Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Accelerating Climate Resilient Plant Breeding by Applying Next-Generation Artificial Intelligence
    Harfouche, Antoine L. ; Jacobson, Daniel A. ; Kainer, David ; Romero, Jonathon C. ; Harfouche, Antoine H. ; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe ; Moshelion, Menachem ; Tuskan, Gerald A. ; Keurentjes, Joost J.B. ; Altman, Arie - \ 2019
    Trends in Biotechnology 37 (2019)11. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 1217 - 1235.
    augmented breeding - explainable AI - field phenomics - genomics - next-generation artificial intelligence - smart farming

    Breeding crops for high yield and superior adaptability to new and variable climates is imperative to ensure continued food security, biomass production, and ecosystem services. Advances in genomics and phenomics are delivering insights into the complex biological mechanisms that underlie plant functions in response to environmental perturbations. However, linking genotype to phenotype remains a huge challenge and is hampering the optimal application of high-throughput genomics and phenomics to advanced breeding. Critical to success is the need to assimilate large amounts of data into biologically meaningful interpretations. Here, we present the current state of genomics and field phenomics, explore emerging approaches and challenges for multiomics big data integration by means of next-generation (Next-Gen) artificial intelligence (AI), and propose a workable path to improvement.

    Characterization of phenology, physiology, morphology and biomass traits across a broad Euro-Mediterranean ecotypic panel of the lignocellulosic feedstock Arundo donax
    Fabbrini, Francesco ; Ludovisi, Riccardo ; Alasia, Omar ; Flexas, Jaume ; Douthe, Cyril ; Ribas Carbó, Miquel ; Robson, Paul ; Taylor, Gail ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe ; Keurentjes, Joost J.B. ; Harfouche, Antoine - \ 2019
    Global change biology Bioenergy 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 152 - 170.
    Arundo donax - biomass - ecotype variability - growth traits - lignocellulosic biomass - multivariate analysis - perennial grasses - phenology - physiology

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial rhizomatous grass, which has attracted great attention as a potential lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production due to high biomass yield in marginal land areas, high polysaccharide content and low inhibitor levels in microbial fermentations. However, little is known about the trait variation that is available across a broad ecotypic panel of A. donax nor the traits that contribute most significantly to yield and growth in drought prone environments. A collection of 82 ecotypes of A. donax sampled across the Mediterranean basin was planted in a common garden experimental field in Savigliano, Italy. We analysed the collection using 367 clumps representing replicate plantings of 82 ecotypes for variation in 21 traits important for biomass accumulation and to identify the particular set of ecotypes with the most promising potential for biomass production. We measured morpho-physiological, phenological and biomass traits and analysed causal relationships between traits and productivity characteristics assessed at leaf and canopy levels. The results identified differences among the 82 ecotypes for all studied traits: those showing the highest level of variability included stomatal resistance, stem density (StN), stem dry mass (StDM) and total biomass production (TotDM). Multiple regression analysis revealed that leaf area index, StDM, StN, number of nodes per stem, stem height and diameter were the most significant predictors of TotDM and the most important early selection criteria for bioenergy production from A. donax. These traits were used in a hierarchical cluster analysis to identify groups of similar ecotypes, and a selection was made of promising ecotypes for multiyear and multisite testing for biomass production. Heritability estimates were significant for all traits. The potential of this ecotype collection as a resource for studies of germplasm diversity and for the analysis of traits underpinning high productivity of A. donax is highlighted.

    De novo assembly, functional annotation, and analysis of the giant reed (Arundo donax L.) leaf transcriptome provide tools for the development of a biofuel feedstock
    Evangelistella, Chiara ; Valentini, Alessio ; Ludovisi, Riccardo ; Firrincieli, Andrea ; Fabbrini, Francesco ; Scalabrin, Simone ; Cattonaro, Federica ; Morgante, Michele ; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia ; Keurentjes, Joost J.B. ; Harfouche, Antoine - \ 2017
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 10 (2017). - ISSN 1754-6834 - 24 p.
