Are we restoring functional fens? – The outcomes of restoration projects in fens re-analysed with plant functional traits
Klimkowska, Agata ; Goldstein, Klara ; Wyszomirski, Tomasz ; Kozub, Łukasz ; Wilk, Mateusz ; Aggenbach, Camiel ; Bakker, Jan P. ; Belting, Heinrich ; Beltman, Boudewijn ; Blüml, Volker ; Vries, Yzaak De; Geiger-udod, Beate ; Grootjans, Ab P. ; Hedberg, Petter ; Jager, Henk J. ; Kerkhof, Dick ; Kollmann, Johannes ; Pawlikowski, Paweł ; Pleyl, Elisabeth ; Reinink, Warner ; Rydin, Hakan ; Schrautzer, Joachim ; Sliva, Jan ; Stańko, Robert ; Sundberg, Sebastian ; Timmermann, Tiemo ; Wołejko, Lesław ; Burg, Rob F. Van Der; Hoek, Dick Van Der; Diggelen, Jose M.H. Van; Heerden, Adrie Van; Tweel, Loekie Van; Vegelin, Kees ; Kotowski, Wiktor ; Guo, Xiao - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
In peatland restoration we often lack an information whether re-established ecosystems are functionally similar to non-degraded ones. We re-analysed the long-term outcomes of restoration on vegetation and plant functional traits in 38 European fens restored by rewetting (18 sites) and topsoil removal (20 sites). We used traits related to nutrient acquisition strategies, competitiveness, seed traits, and used single- and multi-trait metrics. A separate set of vegetation records from near-natural fens with diverse plant communities was used to generate reference values to aid the comparisons. We found that both restoration methods enhanced the similarity of species composition to non-degraded systems but trait analysis revealed differences between the two approaches. Traits linked to nutrient acquisition strategies indicated that topsoil removal was more effective than rewetting. After topsoil removal competitive species in plant communities had decreased, while stress-tolerant species had increased. A substantial reduction in nutrient availability ruled out the effect of initial disturbance. An ability to survive and grow in anoxic conditions was enhanced after restoration, but the reference values were not achieved. Rewetting was more effective than topsoil removal in restricting variation in traits values permitted in re-developing vegetation. We found no indication of a shift towards reference in seed traits, which suggested that dispersal constraint and colonization deficit can be a widespread phenomena. Two functional diversity indices: functional richness and functional dispersion showed response to restoration and shifted values towards reference mires and away from the degraded systems.
We concluded that targeting only one type of environmental stressor does not lead to a recovery of fens, as it provides insufficient level of stress to restore a functional ecosystem. In general, restoration efforts do not ensure the re-establishment and long-term persistence of fens. Restoration efforts result in recovery of fen ecosystems, confirmed with our functional trait analysis, although more rigid actions are needed for restoring fully functional mires, by achieving high and constant levels of anoxia and nutrient stresses.
Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges
Granath, Gustaf ; Rydin, Håkan ; Baltzer, Jennifer L. ; Bengtsson, Fia ; Boncek, Nicholas ; Bragazza, Luca ; Bu, Zhao Jun ; Caporn, Simon J.M. ; Dorrepaal, Ellen ; Galanina, Olga ; GaÅka, Mariusz ; Ganeva, Anna ; Gillikin, David P. ; Goia, Irina ; Goncharova, Nadezhda ; Hájek, Michal ; Haraguchi, Akira ; Harris, Lorna I. ; Humphreys, Elyn ; Jiroušek, Martin ; KajukaÅo, Katarzyna ; Karofeld, Edgar ; Koronatova, Natalia G. ; Kosykh, Natalia P. ; Lamentowicz, Mariusz ; Lapshina, Elena ; Limpens, Juul ; Linkosalmi, Maiju ; Ma, Jin Ze ; Mauritz, Marguerite ; Munir, Tariq M. ; Natali, Susan M. ; Natcheva, Rayna ; Noskova, Maria ; Payne, Richard J. ; Pilkington, Kyle ; Robinson, Sean ; Robroek, Bjorn J.M. ; Rochefort, Line ; Singer, David ; Stenøien, Hans K. ; Tuittila, Eeva Stiina ; Vellak, Kai ; Verheyden, Anouk ; Michael Waddington, James ; Rice, Steven K. - \ 2018
Biogeosciences 15 (2018)16. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 5189 - 5202.
Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (12,13C) and oxygen (16,18O) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is species-specific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue δ18O tracks the δ18O isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia using two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in δ13C values between species. For S. magellanicum δ13C decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R2 =17%) and was positively correlated to productivity (R2 = 7%). Together these two variables explained 46% of the between-site variation in δ13C values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of δ13C but had low explanatory power (total R2 = 6%). For δ18O values, approximately 90% of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual δ18O values in precipitation explained 69% of the between-site variation in tissue δ18O. S. magellanicum showed lower δ18O enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 ‰ lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue δ18O values after controlling for δ18O values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue δ18O values from modelled annual δ18O values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue δ13C values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.
The Sphagnome Project : enabling ecological and evolutionary insights through a genus-level sequencing project
Weston, David J. ; Turetsky, Merritt R. ; Johnson, Matthew G. ; Granath, Gustaf ; Lindo, Zoë ; Belyea, Lisa R. ; Rice, Steven K. ; Hanson, David T. ; Engelhardt, Katharina A.M. ; Schmutz, Jeremy ; Dorrepaal, Ellen ; Euskirchen, Eugénie S. ; Stenøien, Hans K. ; Szövényi, Péter ; Jackson, Michelle ; Piatkowski, Bryan T. ; Muchero, Wellington ; Norby, Richard J. ; Kostka, Joel E. ; Glass, Jennifer B. ; Rydin, Håkan ; Limpens, Juul ; Tuittila, Eeva Stiina ; Ullrich, Kristian K. ; Carrell, Alyssa ; Benscoter, Brian W. ; Chen, Jin Gui ; Oke, Tobi A. ; Nilsson, Mats B. ; Ranjan, Priya ; Jacobson, Daniel ; Lilleskov, Erik A. ; Clymo, R.S. ; Shaw, A.J. - \ 2018
New Phytologist 217 (2018)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 16 - 25.
ecological genomics - ecosystem engineering - evolutionary genetics - genome sequencing - niche construction - peatlands - Sphagnome - Sphagnum
Considerable progress has been made in ecological and evolutionary genetics with studies demonstrating how genes underlying plant and microbial traits can influence adaptation and even ‘extend’ to influence community structure and ecosystem level processes. Progress in this area is limited to model systems with deep genetic and genomic resources that often have negligible ecological impact or interest. Thus, important linkages between genetic adaptations and their consequences at organismal and ecological scales are often lacking. Here we introduce the Sphagnome Project, which incorporates genomics into a long-running history of Sphagnum research that has documented unparalleled contributions to peatland ecology, carbon sequestration, biogeochemistry, microbiome research, niche construction, and ecosystem engineering. The Sphagnome Project encompasses a genus-level sequencing effort that represents a new type of model system driven not only by genetic tractability, but by ecologically relevant questions and hypotheses.
The Huperzia selago Shoot Tip Transcriptome Sheds New Light on the Evolution of Leaves
Evkaikina, Anastasiia I. ; Berke, Lidija ; Romanova, Marina A. ; Proux-Wéra, Estelle ; Ivanova, Alexandra N. ; Rydin, Catarina ; Pawlowski, Katharina ; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V. - \ 2017
Genome Biology and Evolution 9 (2017)9. - ISSN 1759-6653 - p. 2444 - 2460.
Lycopodiophyta—consisting of three orders, Lycopodiales, Isoetales and Selaginellales, with different types of shoot apical meristems (SAMs)—form the earliest branch among the extant vascular plants. They represent a sister group to all other vascular plants, from which they differ in that their leaves are microphylls—that is, leaves with a single, unbranched vein, emerging from the protostele without a leaf gap—not megaphylls. All leaves represent determinate organs originating on the flanks of indeterminate SAMs. Thus, leaf formation requires the suppression of indeterminacy, that is, of KNOX transcription factors. In seed plants, this is mediated by different groups of transcription factors including ARP and YABBY. We generated a shoot tip transcriptome of Huperzia selago (Lycopodiales) to examine the genes involved in leaf formation. Our H. selago transcriptome does not contain any ARP homolog, although transcriptomes of Selaginella spp. do. Surprisingly, we discovered a YABBY homolog, although these transcription factors were assumed to have evolved only in seed plants. The existence of a YABBY homolog in H. selago suggests that YABBY evolved already in the common ancestor of the vascular plants, and subsequently was lost in some lineages like Selaginellales, whereas ARP may have been lost in Lycopodiales. The presence of YABBY in the common ancestor of vascular plants would also support the hypothesis that this common ancestor had a simplex SAM. Furthermore, a comparison of the expression patterns of ARP in shoot tips of Selaginella kraussiana (Harrison CJ, etal. 2005. Independent recruitment of a conserved developmental mechanism during leaf evolution. Nature 434(7032):509–514.) and YABBY in shoot tips of H. selago implies that the development of microphylls, unlike megaphylls, does not seem to depend on the combined activities of ARP and YABBY. Altogether, our data show that Lycopodiophyta are a diverse group; so, in order to understand the role of Lycopodiophyta in evolution, representatives of Lycopodiales, Selaginellales, as well as of Isoetales, have to be examined.
