. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 442 - 456.
genetically-modified food - pulsed electric-fields - high-pressure - public acceptance - gm foods - nanotechnology - risk - perception - attitudes - irradiation
The issue of consumer acceptance of food technologies, and their applications, needs to be addressed early in technology development. However, whether extensive assessment of consumer acceptance is necessary for all food-related technologies a priori is uncertain. A review of studies of seven foodrelated technologies associated with different levels of public acceptance suggests that those characterised as being ‘bioactive’ raise particular concerns - related to unpredictable effects, uncontrolled use, and ethical concerns. Perceptions of ‘unnaturalness’ alone are unlikely to raise a food technology to high levels of public rejection. Trust in regulation and effective labelling are also important considerations
The use of Delphi methodology in agrifood policy development: Some lessons learned
Frewer, L.J. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Wentholt, M.T.A. ; Marvin, H.J.P. ; Ooms, B.W. ; Coles, D.G. ; Rowe, G. - \ 2011
Technological Forecasting and Social Change 78 (2011)9. - ISSN 0040-1625 - p. 1514 - 1525.
risk-management practices - food risk - infectious-disease - research agenda - crisis - spread - safety
Developing policy in the agrifood area is an inexact process, usually relying upon effective integration of opinions from multiple experts from different disciplines, organisational types, and regions/countries. Delphi would appear to have the potential to overcome some of the typical limitations related to soliciting expert opinion and identifying consensus on future activities or options, particularly where relevant experts are dispersed geographically, and international consensus is required, as is the case in this domain. Three case studies, focused on the application of Delphi to emerging policy needs in international or European agrifood policy, are presented here to exemplify the utility of the technique. A number of practical recommendations are drawn from these case studies that may be applicable to other major policy making arenas. Among these recommendations are; that an exploratory workshop to refine round one Delphi questions is essential; that the implementation of “cascade” methodology (utilizing the personal contacts of researchers or members of existing policy networks) appears to increase response rates in subsequent Delphi rounds; and that the policy issue under discussion should be particularly relevant to stakeholders in order to increase participation rates. Further research might usefully focus on developing ways to incorporate measurements of uncertainty associated with stakeholder judgement into quantitative responses, and on establishing how best to utilise such information in feedback in subsequent Delphi rounds. Ensuring how best to inform policy uptake of the outputs of Delphi merits further research in particular.
|Public Engagement with Emerging Issues in Agri-Food Nanotechnology
Frewer, L.J. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Rowe, G. - \ 2011
In: Nanotechnology in the Agri-Food Sector. Implications for the Future / Frewer, L.J., Norde, W., Fischer, A.R.H., Kampers, F.W.H., Weinheim, Germany : Wiley-VCH - ISBN 9783527330607 - p. 257 - 270.
Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development
Giller, K.E. ; Tittonell, P.A. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Wijk, M.T. van; Zingore, S. ; Mapfumo, P. ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Herrero, M. ; Chikowo, R. ; Corbeels, M. ; Rowe, E.C. ; Baijukya, F.P. ; Mwijage, A. ; Smith, J. ; Yeboah, E. ; Burg, W.J. van der; Sanogo, O. ; Misiko, M. ; Ridder, N. de; Karanja, S. ; Kaizzi, C.K. ; K'ungu, J. ; Mwale, M. ; Nwaga, D. ; Pacini, C. ; Vanlauwe, B. - \ 2011
Agricultural Systems 104 (2011)2. - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 191 - 203.