    Arundo donax - Biofuel - Carbon fixation - De novo leaf transcriptome - Genic-SSRs - Phenylpropanoid - Purine and thiamine metabolism - RNA-Seq - SAPs - Stomata

    Background: Arundo donax has attracted renewed interest as a potential candidate energy crop for use in biomass-to-liquid fuel conversion processes and biorefineries. This is due to its high productivity, adaptability to marginal land conditions, and suitability for biofuel and biomaterial production. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for supporting the improvement of this species are still limited. Results: We used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to de novo assemble and characterize the A. donax leaf transcriptome. The sequencing generated 1249 million clean reads that were assembled using single-k-mer and multi-k-mer approaches into 62,596 unique sequences (unitranscripts) with an N50 of 1134 bp. TransDecoder and Trinotate software suites were used to obtain putative coding sequences and annotate them by mapping to UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniRef90 databases, searching for known transcripts, proteins, protein domains, and signal peptides. Furthermore, the unitranscripts were annotated by mapping them to the NCBI non-redundant, GO and KEGG pathway databases using Blast2GO. The transcriptome was also characterized by BLAST searches to investigate homologous transcripts of key genes involved in important metabolic pathways, such as lignin, cellulose, purine, and thiamine biosynthesis and carbon fixation. Moreover, a set of homologous transcripts of key genes involved in stomatal development and of genes coding for stress-associated proteins (SAPs) were identified. Additionally, 8364 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified and surveyed. SSRs appeared more abundant in non-coding regions (63.18%) than in coding regions (36.82%). This SSR dataset represents the first marker catalogue of A. donax. 53 SSRs (PolySSRs) were then predicted to be polymorphic between ecotype-specific assemblies, suggesting genetic variability in the studied ecotypes. Conclusions: This study provides the first publicly available leaf transcriptome for the A. donax bioenergy crop. The functional annotation and characterization of the transcriptome will be highly useful for providing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying its extreme adaptability. The identification of homologous transcripts involved in key metabolic pathways offers a platform for directing future efforts in genetic improvement of this species. Finally, the identified SSRs will facilitate the harnessing of untapped genetic diversity. This transcriptome should be of value to ongoing functional genomics and genetic studies in this crop of paramount economic importance.

    Increased Litter Build Up and Soil Organic Matter Stabilization in a Poplar Plantation After 6 Years of atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE): Final Results of POP-EuroFace Compared to Other Forest FACE Experiments
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2009
    Ecosystems 12 (2009)2. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 220 - 239.
    nitrogen-use efficiency - elevated co2 - carbon storage - mineral soil - terrestrial ecosystems - biomass production - cultivated soils - tropospheric o-3 - deciduous forest - n-fertilization
    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading temperate forests and plantations have been initiated to test whether temperate forest ecosystems act as sinks for anthropogenic emissions of CO2. These FACE experiments have demonstrated increases in net primary production and carbon (C) storage in forest vegetation due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the fate of this extra biomass in the forest floor or mineral soil is less clear. After 6 years of FACE treatment in a short-rotation poplar plantation, we observed an additional sink of 32 g C m¿2 y¿1 in the forest floor. Mineral soil C content increased equally under ambient and increased CO2 treatment during the 6-year experiment. However, during the first half of the experiment the increase in soil C was suppressed under FACE due to a priming effect, that is, the additional labile C increased the mineralization of older SOM, whereas during the second half of the experiment the increase in soil C was larger under FACE. An additional sink of 54 g C m¿2 y¿1 in the top 10 cm of the mineral soil was created under FACE during the second half of the experiment. Although, this FACE effect was not significant due to a combination of soil spatial variability and the low number of replicates that are inherent to the present generation of forest stand FACE experiments. Physical fractionation by wet sieving revealed an increase in the C and nitrogen (N) content of macro-aggregates due to FACE. Further fractionation by density showed that FACE increased C and N contents of the light iPOM and mineral associated intra-macro-aggregate fractions. Isolation of micro-aggregates from macro-aggregates and subsequent fractionation by density revealed that FACE increased C and N contents of the light iPOM, C content of the fine iPOM and C and N contents of the mineral associated intra-micro-aggregate fractions. From this we infer that the amount of stabilized C and N increased under FACE treatment. We compared our data with published results of other forest FACE experiments and infer that the type of vegetation and soil base saturation, as a proxy for bioturbation, are important factors related to the size of the additional C sinks of the forest floor¿soil system under FACE.