Glasshouse vs field experiments: do they yield ecologically similar results for assessing N impacts on peat mosses
Limpens, J. ; Granath, G. ; Gunnarsson, U. ; Rydin, H. ; Aerts, R. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Breeuwer, A.J.G. - \ 2012
New Phytologist 195 (2012)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 408 - 418.
nitrogen deposition - sphagnum mosses - metaanalysis - peatlands - carbon - scale - responses - ecology - cycle
• Peat bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem today. Most of this C is associated with peat moss (Sphagnum) litter. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can decrease Sphagnum production, compromising the C sequestration capacity of peat bogs. The mechanisms underlying the reduced production are uncertain, necessitating multifactorial experiments. • We investigated whether glasshouse experiments are reliable proxies for field experiments for assessing interactions between N deposition and environment as controls on Sphagnum N concentration and production. We performed a meta-analysis over 115 glasshouse experiments and 107 field experiments. • We found that glasshouse and field experiments gave similar qualitative and quantitative estimates of changes in Sphagnum N concentration in response to N application. However, glasshouse-based estimates of changes in production – even qualitative assessments – diverged from field experiments owing to a stronger N effect on production response in absence of vascular plants in the glasshouse, and a weaker N effect on production response in presence of vascular plants compared to field experiments. • Thus, although we need glasshouse experiments to study how interacting environmental factors affect the response of Sphagnum to increased N deposition, we need field experiments to properly quantify these effects.
How atmospheric N deposition affects peatland vegetation composition, production and Sphagnum N concentration: an analysis of 30 fertilization sturdies across the Northern Hemisphere
Limpens, J. ; Granath, G. ; Gunnarsson, U. ; Aerts, R. ; Bragazza, L. ; Breeuwer, A.J.G. ; Bubier, J. ; Berg, L. van den; Franchez, A.J. ; Gerdol, R. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Hotes, S. ; Ilomets, M. ; Mitchell, E. ; Moore, T. ; Nilsson, M. ; Nordbakken, J.F. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Risager, M. ; Rochefort, L. ; Rydin, H. ; Sheppard, L. ; Thormann, M. ; Tomassen, H. ; Williams, B. - \ 2009
In: Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 128, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ecosystem Behaviour BIOGEOMON 2009, Helsinki, Finland, 29 June - 3 July 2009. - Vantaa, Finland : Finnish Forest Research Institute - ISBN 9789514021763 - p. 251 - 251.
Photosynthetic performance in Sphagnum transplanted along a latitudinal nitrogen deposition gradient
Granath, G. ; Strengbom, J. ; Breeuwer, A.J.G. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Berendse, F. ; Rydin, H. - \ 2009
Oecologia 159 (2009)4. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 705 - 715.
atmospheric nitrogen - n deposition - boreal mire - chlorophyll fluorescence - physiological-responses - parasitic fungus - water-content - growth - mosses - vegetation
Increased N deposition in Europe has affected mire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the physiological responses is poor. We measured photosynthetic responses to increasing N deposition in two peatmoss species (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fuscum) from a 3-year, north-south transplant experiment in northern Europe, covering a latitudinal N deposition gradient ranging from 0.28 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the north, to 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the south. The maximum photosynthetic rate (NPmax) increased southwards, and was mainly explained by tissue N concentration, secondly by allocation of N to the photosynthesis, and to a lesser degree by modified photosystem II activity (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence yield). Although climatic factors may have contributed, these results were most likely attributable to an increase in N deposition southwards. For S. fuscum, photosynthetic rate continued to increase up to a deposition level of 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1), but for S. balticum it seemed to level out at 1.14 g N m(-2) year(-1). The results for S. balticum suggested that transplants from different origin (with low or intermediate N deposition) respond differently to high N deposition. This indicates that Sphagnum species may be able to adapt or physiologically adjust to high N deposition. Our results also suggest that S. balticum might be more sensitive to N deposition than S. fuscum. Surprisingly, NPmax was not (S. balticum), or only weakly (S. fuscum) correlated with biomass production, indicating that production is to a great extent is governed by factors other than the photosynthetic capacity.
