Simulating long-term effects of bioenergy extraction on dead wood availability at a landscape scale in Sweden
Hof, Anouschka R. ; Löfroth, Therese ; Rudolphi, Jörgen ; Work, Timothy ; Hjältén, Joakim - \ 2018
Forests 9 (2018)8. - ISSN 1999-4907
Biodiversity - Biofuel - Boreal forest - Modelling - Saproxylic species
Wood bioenergy may decrease the reliance on fossil carbon and mitigate anticipated increases in temperature. However, increased use of wood bioenergy may have large impacts on forest biodiversity primarily through the loss of dead wood habitats. We evaluated both the large-scale and long-term effects of different bioenergy extraction scenarios on the availability of dead wood and the suitability of the resulting habitat for saproxylic species, using a spatially explicit forest landscape simulation framework applied in the Swedish boreal forest. We demonstrate that bioenergy extraction scenarios, differing in the level of removal of biomass, can have significant effects on dead wood volumes. Although all of the scenarios led to decreasing levels of dead wood, the scenario aimed at species conservation led to highest volumes of dead wood (about 10 m3 ha-1) and highest connectivity of dead wood patches (mean proximity index of 78), whilst the scenario aimed at reaching zero fossil fuel targets led to the lowest levels (about 8 m3 ha-1) and least connectivity (mean proximity index of 7). Our simulations stress that further exploitation of dead wood from sites where volumes are already below suggested habitat thresholds for saproxylic species will very likely have further negative effects on dead wood dependent species.
Landscape planning-paving theway for effective conservation of forest biodiversity and a diverse forestry?
Michanek, Gabriel ; Bostedt, Göran ; Ekvall, Hans ; Forsberg, Maria ; Hof, Anouschka R. ; Jong, Johnny de; Rudolphi, Jörgen ; Zabel, Astrid - \ 2018
Forests 9 (2018)9. - ISSN 1999-4907
Aichi targets - Biodiversity - Birds directive - Boreal forest - Compensation - Fragmentation - Habitat protection - Habitats directive - Landscape planning - Tax-fund
Globally, intensive forestry has led to habitat degradation and fragmentation of the forest landscape. Taking Sweden as an example, this development is contradictory to international commitments, EU obligations, and to the fulfillment of the Parliament's environmental quality objective "Living Forests", which according to Naturvårdsverket (The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency) will not be achieved in 2020 as stipulated. One important reason for the implementation deficit is the fragmented forestry management. In a forest landscape, felling and other measures are conducted at different times on separate forest stands (often relatively small units) by different operators. Consequently, the authorities take case by case decisions on felling restrictions for conservation purposes. In contrast, conservation biology research indicates a need for a broad geographical and strategical approach in order to, in good time, select the most appropriate habitats for conservation and to provide for a functioning connectivity between different habitats. In line with the EU Commission, we argue that landscape forestry planning could be a useful instrument to achieve ecological functionality in a large area. Landscape planning may also contribute to the fulfilment of Sweden's climate and energy policy, by indicating forest areas with insignificant conservation values, where intensive forestry may be performed for biomass production etc. Forest owners should be involved in the planning and would, under certain circumstances, be entitled to compensation. As state resources for providing compensation are scarce, an alternative could be to introduce a tax-fund system within the forestry sector. Such a system may open for voluntary agreements between forest owners for the protection of habitats within a large area.
Gemakkelijk herkenbare plantenparasieten - IX: Puccinia allii
Termorshuizen, A.J. - \ 2006
Coolia 49 (2006)1. - ISSN 0929-7839 - p. 25 - 26.
Puccinia allii Rudolphi is de veroorzaker van roest bij Allium-soorten en komt algemeen voor in Nederland, vooral op prei (A. porrum). Andere waardplanten zijn kraailook (A. vineale), ui (A. cepa) en bieslook (A. schoenoprasum).