    Plastic nets in agriculture ; a general review of types and applications
    Castellano, S. ; Scarascia Mugnozza, G. ; Russo, G. ; Briassoulis, D. ; Mistriotis, A. ; Hemming, S. ; Waaijenberg, D. - \ 2008
    Applied Engineering in Agriculture 24 (2008)6. - ISSN 0883-8542 - p. 799 - 808.
    colored shade nets - radiometric properties - mechanical-behavior - greenhouse - screens - windbreak - virus - films - transmission - resistance
    At the moment, there are a large number of agricultural net types on the market characterized by different structural features such as type of material, type and dimensions of threads, texture, mesh size, porosity / solidity and weight; by radiometric properties like color, transmissivity/reflectivity/shading factor; by physical properties like air permeability and several mechanical characteristics such as tensile stress, strength, elongation at break, and durability. Protection from hail, wind, snow, or strong rainfall in fruit-farming and ornamentals, shading nets for greenhouses and nets moderately modifying the microenvironment for a crop are the most common applications. A systematic review of the current state-of-the-art of structural parameters, standard and regulations, most common agricultural net applications, and their supporting structures has been developed by means of a literature study, technical investigations, concerning characteristics and use of nets. As a result, the survey highlighted that in many cases different, not even similar, net types were adopted for the same application and the same cultivations by various growers. Results show that neither growers nor net producers have clear ideas about the relationship between the net typology optimization for a specific application and the construction parameters of the net. The choice often depends on empirical or economic criteria and not on scientific considerations. Moreover, it appears that scientifically justified technical requirements for nets used in specific agricultural applications have not been established yet.
    Numerical model to estimate the radiometric performance of net covered structures (AGRONETS) (published on the Conference Proceedings CD)
    Hemming, S. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Castellano, S. ; Russo, G. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2008
    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased respiration and humification in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Vos, J.M. ; Meinders, M.B.J. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2007
    Geoderma 138 (2007)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 204 - 212.
    carbon-dioxide enrichment - elevated co2 - biomass production - forest - rotation - popface - turnover - storage - system
    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) studies conducted at the whole-tree and ecosystem scale indicate that there is a marked increase in primary production, mainly allocated into below-ground biomass. The enhanced carbon transfer to the root system may result in enhanced rhizodeposition and subsequent transfer to soil C pools. However, the impact of elevated CO2 on soil C contents has yielded variable results. The fate and function of this extra C into the soil in response to elevated CO2 are not clear. The POPFACE experiment was initiated early 1999 with the objective to determine the functional responses of a short-rotation poplar plantation to actual and future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. During the first 2 years of the second rotation (2002¿2003), the increase of total soil C% was larger under FACE than under ambient CO2. Chemical fractionation revealed the presence of more labile soil C under FACE, which is in agreement with the larger input of plant litter and root exudates under FACE. In order to gain insight into the fate and function of this extra C into the soil and the dynamics of soil C, we incubated soil samples, measured respiration rates and used a simple soil C model to interpret the results. FACE increased the accumulated 28-day CO2 production and the initial Cslow pool content (metabolizable plant remains and partly decomposed SOM). FACE also increased the decomposition rates of the metabolizable C pools (Cfast + Cslow) in the top soil, while for the subsoil the opposite effect was observed. The modeled formation of humified SOM was also enhanced by FACE. Our results support the terrestrial feedback hypothesis, i.e. an increase of the long-term terrestrial C sink in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations
    Effects of free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE), N fertilization and poplar genotype on the physical protection of carbon in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation after five years
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Vos, J.M. ; Bakker, E.J. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2006
    Biogeosciences 3 (2006)4. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 479 - 487.
    organic-matter dynamics - elevated co2 - biomass production - cultivated soils - c sequestration - forest - turnover - aggregate - storage - rotation
    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading forests and plantations have demonstrated significant increases in net primary production (NPP) and C storage in forest vegetation. The extra C uptake may also be stored in forest floor litter and in forest soil. After five years of FACE treatment at the EuroFACE short rotation poplar plantation, the increase of total soil C% was larger under elevated than under ambient CO2. However, the fate of this additional C allocated belowground remains unclear. The stability of soil organic matter is controlled by the chemical structure of the organic matter and the formation of micro-aggregates (within macro-aggregates) in which organic matter is stabilized and protected. FACE and N-fertilization treatment did not affect the micro- and macro-aggregate weight, C or N fractions obtained by wet sieving. However, Populus euramericana increased the small macro-aggregate and free micro-aggregate weight and C fractions. The obtained macro-aggregates were broken up in order to isolate recently formed micro-aggregates within macro-aggregates (iM-micro-aggregates). FACE increased the iM-micro-aggregate weight and C fractions, although not significantly. This study reveals that FACE did not affect the formation of aggregates. We did, however, observe a trend of increased stabilization and protection of soil C in micro-aggregates formed within macro-aggregates under FACE. Moreover, the largest effect on aggregate formation was due to differences in species, i.e. poplar genotype. P. euramericana increased the formation of free micro-aggregates which means that more newly incorporated soil C was stabilized and protected. The choice of species in a plantation, or the effect of global change on species diversity, may therefore affect the stabilization and protection of C in soils.