Peatlands and the carbon cycle: from local processes to global implications - a synthesis
Limpens, J. ; Berendse, F. ; Blodau, C. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Freeman, C. ; Holden, J. ; Roulet, N. ; Rydin, H. ; Schaepman-Strub, G. - \ 2008
Biogeosciences 5 (2008). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1475 - 1491.
dissolved organic-carbon - modern methane emissions - northern peatland - interannual variability - ombrotrophic bog - phenol oxidase - blanket peat - elevated co2 - increased n - long-term
Peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's land surface but boreal and subarctic peatlands store about 15-30% of the world's soil carbon ( C) as peat. Despite their potential for large positive feedbacks to the climate system through sequestration and emission of greenhouse gases, peatlands are not explicitly included in global climate models and therefore in predictions of future climate change. In April 2007 a symposium was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, to advance our understanding of peatland C cycling. This paper synthesizes the main findings of the symposium, focusing on (i) small-scale processes, (ii) C fluxes at the landscape scale, and (iii) peatlands in the context of climate change. The main drivers controlling most are related to some aspects of hydrology. Despite high spatial and annual variability in Net Ecosystem Exchange ( NEE), the differences in cumulative annual NEE are more a function of broad scale geographic location and physical setting than internal factors, suggesting the existence of strong feedbacks. In contrast, trace gas emissions seem mainly controlled by local factors. Key uncertainties remain concerning the existence of perturbation thresholds, the relative strengths of the CO2 and CH4 feedback, the links among peatland surface climate, hydrology, ecosystem structure and function, and trace gas biogeochemistry as well as the similarity of process rates across peatland types and climatic zones. Progress on these research areas can only be realized by stronger co-operation between disciplines that address different spatial and temporal scales.
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition promotes carbon loss from peat bogs
Bragazza, L. ; Freeman, C. ; Jones, T. ; Rydin, H. ; Limpens, J. ; Fenner, N. ; Ellis, T. ; Gerdol, R. ; Hajek, M. ; Hajek, T. ; Iacumin, P. ; Kutnar, L. ; Tahvanainen, T. ; Toberman, H. - \ 2006
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (2006)51. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 19386 - 19389.
n-deposition - soil carbon - nutritional constraints - enzymatic-activity - ombrotrophic bogs - litter quality - organic-matter - climate-change - elevated co2 - mass-loss
Peat bogs have historically represented exceptional carbon (C) sinks because of their extremely low decomposition rates and consequent accumulation of plant remnants as peat. Among the factors favoring that peat accumulation, a major role is played by the chemical quality of plant litter itself, which is poor in nutrients and characterized by polyphenols with a strong inhibitory effect on microbial breakdown. Because bogs receive their nutrient supply solely from atmospheric deposition, the global increase of atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs as a consequence of human activities could potentially alter the litter chemistry with important, but still unknown, effects on their C balance. Here we present data showing the decomposition rates of recently formed litter peat samples collected in nine European countries under a natural gradient of atmospheric N deposition from ¿0.2 to 2 g·m-2.yr -1. We found that enhanced decomposition rates for material accumulated under higher atmospheric N supplies resulted in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and dissolved organic carbon release. The increased N availability favored microbial decomposition (i) by removing N constraints on microbial metabolism and (ii) through a chemical amelioration of litter peat quality with a positive feedback on microbial enzymatic activity. Although some uncertainty remains about whether decay-resistant Sphagnum will continue to dominate litter peat, our data indicate that, even without such changes, increased N deposition poses a serious risk to our valuable peatland C sinks
Nitrogen content and d15N signature of ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants in Europe: to what extent is the increasing atmospheric N deposition altering the N-status of nutrient-poor mires?
