Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Responses of soil biota to non-inversion tillage and organic amendments : An analysis on European multiyear field experiments
    Hose, Tommy D'; Molendijk, Leendert ; Vooren, Laura Van; Berg, Wim van den; Hoek, Hans ; Runia, Willemien ; Evert, Frits van; Berge, Hein ten; Spiegel, Heide ; Sandèn, Taru ; Grignani, Carlo ; Ruysschaert, Greet - \ 2018
    Pedobiologia 66 (2018). - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 18 - 28.
    Earthworms - Microbial biomass - Multiyear field experiments - Nematodes - Non-inversion tillage - Organic amendments
    Over the last two decades, there has been growing interest on the effects of agricultural practices on soil biology in Europe. As soil biota are known to fluctuate throughout the season and as agro-environmental conditions may influence the effect of agricultural practices on soil organisms, conclusions cannot be drawn from a single study. Therefore, integrating the results of many studies in order to identify general trends is required. The main objective of this study was to investigate how soil biota are affected by repeated applications of organic amendments (i.e. compost, farmyard manure and slurry) or reduced tillage (i.e. non-inversion tillage and no till) under European conditions, as measured in multiyear field experiments. Moreover, we investigated to what extent the effects on soil biota are controlled by soil texture, sampling depth, climate and duration of agricultural practice. Experimental data on earthworm and nematode abundance, microbial biomass carbon and bacterial and fungal communities from more than 60 European multiyear field experiments, comprising different climatic zones and soil texture classes, were extracted from literature. From our survey, we can conclude that adopting no tillage or non-inversion tillage practices and increasing organic matter inputs by organic fertilization were accompanied by larger earthworm numbers (an increase between 56 and 125% and between 63 and 151% for tillage and organic amendments, respectively) and biomass (an increase between 108 and 416% and between 66 and 196% for tillage and organic amendments, respectively), a higher microbial biomass carbon content (an increase between 10 and 30% and between 25 and 31% for tillage and organic amendments, respectively), a marked increase in bacterivorous nematodes (an increase between 19 and 282% for organic amendment) and bacterial phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA; an increase between 31 and 38% for organic amendment). Results were rarely influenced by soil texture, climate and duration of practice.
    Legacy effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil bacterial community composition and production of pathogen-suppressing volatiles
    Os, G.J. van; Agtmaal, M. van; Hol, G. ; Hundscheid, M.P.J. ; Runia, W.T. ; Hordijk, C. ; Boer, W. de - \ 2015
    Frontiers in Microbiology 6 (2015). - ISSN 1664-302X
    pythium root-rot - soilborne plant-diseases - microbial-populations - organic amendments - biological-control - bulbous iris - fungistasis - growth - biocontrol - diversity
    There is increasing evidence that microbial volatiles (VOCs) play an important role in natural suppression of soil-borne diseases, but little is known on the factors that influence production of suppressing VOCs. In the current study we examined whether a stress-induced change in soil microbial community composition would affect the production by soils of VOCs suppressing the plant-pathogenic oomycete Pythium. Using pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal gene fragments we compared the composition of bacterial communities in sandy soils that had been exposed to anaerobic disinfestation (AD), a treatment used to kill harmful soil organisms, with the composition in untreated soils. Three months after the AD treatment had been finished, there was still a clear legacy effect of the former anaerobic stress on bacterial community composition with a strong increase in relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes and a significant decrease of the phyla Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi, and Chlorobi. This change in bacterial community composition coincided with loss of production of Pythium suppressing soil volatiles (VOCs) and of suppression of Pythium impacts on Hyacinth root development. One year later, the composition of the bacterial community in the AD soils was reflecting that of the untreated soils. In addition, both production of Pythium-suppressing VOCs and suppression of Pythium in Hyacinth bioassays had returned to the levels of the untreated soil. GC/MS analysis identified several VOCs, among which compounds known to be antifungal, that were produced in the untreated soils but not in the AD soils. These compounds were again produced 15 months after the AD treatment. Our data indicate that soils exposed to a drastic stress can temporarily lose pathogen suppressive characteristics and that both loss and return of these suppressive characteristics and that both loss and return of these suppressive characteristics coincides with shifts in the soil bacterial community composition. Our data are supporting the suggested importance of microbial VOCs in the natural buffer of soils against diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens.
