Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Future orientation and planning in forestry: a comparison of forest managers' planning horizons in Germany and the Netherlands
    Hoogstra, M.A. ; Schanz, H. - \ 2009
    European Journal of Forest Research 128 (2009)1. - ISSN 1612-4669 - p. 1 - 11.
    time perspective - performance - adolescents
    Long range (or strategic) planning is an important tool for forest management to deal with the complex and unpredictable future. However, it is the ability to make meaningful predictions about the rapidly changing future that is questioned. What appears to be particularly neglected is the question of the length of time horizons and the limits (if any) to these horizons, despite being considered one of the most critical factors in strategic planning. As the future creation of values lies within individual responsibility, this research empirically explored the limits (if any) of individual foresters¿ time horizons. To draw comparisons between countries with different traditions in forest management planning, data were collected through telephone surveys of forest managers in the state/national forest services of the Netherlands and Germany. In order to minimize other cultural differences, the research in Germany concentrated on the federal state of Nordrhein-Westfalen, which has considerable similarities with the Netherlands, e.g. in topography, forest types and forest functions. The results show that, in practice, 15 years appears to be the most distant horizon that foresters can identify with. This is in sharp contrast to the time horizons spanning decades and even generations that are always said to exist in forestry. The ¿doctrine of the long run¿¿the faith in the capacity of foresters to overcome the barriers of the uncertain future and look ahead and plan for long-range goals¿which in many countries still underlies traditional forest management, can therefore be rejected.
    Coping with the long term : an empirical analysis of time perspectives, time orientations, and temporal uncertainty in forestry
    Hoogstra, M.A. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Schanz; Bas Arts. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852421 - 154
    bosbouw - besluitvorming - onzekerheid - tijd - planning - bosbedrijfsvoering - forestry - decision making - uncertainty - time - planning - forest management
    Uncertainty is an unavoidable fact of every decision. In forestry, the problem of uncertainty is, however, exacerbated by the long time horizons involved. Rotation periods for oak and beech, for example, are up to 150-200 years. And even spruce, which is considered to be a fast-growing tree species, has rotation periods of 40-80 years before it is sufficiently mature for harvesting. No other industrial or land-based process encounters horizons spanning these time frames. Such far-off horizons make it, however, extremely difficult to rely on estimates about future values as a guide to current actions, because the further one projects into the future, the more variables interact and the more uncertainties arise.
    The literature presents a peculiar contradiction when discussing the way foresters cope with the uncertain future. One the one hand, the forester is portrayed as a “visionary futurist”: someone who can overcome the barriers of the uncertain future, who looks ahead and plans for long-range goals. This is the so-called “doctrine of the long run”. On the other hand, foresters are seen as “stuck in the present”, with the far-off future considered too far away to guide meaningful action. Surprisingly however, this debate has only scarcely been touched upon in the forestry community. That is not to say that time is not talked about: however, mostly the discussion has been limited to a description of the subject either as a problem or as a peculiarity. Empirical evidence of how foresters cope with the far-off future has been missing. The research described in this thesis fills this gap by exploring the legitimacy of the doctrine of the long run, which is a long-standing hypothesis in forestry, and one of the premises on which the strong professional ethos in forestry culture still relies.
    The study takes a different approach than previous research: it takes an actor-oriented perspective and focuses on the question of how foresters actually cope with the uncertain future in their actions. This requires not only a shift in the understanding of time from a physical entity to that of a social realm but – even more importantly – a shift from interpreting uncertainty from some form of independent variable to viewing uncertainty as a cognitive and psychological state – a social construct about the availability and “makeability” of the future.
    Although an actor-focused perspective is taken, it is not the individual manager but rather the group of foresters as a whole that is at the very heart of this research. Every collective creates its own culture with its own view of time and uncertainty, which is expressed in the culture’s signs, communication, rituals and behaviour. This means that looking at foresters’ attitudes to time and uncertainty yields insight not only into the way individual foresters per se cope with time and uncertainty, but also of the forestry profession as a whole.
    The exploration started by examining the influence of time on action. In general, actions seem to be understood to form within, and operate under, two general structural spheres: time perspective and time orientation. Time perspective refers to the composite cognitive structures that characterize the way an individual projects, collects, accesses, values, and organizes events that reside in the past, present and future. The relevance of the concept is that it is linked to goal setting and to other aspects of motivation. For this research it is important that the further away in time a perceived goal lies, the less it motivates action. Studies have shown that for most people, 20 or 30 years from now is too far away to evoke meaningful concern leading to concrete behaviour. This is in sharp contrast with the much longer-term perspectives that have generally been stated to underlie traditional forest management. The first case study, carried out on Dutch and German foresters, therefore explored the time perspectives of foresters and the limits (if any) to these perspectives. The findings underscore the “short-range” nature of the actual practice of forestry decision-making: the most distant horizon to evoke meaningful action seems to be 15 years.