    Mycorrhizal hyphal turnover as a dominant process for carbon input into soil organic matter
    Godbold, D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lukac, M. ; Francesca Cotrufo, M. ; Janssens, I.A. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Polle, A. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. ; Angelis, P. de; Miglietta, F. ; Peressotti, A. - \ 2006
    Plant and Soil 281 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 15 - 24.
    elevated atmospheric co2 - douglas-fir ecosystem - 1st growing-season - ectomycorrhizal fungi - forest ecosystems - external mycelium - root turnover - enrichment - nitrogen - patterns
    The atmospheric concentration of CO2 is predicted to reach double current levels by 2075. Detritus from aboveground and belowground plant parts constitutes the primary source of C for soil organic matter (SOM), and accumulation of SOM in forests may provide a significant mechanism to mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In a poplar (three species) plantation exposed to ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (580 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentrations using a Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) system, the relative importance of leaf litter decomposition, fine root and fungal turnover for C incorporation into SOM was investigated. A technique using cores of soil in which a C-4 crop has been grown (delta C-13 -18.1 parts per thousand) inserted into the plantation and detritus from C-3 trees (delta C-13 -27 to -30 parts per thousand) was used to distinguish between old (native soil) and new (tree derived) soil C. In-growth cores using a fine mesh (39 mu m) to prevent in-growth of roots, but allow in-growth of fungal hyphae were used to assess contribution of fine roots and the mycorrhizal external mycelium to soil C during a period of three growing seasons (1999-2001). Across all species and treatments, the mycorrhizal external mycelium was the dominant pathway (62%) through which carbon entered the SOM pool, exceeding the input via leaf litter and fine root turnover. The input via the mycorrhizal external mycelium was not influenced by elevated CO2, but elevated atmospheric CO2 enhanced soil C inputs via fine root turnover. The turnover of the mycorrhizal external mycelium may be a fundamental mechanism for the transfer of root-derived C to SOM.
    Responses to elevated [CO2] of a short rotation multispecies poplar plantation: the POPFACE/EUROFACE experiment
    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Gielen, B. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; DeAngelis, P. ; Godbold, D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Kull, O. ; Lukac, M. ; Marek, M. ; Miglietta, F. ; Polle, A. ; Raines, C. ; Sabatti, M. ; Anselmi, N. ; Taylor, G. - \ 2006
    In: Managed Ecosystems and CO2 / Nösberger, J., Long, S.P., Norby, R.J., Stitt, M., Hendrey, G.R., Blum, H., Heidelberg : Springer-Verlag (Ecological Studies 187) - ISBN 9783540312369 - p. 173 - 185.
    Woody biomass production during the second rotation of a bio-energy Populus plantation increases in a future high CO2 world
    Liberloo, M. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Lukac, M. ; Godbold, D. ; Luos, Z.B. ; Polles, A. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Kull, O. ; Marek, M. ; Rianes, Chr. ; Rubino, M. ; Taylors, G. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. ; Ceulemans, R. - \ 2006
    Global Change Biology 12 (2006)6. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1094 - 1106.
    elevated co2 - atmospheric co2 - poplar plantation - enrichment face - no3 availability - n-fertilization - hybrid poplar - water-stress - pinus-taeda - growth
    The quickly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)-levels, justify the need to explore all carbon (C) sequestration possibilities that might mitigate the current CO2 increase. Here, we report the likely impact of future increases in atmospheric CO2 on woody biomass production of three poplar species (Populus alba L. clone 2AS-11, Populus nigra L. clone Jean Pourtet and Populus×euramericana clone I-214). Trees were growing in a high-density coppice plantation during the second rotation (i.e., regrowth after coppice; 2002¿2004; POPFACE/EUROFACE). Six plots were studied, half of which were continuously fumigated with CO2 (FACE; free air carbon dioxide enrichment of 550 ppm). Half of each plot was fertilized to study the interaction between CO2 and nutrient fertilization. At the end of the second rotation, selective above- and belowground harvests were performed to estimate the productivity of this bio-energy plantation. Fertilization did not affect growth of the poplar trees, which was likely because of the high rates of fertilization during the previous agricultural land use. In contrast, elevated CO2 enhanced biomass production by up to 29%, and this stimulation did not differ between above- and belowground parts. The increased initial stump size resulting from elevated CO2 during the first rotation (1999¿2001) could not solely explain the observed final biomass increase. The larger leaf area index after canopy closure and the absence of any major photosynthetic acclimation after 6 years of fumigation caused the sustained CO2-induced biomass increase after coppice. These results suggest that, under future CO2 concentrations, managed poplar coppice systems may exhibit higher potential for C sequestration and, thus, help mitigate climate change when used as a source of C-neutral energy.