nutrient use efficiencies - crop-livestock systems - western kenya - smallholder farms - land-use - southern mali - cycling efficiencies - exploring diversity - resource-allocation - dynamics
African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date few approaches to understand constraints and explore options for change have tackled the bewildering complexity of African farming systems. In this paper we describe the Nutrient Use in Animal and Cropping systems – Efficiencies and Scales (NUANCES) framework. NUANCES offers a structured approach to unravel and understand the complexity of African farming to identify what we term ‘best-fit’ technologies – technologies targeted to specific types of farmers and to specific niches within their farms. The NUANCES framework is not ‘just another computer model’! We combine the tools of systems analysis and experimentation, detailed field observations and surveys, incorporate expert knowledge (local knowledge and results of research), generate databases, and apply simulation models to analyse performance of farms, and the impacts of introducing new technologies. We have analysed and described complexity of farming systems, their external drivers and some of the mechanisms that result in (in)efficient use of scarce resources. Studying sites across sub-Saharan Africa has provided insights in the trajectories of change in farming systems in response to population growth, economic conditions and climate variability (cycles of drier and wetter years) and climate change. In regions where human population is dense and land scarce, farm typologies have proven useful to target technologies between farmers of different production objectives and resource endowment (notably in terms of land, labour and capacity for investment). In such regions we could categorise types of fields on the basis of their responsiveness to soil improving technologies along soil fertility gradients, relying on local indicators to differentiate those that may be managed through ‘maintenance fertilization’ from fields that are highly-responsive to fertilizers and fields that require rehabilitation before yields can improved. Where human population pressure on the land is less intense, farm and field types are harder to discern, without clear patterns. Nutrient cycling through livestock is in principle not efficient for increasing food production due to increased nutrient losses, but is attractive for farmers due to the multiple functions of livestock. We identified trade-offs between income generation, soil conservation and community agreements through optimising concurrent objectives at farm and village levels. These examples show that future analyses must focus at farm and farming system level and not at the level of individual fields to achieve appropriate targeting of technologies – both between locations and between farms at any given location. The approach for integrated assessment described here can be used ex ante to explore the potential of best-fit technologies and the ways they can be best combined at farm level. The dynamic and integrated nature of the framework allows the impact of changes in external drivers such as climate change or development policy to be analysed. Fundamental questions for integrated analysis relate to the site-specific knowledge and the simplification of processes required to integrate and move from one level to the next. Keywords: Crop–livestock systems; Soil fertility; Smallholders; Farm types; Simulation modelling
Stakeholder Engagement in Food Risk Management: Evaluation of an Iterated Workshop Approach
Walls, J. ; Rowe, G. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2011
Public Understanding of Science 20 (2011)2. - ISSN 0963-6625 - p. 241 - 260.
public engagement - transgenic crops - gm-nation - debate - participation - perspectives - framework - exercises - britain - science
There are considerable uncertainties regarding how stakeholder engagement should be enacted. The lack of clear guidelines on good practice is arguably a consequence of an absence of evaluations on the effectiveness of past engagement exercises. Here we describe the evaluation of one engagement event concerning food risk management. This event involved presenting a novel food risk analysis model to key stakeholders in two workshops (in 2005 and 2007) in order to gather opinions and to consider the model’s likely impact on the wider community. The workshops and their evaluation, using elements of a previously developed evaluation framework, are described. The discussion emphasises how the organisers utilised the first evaluation report in order to improve the subsequent workshop. In the concluding section, the merits of both the engagement process and the methods used to evaluate it are discussed. Broader lessons for the academic, practitioner and policy communities are developed
Integration of Wave Power in Hadai Gwaii
Boronowski, S. ; Rowe, A. ; Wild, Peter - \ 2010
Renewable Energy 35 (2010)11. - ISSN 0960-1481 - p. 2415 - 2421.
Remote communities, such as Haida Gwaii, Canada, often have high energy costs due to their dependence on diesel fuel for generation. Haida Gwaii's lengthy coastline, exposed to the northeast Pacific Ocean, provides opportunities for capturing wave energy to potentially reduce energy costs. A mixed integer optimization model of the Haida Gwaii network is used to develop an operational strategy indicative of realistic operator behaviour. Two offshore locations are analyzed where the annual mean theoretical wave power is 42 kW/m and 16 kW/m, respectively. Results from both models show that the wave energy resource in Haida Gwaii has the potential to reduce the operational cost of energy and carbon dioxide emissions. A maximum allowable capital cost, above which the overall cost of energy would increase, is determined for various levels of installed wave capacity. Offshore transmission cost estimates are included, as well as the effects of the offshore transmission distance.