    The second structural sphere relates to time orientations. Time orientation describes the way how individuals focus attention on and react to the psychological concepts of past, present and future. Each individual has their own stable tendency (“bias”) of relating to these three time zones. The relevance and utility of the concept of time orientation for this research lies in the fact that although all time zones are important for action, only a clear future-orientation brings an added value to future thinking. Given the view that the forester is a “visionary futurist”, one would expect that foresters in general would have a strong bias towards the future. The opposite view, the forester as a “normal human being” who is engaged more in the present, would on the other hand point to a time orientation where the future is not that dominant. In the second case study, which was on Dutch foresters’ time orientations – specifically their orientation towards the future – are therefore explored. The findings show that foresters have a strong future orientation, which means that in principle, actions in forestry are not merely a continuation of the past and present, but are also based on the foresters’ future expectations (which are, however, as the first case study shows not that far in the future as always expected).
    Also researched in addition to the two structural spheres of time that determine action was the importance of the future time as source of uncertainty (which can block action). Although the future is objectively seen as uncertain, this does not mean that foresters also experience the future as very uncertain. As perceptions determine actions, the third case study therefore explored how foresters from the USA and Germanic Central Europe (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) experience uncertainty. The findings show that the most certain time period in forestry is the future. In order to create a feeling of greater control, foresters try to seek certainty and enact a stable world, even when they know that it is not.
    These findings show that the vision of the (Western) forester as a “visionary futurist” is an illusion. The futurity of actions taken is only limited, and foresters do not seem to differ substantially from other social groups. These findings also imply that the traditional rational approaches to action that forestry research in general has followed are unable to explain how foresters cope with uncertainty. Instead, the findings show that the essential processes used when foresters cope with uncertainty can be meaningfully described in terms of sensemaking. Sensemaking comprises all activities and processes with which actors construct meaning and reality of situations. The basic occasion for sensemaking consists of uncertain events; when people are unable to assign definite values to objects or events and/or are unable to extrapolate current actions and foresee their consequences, they resort to sensemaking in which this ignorance is reduced. In the case of the uncertain future in forestry, foresters create a picture of the future that is relatively short-term and certain, and which – though not an accurate picture of reality – is sufficiently plausible and stable for them to base their actions on it.
    This does not say anything about the quality of long-range planning in forestry, however. Previous research has been inconclusive on how long-range planning influences the quality of management. If one wished to encourage more future-oriented thinking, one could focus on developing individual sensemaking traits. Often, four principles are distinguished that allow for effective response in rapidly changing, uncertain conditions: (1) improvisation, (2) virtual role systems, (3) wisdom and (4) respectful interaction. Another option is to develop and/or enhance scenario thinking. The latter concept recognizes that the future cannot be known, but it might be understood. Using scenarios, foresters can imagine alternative futures and examine the consequences of possible future changes. They can then consider how to cope with such alternatives.
    Though scenario analysis is already being used in forestry, the applications mostly use a quantitative method of constructing and analysing scenarios. What makes scenario analysis such an interesting tool for training foresters to orientate on the future is, however, the more qualitative, “soft” approach of scenario thinking, in which intuition and creative thinking are core elements. To date, this variant has not been deployed much in forestry. Applying it in forestry may require substantial shifts in the cognitive-cultural institutions in forestry, as it requires foresters to understand and internalize scenarios; this can only be achieved when true learning occurs, and that requires the existence of a culture in which learning is institutionalized.
    But even if foresters are successful in embracing all skills and techniques to improve their capacity to understand and act on the future, the practice of forestry must still be regarded as one full of surprise. Traditionally, foresters have viewed surprises as unwelcome and dysfunctional. Little consideration has been given to the possibility of surprise being something that provides an opportunity. From a sociological perspective, the challenge of the future is to reduce uncertainty, but from an economic-entrepreneurial perspective the challenge of the future is to increase the degrees of freedom by creating an open future. The ability and willingness of foresters to recognize changes, and make use of arising opportunities might even prove to be a necessity for the future survival of forestry.

    Inter-sectoral coordination in forest policy : a frame analysis of forest sectorization processes in Austria and the Netherlands
    Verbij, E. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Schanz, co-promotor(en): Esther Turnhout. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852599 - 244
    bosbeleid - coördinatie - inter-sectorale planning - meervoudig gebruik - oostenrijk - nederland - forest policy - coordination - intersectoral planning - multiple use - austria - netherlands
    Inter-sectoral coordination has become a central issue in different forest policy arenas worldwide and is considered to be essential for solving a whole range of problems the forest sector is currently facing
    How (Un)Certain Is the Future in Forestry? A Comparative Assessment of Uncertainty in the Forest and Agricultural Sector
    Hoogstra, M.A. ; Schanz, H. - \ 2008
    Forest Science 54 (2008)3. - ISSN 0015-749X - p. 316 - 327.
    decision-making - values - management - time
    Several authors have stated that, because of the long time horizons underlying forestry processes, the forest sector encounters far more uncertainty than is experienced by any other industrial or agricultural production processes, especially regarding the long future. To gain more insight into the extent to which foresters experience uncertainty in their work field, a content analysis has been carried out to reveal how foresters from the United States and (Germanic) Central Europe (Germany, Austria, and Switzerland) experience uncertainty. The outcomes were compared with the experiences of uncertainty in a more short-term oriented sector, namely the agricultural sector (also in the United States and in Central Europe). Although the findings must be interpreted carefully, the research reveals that, in contrast to what was expected, foresters experience the future as the most certain time period. Decisionmakers in forestry, as in other business sectors, seem to ignore the uncertainty and pretend that the future is certain. This strategy implies considerable risk and, therefore, for forest management to be effective, there is no other way than actively confronting the futurity dilemma.