    Bodem Resetten: stap naar praktijktoepassing nieuwe methode van anaerobe grondontsmetting
    Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Visser, J.H.M. ; Regeer, H. ; Feil, H. ; Meints, H. - \ 2015
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (Rapport / PPO-AGV 648) - 45
    akkerbouw - nematoda - meloidogyne chitwoodi - ditylenchus dipsaci - globodera pallida - waardplanten - gewasbescherming - bodeminvertebraten - nederland - inventarisaties - anaërobe behandeling - biologische grondontsmetting - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - onkruiden - nutrientenbeheer - arable farming - nematoda - meloidogyne chitwoodi - ditylenchus dipsaci - globodera pallida - host plants - plant protection - soil invertebrates - netherlands - inventories - anaerobic treatment - biological soil sterilization - sustainability - weeds - nutrient management
    Door de toenemende problemen met schadelijke aaltjes in diverse teelten wordt naarstig gezocht naar alternatieve mogelijkheden om de grond te ontsmetten. Uitgangspunt van Wageningen UR en Agrifirm Plant is daarvoor een “groene” manier van grondbehandeling, die past in het algemene beleid van een duurzame gewasbescherming. Bodem Resetten is een nieuwe en unieke manier van anaerobe grondontsmetting en kan mogelijk een milieuvriendelijk en voor omwonenden veilig alternatief bieden. Er zijn voor het Bodem Resetten (BR) twee producten getest op effectiviteit: vaste Herbie® 72 en vloeibare Herbie® 87. Tevens is op zeer kleine schaal ook een plantaardige coating, als alternatief voor folie, onderzocht op gasdichtheid.
    Veldproef aardappel met biologische grondontsmetting tegen aardvlooien (Epitrix) en aardappelcysteaaltje (ACA)
    Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Rozen, K. van - \ 2014
    PPO AGV - 33 p.
    Anaerobic disinfestation of tare soils contaminated with Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 and Globodera pallida.
    Overbeek, L.S. van; Runia, W.T. ; Kastelein, P. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. - \ 2014
    European Journal of Plant Pathology 138 (2014)2. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 323 - 330.
    Tare soil is soil attached to harvested products like potato tubers. Tare soil becomes a considerable waste stream after storage, washing and processing of harvested products. There is a high risk on contamination of tare soils with (quarantine) phytopathogens, because of import of harvested products from different regions of the world. Disinfestation is necessary to make tare soils applicable for agricultural production. Anaerobic (non-chemical) soil disinfestation (ASD) and inundation are suitable methods to disinfest tare soils. Two different soils (marine loam and glacial sand) were either treated with five (2011) or four (2012) treatments and these were: (i) no treatment (control), (ii) freshly cut grass, (iii) Herbie 7025, (iv) inundation (five cm water on top of the soil surface), and (v) combination of Herbie 7025 and inundation (2011 only). Containers with treated and untreated soils were inoculated with two quarantine phytopathogens, Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 and Globodera pallida. After soil inoculation, the containers were airtight closed and only opened for destructive sampling after 84 days. Then, soils were analysed for the presence of R. solanacearum biovar 2, using immunofluorescence colony staining, and for the presence of viable G. pallida eggs, determined by the number of juveniles hatched from eggs and lured to potato root exudate. Strong (> 99.4 %) declines of both pathogens in treated versus the appropriate control soils were observed. Repetition of the experiment revealed the same pattern and therefore it was concluded that ASD and inundation, as separate treatments, have promise for remediation of tare soils from contaminating quarantine pathogens
    Herbie mogelijk optie voor metam-natrium : PPO Vredepeel
    Runia, W.T. - \ 2014
    Boerderij/Akkerbouw 100 (2014)13-14. - ISSN 0169-0116 - p. 14 - 15.
    Management of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense (Foc-TR4) from banana by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD)
    Runia, W.T. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : PPO AGV - 16
    fruitgewassen - biologische grondontsmetting - anaërobe omstandigheden - gewasbescherming - fusarium - schimmelbestrijding - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - biologische bestrijding - bananen - fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense - conidiosporomyces - fruit crops - biological soil sterilization - anaerobic conditions - plant protection - fusarium - fungus control - cultural control - biological control - bananas - fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense - conidiosporomyces
    Applied Plant Research in Lelystad has, commissioned by Gert Kema, Plant Research International (PRI) and leader of the Panama Project, performed a trial to measure the efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) with a ‘Herbie” product against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc; TR 4), causing panama disease in bananas. The inoculum of conidiospores was provided by (PRI) at Wageningen. Also sand and clay soil were provided by PRI; two weeks before the experiment. After ASD the efficacy against Foc was also determined by PRI with a developed diagnostic tool (component of INREF Panama Project 3)
    Studie bodemontsmetten met Herbie
    Dodde, H. ; Runia, W.T. - \ 2014
    Nieuwe oogst / Magazine gewas 27-9-2014 (2014). - ISSN 1871-093X - p. 35 - 35.