    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased litter build up and soil C sequestration in a short-rotation Poplar plantation in central Italy
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Vos, J.M. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2006
    Geophysical Research Abstracts 8 (2006)07122. - ISSN 1029-7006
    Global change and agro-forest ecosystems: Adaptation and mitigation in a FACE experiment on a poplar plantation
    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. ; Angelis, P. de; Sabatti, M. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Miglietta, F. ; Raines, C. ; Godbold, D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Taylor, G. ; Polle, A. ; Ceulemans, R. - \ 2005
    Plant Biosystems 139 (2005)3. - ISSN 1126-3504 - p. 255 - 264.
    elevated atmospheric co2 - carbon-dioxide - enrichment popface - short-rotation - mycorrhizal colonization - betula-papyrifera - field - responses - growth - soil
    The objective of this research was to determine the functional responses of a cultivated, agro-forestry system, namely a poplar plantation, to actual and future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Hence, this research has combined a fast growing, agro-forestry ecosystem, capable of elevated biomass production, with a large-scale Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) system, one of the few available in the European Union on a forest tree stand. The FACE facility is located close to a natural CO2 source and is drawing scientists from several European countries, and from other continents, to closely cooperate and combine their scientific efforts on the same experimental system. Furthermore, this FACE apparatus utilizes a novel technology, originally developed by Italian institutions, based on the release into the atmosphere, at sonic velocity, of pure CO2 instead of an air-CO2 Mixture. The research activities conducted at the POPFACE site, on the responses of the tree plantation to future atmospheric conditions, have integrated observations at the leaf level, such as photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration, with measures carried out at the whole-tree and stand scale, such as canopy architecture, light interception and biomass production. Finally, the ecosystem dimension has also been analysed by studying root productivity and soil processes, host-parasite interactions, and carbon sequestration throughout a rotation. cycle of the stand.
    Net carbon storage in a popular plantation (POPFACE) after three years of free-air CO2 enrichment
    Gielen, B. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Lukac, M. ; Wittig, V.E. ; Angelis, P. de; Janssens, I.A. ; Moscatelli, M.C. ; Grego, S. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Godbold, D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Long, S. ; Miglietta, F. ; Polle, A. ; Bernacchi, C. ; Davey, P.A. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2005
    Tree Physiology 25 (2005)11. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 1399 - 1408.
    temperature response functions - elevated atmospheric co2 - soil organic-matter - limited photosynthesis - dioxide enrichment - microbial biomass - turnover - forest - populus - dynamics
    A high-density plantation of three genotypes of Populus was exposed to an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]; 550 µmol mol¿1) from planting through canopy closure using a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique. The FACE treatment stimulated gross primary productivity by 22 and 11% in the second and third years, respectively. Partitioning of extra carbon (C) among C pools of different turnover rates is of critical interest; thus, we calculated net ecosystem productivity (NEP) to determine whether elevated atmospheric [CO2] will enhance net plantation C storage capacity. Free-air CO2 enrichment increased net primary productivity (NPP) of all genotypes by 21% in the second year and by 26% in the third year, mainly because of an increase in the size of C pools with relatively slow turnover rates (i.e., wood). In all genotypes in the FACE treatment, more new soil C was added to the total soil C pool compared with the control treatment. However, more old soil C loss was observed in the FACE treatment compared with the control treatment, possibly due to a priming effect from newly incorporated root litter. FACE did not significantly increase NEP, probably as a result of this priming effect.
    More new carbon in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation under Free Air Carbon Erichment (POPFACE): Cause of increased priming effect?
