Ground beetle assemblages in Beijing's new mountain forests
Warren-Thomas, Eleanor ; Zou, Yi ; Dong, Lijia ; Yao, Xuenan ; Yang, Mengjie ; Zhang, Xiaoliang ; Qin, Ya ; Liu, Yunhui ; Sang, Weiguo ; Axmacher, Jan Christoph - \ 2014
Forest Ecology and Management 334 (2014). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 369 - 376.
Carabidae - China - Plantation - Regeneration - Temperate forest
Mature forests have been almost completely destroyed in China's northern regions, but this has been followed by large-scale reforestation in the wake of environmental degradation. Although future forest plantations are expected to expand over millions of hectares, knowledge about the ecology and biodiversity of China's replanted forests remains very limited. Addressing these knowledge gaps, we recorded ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities in five secondary forest types: plantations of Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and Prince Rupprecht's Larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii), Oak (Quercus wutaishanica) and Asian White Birch (Betula platyphylla) woodlands, and naturally regenerated mixed forest. Species richness peaked in mixed forests, while pine and oak woodlands harboured discrete communities of intermediate species richness. Oak, pine and mixed forest habitats also showed high levels of species turnover between plots. Canopy closure was an important factor influencing ground beetle assemblages and diversity, and a number of forest specialist species only occurred in pine or oak forests. We believe that some forest specialists have survived earlier deforestation and appear to be supported by new plantation forests, but maintenance of secondary native oak and mixed forests is crucial to safeguard the overall species pool.
Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: Fine mapping and escape mutant analysis
Marissen, W.E. ; Kramer, R.A. ; Rice, A. ; Weldon, W.C. ; Niezgoda, M. ; Faber, M. ; Slootstra, J.W. ; Meloen, R.H. ; Clijsters-van der Horst, M. ; Visser, T.J. ; Jongeneelen, M. ; Thijsse, S. ; Throsby, M. ; Kruif, J. de; Rupprecht, C.E. ; Dietzschold, B. ; Goudsmit, J. ; Bakker, A.B.H. - \ 2005
Journal of Virology 79 (2005)8. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 4672 - 4678.
high-level expression - postexposure prophylaxis - glycoprotein - pathogenicity - determinant - virulence - mice - igg
Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We produced two previously described potent rabies virus-neutralizing human MAbs, CR57 and CRJB, in human PER.C6 cells. The two MAbs competed for binding to rabies virus glycoprotein. Using CR57 and a set of 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the glycoprotein ectodomain, a neutralization domain was identified between amino acids (aa) 218 and 240. The minimal binding region was identified as KLCGVL (aa 226 to 231), with key residues K-CGV- identified by alanine replacement scanning. The critical binding region of this novel nonconformational rabies virus epitope is highly conserved within rabies viruses of genotype 1. Subsequently, we generated six rabies virus variants escaping neutralization by CR57 and six variants escaping CRJB. The CR57 escape mutants were only partially covered by CRJB, and all CRJB-resistant variants completely escaped neutralization by CR57. Without exception, the CR57-resistant variants showed a mutation at key residues within the defined minimal binding region, while the CRJB escape viruses showed a single mutation distant from the CR57 epitope (N182D) combined with mutations in the CR57 epitope. The competition between CR57 and CRJB, the in vitro escape profile, and the apparent overlap between the recognized epitopes argues against including both CR57 and CRJB in a MAb cocktail aimed at replacing classical immunoglobulin preparations.
|Effects of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) on submucosal neurons and secretion in guinea-pig colon.
Frieling, T. ; Rupprecht, C. ; Kroese, A.B.A. ; Schemann, M. - \ 1994
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 266 (1994). - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. G132 - G139.
|Enteric neuroimmune interaction: the inflammatory mediator PGD2 excites submucosal neurons and evokes chloride secretion by release of acetylcholine and suppresses release of noncholinergic mediators in guinea-pig colon.
Frieling, T. ; Rupprecht, C. ; Kroese, A.B.A. ; Schemann, M. - \ 1993
Gastroenterology 104 (1993). - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. A510 - A510.
|Effects of prostaglandins on submucosal neurons and electrogenic chloride secretion in guinea-pig colon.
Frieling, T. ; Rupprecht, C. ; Schemann, M. ; Kroese, A.B.A. - \ 1993
Journal of Gastrointestinal Motility 5 (1993). - p. 192 - 192.