    Versneld onderzoek alternatief Monam
    Reindsen, H. ; Runia, W.T. - \ 2014
    Nieuwe oogst / Magazine gewas 4-10-2014 (2014). - ISSN 1871-093X - p. 35 - 35.
    output Biologische grondontsmetting
    Bodemreset nieuw middel voor biologische grondontsmetting tegen aaltjes
    Runia, W.T. - \ 2014
    Agrifirm Plant
    Ontrafelen van het mechanisme achter biologische grondontsmetting
    Runia, W.T. ; Thoden, T.C. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Berg, W. van den; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Streminska, M.A. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Feil, H. ; Meints, H. - \ 2014
    Gewasbescherming 45 (2014)4. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 122 - 124.
    Changes in bacterial and fungal abundance in the soil during the process of anaerobic soil disinfestation
    Streminska, M.A. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Runia, W.T. ; Thoden, T.C. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Feil, H. - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the II International Symposium on Organic Greenhouse Horticulture. - Leuven : ISHS (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462610309 - p. 95 - 102.
    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has potential to reduce soilborne plant pathogens as a sustainable alternative for chemical or energy-demanding steam treatments. It involves adding a labile carbon source, irrigating the soil to stimulate decomposition of organic material and then covering the soil with air-tight plastic to limit gas exchange. During ASD, many by-products of anaerobic metabolism (e.g., various organic acids and gases) are produced, which are thought to affect soil-borne plant pathogens negatively. However, effects of ASD vary, and therefore our goal was to study the microbial processes occurring during ASD in more detail. We designed a lab-scale experiment and studied the effects of ASD on six soils by incubating soil mixed with a commercially available organic amendment (Herbie; Thatchtec BV, The Netherlands) at 20°C. Changes in biotic and abiotic soil parameters were followed by destructive samplings over the course of 28 days of incubation. In this paper, we present the results of analysis of soil microbial communities and their relation to chemical parameters of the studied soils. After three days of incubation, the number of total bacteria and fungi were significantly higher in soil treated with ASD compared with controls. However, there was no significant difference in bacterial numbers at the end of the incubation period. The relative abundance of Firmicutes (spore-forming bacteria) increased significantly in ASD soils. This means that anaerobic bacteria, which survive in aerobic soil as spores, became active. Numbers of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) increased significantly during incubation in four out of six ASD treated soils, and in the controls. In ASD soils, the abundance of SRB was positively correlated with increasing concentration of organic acids.
    Inundation as tool for management of Globodera pallida and Verticillium dahliae
    Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Stevens, L. ; Schilder, M.T. ; Postma, J. - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the 7th IS on Chemical and Non-Chemical Soil and Substrate Disinfestation. - ISHS - ISBN 9789462610255 - p. 195 - 201.
    Seed potato production is threatened by potato cyst nematodes (PCN). Seed potatoes can only be grown on PCN-free declared potato fields. A seed potato grower chose inundation, flooding his soil, for controlling PCN because resistant cultivars are economically less advantageous and catch crops or granular fumigants gave insufficient results. Inundation is widely used in bulb cultures in The Netherlands to control parasitic nematodes and selectively also pathogenic fungi. Research was performed on the efficiency of inundation against PCN species Globodera pallida and the causal fungal agent of potato wilt Verticillium dahlia (Vd) in a 30 ha field. The effect on soil fertility and texture was also studied. A technical manual for large-scale inundation was written for growers and economic evaluation was performed. Results showed that after 16 weeks of inundation 99.9% of the contents of artificially applied G. pallida cysts was eliminated. Vitality of V. dahlia was reduced with 84%. Incorporation of B. juncea did not increase efficiency. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) with incorporated B. juncea in the dike surrounding the field, showed a lower efficiency against G. pallida due to incorrect application. Naturally occurring beet cysts lost their vitality after inundation. Incorporation of B. juncea increased soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani whereas inundation leveled out this effect. By slow release of water after inundation soil texture remained unchanged. Changes in fertilizer content were affected both by the growth and incorporation of B. juncea and by inundation. An increase of sodium and of the electrical conductivity (EC) was noticed. Inundation proved to be highly effective in controlling PCN and Vd and economically feasible for practical application. Long-term effects have to be monitored and effects on other soil quality aspects, both biological, chemical and physical should be taken into account in future research. For some regions in The Netherlands inundation is a new tool for seed potato growers in their Nematode Control Strategy.
    Unravelling the mechanism of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic soil disinfestation
    Runia, W.T. ; Thoden, T.C. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Termorshuizen, A. ; Feil, H. ; Meints, H. ; Streminska, M.A. - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on chemical and non-chemical soil and substrate disinfestation. - ISHS - ISBN 9789462610255 - p. 177 - 193.