Bragazza, L. ; Limpens, J. ; Gerdol, R. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Hajèk, M. ; Hajkova, P. ; Lacumin, P. ; Kutnar, L. ; Rydin, H. ; Tahvanainen, T. - \ 2005
Global Change Biology 11 (2005)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 106 - 114.
n-15 natural-abundance - atmospheric deposition - isotope composition - n-15/n-14 ratios - vascular plants - wet deposition - bog vegetation - carbon-dioxide - nitrate - growth
Alteration of the global nitrogen (N) cycle because of human-enhanced N fixation is a major concern particularly for those ecosystems that are nutrient poor by nature. Because Sphagnum-dominated mires are exclusively fed by wet and dry atmospheric deposition, they are assumed to be very sensitive to increased atmospheric N input. We assessed the consequences of increased atmospheric N deposition on total N concentration, N retention ability, and 15N isotopic signature of Sphagnum plants collected in 16 ombrotrophic mires across 11 European countries. The mires spanned a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from about 0.1 up to about 2 g m2 yr1. Mean N concentration in Sphagnum capitula was about 6 mg g1 in less polluted mires and about 13 mg g1 in highly N-polluted mires. The relative difference in N concentration between capitulum and stem decreased with increasing atmospheric N deposition, suggesting a possible metabolic mechanism that reduces excessive N accumulation in the capitulum. Sphagnum plants showed lower rates of N absorption under increasing atmospheric N deposition, indicating N saturation in Sphagnum tissues. The latter probably is related to a shift from N-limited conditions to limitation by other nutrients. The capacity of the Sphagnum layer to filter atmospheric N deposition decreased exponentially along the depositional gradient resulting in enrichment of the mire pore water with inorganic N forms (i.e., NO3+NH4+). Sphagnum plants had 15N signatures ranging from about 8 to about 3. The isotopic signatures were rather related to the ratio of reduced to oxidized N forms in atmospheric deposition than to total amount of atmospheric N deposition, indicating that 15N signature of Sphagnum plants can be used as an integrated measure of 15N signature of atmospheric precipitation. Indeed, mires located in areas characterized by greater emissions of NH3 (i.e., mainly affected by agricultural activities) had Sphagnum plants with a lower 15N signature compared with mires located in areas dominated by NOx emissions (i.e., mainly affected by industrial activities).
Nutritional constraints in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants under increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe
Bragazza, L. ; Tahvanainen, T. ; Kutnar, L. ; Rydin, H. ; Limpens, J. ; Hajek, M. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Hansen, I. ; Lacumin, P. ; Gerdol, R. - \ 2004
New Phytologist 163 (2004)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 609 - 616.
nutrient limitation - n-deposition - bog vegetation - raised bogs - growth - co2 - water - wet - acidification - accumulation
We studied the effects of increasing levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on nutrient limitation of ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants. • Fifteen mires in 11 European countries were selected across a natural gradient of bulk atmospheric N deposition from 0.1 to 2 g/m2 year-1. Nutritional constraints were assessed based on nutrient ratios of N, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in Sphagnum plants collected in hummocks (i.e. relatively drier microhabitats) and in lawns (i.e. relatively wetter microhabitats). • Nutrient ratios in Sphagnum plants increased steeply at low atmospheric N input, but above a threshold of N deposition of c. 1 g/m2 year-1 the N : P and N : K ratios tended to saturation. Increasing atmospheric N deposition was also accompanied by a reduced retention of Ca and Mg in Sphagnum plants and a decreased stem volumetric density in hummock Sphagnum plants. • We suggest a critical load of N deposition in Europe of 1 g/m2 year-1 above which Sphagnum plants change from being N-limited to be K + P colimited, at N : P > 30 and N : K > 3.
Can testate amoebae (protozoa) and other micro-organisms help to overcome biogeographic bias in large scale global change research?
Mitchell, E.A.D. ; Gilbert, D. ; Butler, A. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Albinsson, C. ; Rydin, H. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Greenup, A. ; Foot, J. ; Saarinen, T. ; Vasander, H. - \ 2001
In: Global Change and Protected Areas / Visconti, G., - p. 301 - 310.
klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - vegetatie - micro-organismen - climatic change - carbon dioxide - vegetation - microorganisms
Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs
Berendse, F. ; Breemen, N. van; Rydin, H. ; Buttler, A. ; Heijmans, M. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lee, J.A. ; Mitchell, E. ; Saarinen, T. ; Vasander, H. ; Wallen, B. - \ 2001
Global Change Biology 7 (2001). - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 591 - 598.