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lukac, M. ; Dam, D. ; Godbold, D. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Bondi, F.A. ; Peressotti, A. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Angelis, P. de; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2004
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18 (2004)1. - ISSN 0886-6236 - 7 p.
    elevated atmospheric co2 - organic-matter - terrestrial ecosystems - turnover - forest - storage - system - decomposition - mechanisms - feedbacks
    [1] In order to establish suitability of forest ecosystems for long-term storage of C, it is necessary to characterize the effects of predicted increased atmospheric CO2 levels on the pools and fluxes of C within these systems. Since most C held in terrestrial ecosystems is in the soil, we assessed the influence of Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) treatment on the total soil C content (C-total) and incorporation of litter derived C (C-new) into soil organic matter (SOM) in a fast growing poplar plantation. C-new was estimated by the C3/C4 stable isotope method. C-total contents increased under control and FACE respectively by 12 and 3%, i.e., 484 and 107 gC/m(2), while 704 and 926 gC/m(2) of new carbon was sequestered under control and FACE during the experiment. We conclude that FACE suppressed the increase of C-total and simultaneously increased C-new. We hypothesize that these opposite effects may be caused by a priming effect of the newly incorporated litter, where priming effect is defined as the stimulation of SOM decomposition caused by the addition of labile substrates.
    More new carbon in the mineral soil if a popular plantation under FACE (POPFACE)
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lukac, M. ; Dam, D. ; Godbold, D. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Biondi, F.A. ; Peressotti, A. ; Gotrufo, M.F. ; Angelis, P. de; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2004
    Long-term responses of a poplar agroforestry system to elevated CO2: tree growth, biomass productivity and carbon pools
    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Gielen, B. ; Angelis, P. de; Liberloo, M. ; Lukac, M. ; Godbold, D. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Taylor, G. ; Raines, C. ; Marek, M. ; Kull, O. ; Miglietta, F. ; Polle, A. ; Ceulemans, R. - \ 2004
    Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation
    Calfapietra, C. ; Gielen, B. ; Galema, A.N.J. ; Lukac, M. ; Angelis, P. de; Moscatelli, M.C. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2003
    Tree Physiology 23 (2003). - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 805 - 814.
    elevated atmospheric co2 - carbon-dioxide enrichment - net primary production - light-use efficiency - soil n-availability - hybrid poplar - populus-grandidentata - crown architecture - pinus-sylvestris - fine roots
    This paper investigates the possible contribution of Short Rotation Cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). A dense poplar plantation (1 x 1 m) was exposed to a [CO2] of 550 ppm in Central Italy using the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique. Three species of Populus were examined, namely P. alba L., P. nigra L. and P. x euramericana Dode (Guinier). Aboveground woody biomass of trees exposed to elevated [CO2] for three growing seasons increased by 15 to 27%, depending on species. As a result, light-use efficiency increased. Aboveground biomass allocation was unaffected, and belowground biomass also increased under elevated [CO2] conditions, by 22 to 38%. Populus nigra, with total biomass equal to 62.02 and 72.03 Mg ha(-1) in ambient and elevated [CO2], respectively, was the most productive species, although its productivity was stimulated least by atmospheric CO2 enrichment. There was greater depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil after three growing seasons in elevated [CO2], but no effect of [CO2] on stem wood density, which differed significantly only among species.
    Radiometric and thermal properties of, and testing methods for, greenhouse covering materials
    Papadakis, G. ; Briassoulis, D. ; Scarascia Mugnozza, G. ; Vox, G. ; Feuilloley, P. ; Stoffers, J.A. - \ 2000
    Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 77 (2000). - ISSN 0021-8634 - p. 1 - 38.
    Effects of atmospheric carbon enrichment on cultivated terrestrial ecosystems: a face experiment on short rotation, intensive poplar plantations
    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. ; DeAngelis, P. ; Sabatti, M. ; Kuzminsky, E. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Gielen, B. ; Raines, C.A. ; Bryant, B. ; Long, S. ; Bernacchi, C. ; Godbold, D. ; Lukac, M. ; Breemen, N. van; Dam, D. van; Miglietta, F. ; Peressotti, A. ; Taylor, G. ; Ferr, R. ; Polle, A. ; Brinkmann, K. ; Anselmi, N. ; Olmi, M. - \ 2000
    In: Face 2000 : Tsukuba International Congress, Tsukuba, Japan 2000 - p. 12 - 13.
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