    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for the control of multiple soilborne pathogens is a viable alternative to the application of biocides and soil steaming. ASD implies soil wetting, incorporation of fresh organic matter, and covering with airtight plastic foil for several weeks. To speed up the whole process, Thatchtec has developed a procedure based on defined agricultural products (referred to as Herbie). To further optimize ASD, the mechanism of pathogen inactivation should be unraveled. Therefore, we performed an incubation experiment in 11-L polypropene containers with 6 soil types (glacial sand, dune sand, river clay, marine loam, peat soil, and an artificially composed soil lacking any organic matter) in triplicate. After wetting the soil to field capacity, Herbie was added to it (equivalent to 4 g crude protein L-1 soil) and containers were filled with soil (8 L, head space 3 L). A similar treatment without Herbie served as control. Nylon mesh bags containing cysts of potato cyst nematode (PCN; Globodera pallida) were added and the containers were sealed off. Destructive sampling was performed 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after start of the experiment and biotic (cyst content survival, free-living non-plant parasitic nematode community, total and functional groups of bacteria, fungi and protozoa) and abiotic (organic matter, pH, nutrients, EC, fatty acids) parameters measured. Additionally, concentrations of several gases (O2, H2S, CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O) were measured in the head space before each destructive sampling. Survival of eggs within the cysts declined in all treatments to levels
    Aardappel houdt M. naasi in toom
    Runia, W.T. ; Hoek, H. - \ 2014
    Boerderij/Akkerbouw 99 (2014)38. - ISSN 0169-0116 - p. A16 - A17.
    akkerbouw - uien - gewasbescherming - aaltjesdodende eigenschappen - plantenparasitaire nematoden - meloidogyne naasi - waardplanten - groenbemesters - veldgewassen - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - aardappelen - maïs - arable farming - onions - plant protection - nematicidal properties - plant parasitic nematodes - meloidogyne naasi - host plants - green manures - field crops - cultural control - potatoes - maize
    In uien veroorzaakt het relatief onbekende graswortelknobbelaaltje nog wel eens schade. Beheersing ervan is vrij eenvoudig, meldt PPO. Om M. naasi te beheersen kunnen uien het best na aardappelen of mais worden geteeld (allebei geen waardplant) of na bieten (slechte waardplant).
    Best mogelijke opties voor ontsmetten tarragrond
    Runia, W.T. - \ 2014
    Gewasbescherming 2 (2014)45. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 69 - 70.
    Ontwikkelingen rond biologische grondontsmetting met Herbie® producten
    Runia, W.T. - \ 2013
    De beste keuzes voor het saneren van tarragronden in verband met AM
    Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. - \ 2013 2013 (2013)11 dec.
    aardappelen - tarra - aarde - grondsterilisatie - globodera - plantenparasitaire nematoden - biologische grondontsmetting - gewasbescherming - akkerbouw - potatoes - tare - earth - soil sterilization - globodera - plant parasitic nematodes - biological soil sterilization - plant protection - arable farming
    Bij de oogst van aardappelen komt veel grond mee met het product dat zowel op het eigen bedrijf als elders wordt verzameld en afgevoerd. Op het akkerbouwbedrijf wordt deze grond vaak teruggestort op het perceel van herkomst. Dit houdt een risico in omdat de grond bijvoorbeeld besmet kan zijn met aardappelcysteaaltjes (AM). Het is daarom van groot belang om de grond te saneren voordat het terug gaat naar het perceel. Ook de verwerkende industrie heeft te maken met grote hoeveelheden grond. Deze grond is bovendien zeer divers van samenstelling en kan heel vochtig zijn. Ook voor deze bedrijven zijn mogelijkheden voor sanering van de grond tegen schadelijke bodemorganismen van groot belang. In opdracht van het Productschap Akkerbouw, in het kader van het Actieplan Aaltjesbeheersing, heeft PPO-AGV de mogelijkheden uit de literatuur en de resultaten van eigen onderzoek op een rijtje gezet.
    Maatregelen voor het ontsmetten van tarragronden uit de landbouw
    Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : PPO AGV - 5
    bodemkwaliteit - akkerbouw - bouwland - tarra (suikerbieten) - recycling - bloembollen - plagenbestrijding - inundatie - soil quality - arable farming - arable land - dirt tare - recycling - ornamental bulbs - pest control - flooding
    Met het ministerie is afgesproken dat de Stichting Veldleeuwerik een beroep mag doen op de helpdesk van Wageningen UR. In onderhavig geval is dat de vraag over het veilig terugbrengen van tarragronden naar de percelen. Naast de teelt van suikerbieten gaat het hier ook over bloembollen.
    Ontwikkelingen rond biologische grondontsmetting met Herbie® producten
    Runia, Willemien - \ 2013
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