broeikaseffect - emissie - kooldioxide - nitraten - veenplanten - greenhouse effect - emission - carbon dioxide - nitrates - bog plants
Part of the missing sink in the global CO2 budget has been attributed to the positive effects of CO2 fertilization and N deposition on carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems. The genus Sphagnum is one of the most important groups of plant species sequestrating carbon in temperate and northern bog ecosystems, because of the low decomposability of the dead material it produces. The effects of raised CO2 and increased atmospheric N deposition on growth of Sphagnum and other plants were studied in bogs at four sites across Western Europe. Contrary to expectations, elevated CO2 did not significantly affect Sphagnum biomass growth. Increased N deposition reduced Sphagnum mass growth, because it increased the cover of vascular plants and the tall moss Polytrichum strictum. Such changes in plant species composition may decrease carbon sequestration in Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems
|Hypotheses, methods and major results of the bog ecosystem research initiative
Breemen, N. van; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Wallen, B. ; Rydin, H. ; Lee, J.A. ; Silvola, J. ; Vasander, H. ; Berendse, F. ; Grosvernier, P. - \ 2000
In: Sustaining Our Peatlands : 11th International Peat Congress, Canada 2000 / Rochefort, L., Daigle, J.Y., Canada : Gerry Hood - ISBN 9789519774442 - p. 1089 - 1089.
|Testate amoebae (protozoa) and other micro-organisms in sphagnum peatlands : biogeography, ecology and effect of elevated CO2
Mitchell, E.A.D. ; Gilbert, D. ; Buttler, A. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Albinsson, C. ; Rydin, H. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Greenup, A. ; Foot, J.P. ; Saarinen, T. ; Vasander, H. ; Gobat, J.M. - \ 2000
In: Sustaining Our Peatlands : 11th International Peat Congress, Canada 2000 / Rochefort, L., Daigle, J.Y., Canada : Gerry Hood - ISBN 9789519774442 - p. 1087 - 1087.
|Effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on bog vegetation dynamics
Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Breemen, N. van; Vasander, H. ; Saarinen, T. ; Silvola, J. ; Saarnio, S. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Mitchell, E. ; Berendse, F. ; Heijmans, M. ; Wallen, B. ; Rydin, H. ; Lee, J.A. ; Foot, J. - \ 2000
In: Core Research for Evolution Science and Technology : Face 2000, Japan 2000 - p. 19 - 19.
|Preliminary results of the BERI project: effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on plant dynamics and CH4 emissions of five European bogs
Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Breemen, N. van; Wallen, B. ; Rydin, H. ; Lee, J.A. ; Silvola, J. ; Vasander, H. ; Berendse, F. ; Grosvernier, P. - \ 2000
In: Terrestrial ecosystem research in Europe: successes, challenges and policy : Final conference of the terrestrial ecosystem research initiative - concerted action (Terica) Project ENV4-CT95-0051, Egmond aan Zee 1999 / Sutton, M.A., Moreno, J.M., - p. 143 - 145.
|Effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on the biogeochemistry of five European bogs
Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Breemen, N. van; Wallén, B. ; Rydin, H. ; Lee, J.A. ; Silvola, J. ; Vasander, H. ; Berendse, F. ; Grosvernier, P. - \ 2000
In: Book of abstracts : Vijfde Nederlands Aardwetenschappelijk Congres, Veldhoven, 20 en 21 april 2000 - p. 1.6 - 1.6.
|Modeling the effects of elevated CO2 and N on the biogeochemistry of European bogs
Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Berendse, F. ; Foot, J.P. ; Greenup, A. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Mitchell, E.A.D. ; Rydin, H. ; Saarinen, T. ; Saarnio, S. ; Wallen, B. - \ 2000
In: Sustaining Our Peatlands : 11th International Peat Congress, Canada 2000 / Rochefort, L., Daigle, J.Y., Canada : Gerry Hood - ISBN 9789519774442 - p. 1086 - 1086.
|High N deposition affects competition between sphagnum and other bog plant species
Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Berendse, F. ; Breemen, N. van; Rydin, H. ; Buttler, A. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lee, J.A. ; Mitchell, E.A.D. ; Saarnio, S. ; Vasander, H. ; Wallen, B. - \ 2000
In: Sustaining Our Peatlands : 11th International Peat Congress, Canada 2000 / Rochefort, L., Daigle, J.Y., Canada : Gerry Hood - ISBN 9789519774442 - p. 1085 - 1085.