    The future orientation of foresters: An exploratory research among Dutch foresters into the prerequisite for strategic planning in forestry
    Hoogstra, M.A. ; Schanz, H. - \ 2008
    Forest Policy and Economics 10 (2008)4. - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 220 - 229.
    southeast-asian refugees - time perspective - decision-making - management - consequences - scenarios - hindsight - dominance - foresight - values
    The importance of strategic planning as an instrument to cope with the uncertain future has been long recognized, especially in forestry which is characterized by its relationship with the distant future. Surprisingly, the question to what extent the future is indeed considered in forestry decision-making has received only limited attention. It is therefore the objective of this paper to explore empirically foresters' relation with time (called time perspectives), and more specifically their future orientation, as a basic prerequisite for strategic planning in forestry. In a case study approach, Dutch foresters were questioned with Cottle's Circles Test on the role of the future in their decision-making and the extent to which their planning is merely an extrapolation of past experiences and/or the perception of present conditions. The results indicate a strong future orientation of (Dutch) foresters in planning and decision-making. This allows for strategic planning in a truly entrepreneurial style with uncertainty being interpreted as a valuable resource. However, the results also show that this future orientation is constantly contested by the importance which foresters are assigning to the `past¿ for learning.
    Comparative Analysis of framing the 'forest sector': case studies from Austria and the Netherlands
    Verbij, E. ; Turnhout, E. ; Schanz, H. - \ 2007
    In: Cross-sectoral policy developments in forestry / Dubé, Y.C., Schmithhüsen, F., Wallingford UK and Cambridge USA : Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations and CABI - ISBN 9781845932503 - p. 174 - 182.
    Institutionalization of conflict capability in the management of natural resources : theoretical perspectives and empirical experience in Indonesia
    Yasmi, Y. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Schanz; Bas Arts. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047209 - 188
    natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - milieuafbraak - conflict - bosbedrijfsvoering - indonesië - sociaal conflict - natural resources - resource management - environmental degradation - conflict - forest management - indonesia - social conflict
    Keywords: natural resource conflict, conflict capability, impairment, escalation This study concerns natural resource management (NRM) conflict particularly conflict in forestry sector and how such conflict can be addressed effectively. It consists of two major parts. The first deals with the theoretical review of conflict literature. It shows how conflict can conceptualized distinctively and how such distinctive conceptualization can be used as a strong basis for understanding and addressing conflict. The second part is empirical studies in three locations in Indonesia, namely: Jambi, Sumatra, Bulungan Research Forest, East Kalimantan and Danau Sentarum national Park, West Kalimantan. Forest conflicts studied in these locations cannot be separated with the ongoing decentralization processes in Indonesia. This study finds various horizontal and vertical conflicts that take place as a result of decentralization processes. The study provides an alternative view for addressing NRM conflict by focusing on the so-called “conflict capability”, i.e. how can we develop and institutionalize capacities for dealing with conflict effectively.
    Discourses of information in community forest user groups in Nepal
    Banjade, M.R. ; Schanz, H. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2006
    International Forestry Review 8 (2006)2. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 229 - 240.
    Community forestry involves different stakeholders with diverse perspectives and interests in series of decisions and translating these decisions into actions. In decision-making processes, information plays an important role, but information perspectives differ across the users with different social status defined by economic class, caste and ethnicity, gender, education and access to an ,executive position'. People holding an executive position and those without it have conflicting views on the provisions of power sharing and access to information and resources. There are differences in perceiving and evaluating different qualities of information at various levels of policy processes, and what higher policy makers might think is important quality of information for community forest user groups may no longer be valued by the users. This paper explores multiple realities related to information in community forestry through comparative case studies and suggests that more facilitative, interactive policy process are desirable in securing a higher level of informed decisions
    Manifestation of conflict escalation in natural resource management
    Yasmi, Y. ; Schanz, H. ; Salim, A. - \ 2006
    Environmental Science & Policy 9 (2006)6. - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 538 - 546.
    Conflict escalation is one of the important aspects to be understood for constructive conflict management. It has been widely discussed in many fields of social study, in particular as it relates inter-individual conflicts. However, this is not the case for natural resource management (NRM). This paper addresses two major questions: (1) what are the stages of conflict manifestation in NRM? and (2) is it possible to identify escalation patterns of NRM conflicts? The analysis is based on a review of 118 conflict cases and qualitative content analysis. To identify escalation patterns a Markov Chain approach is used. Eight escalation stages are identified. Furthermore, although it is possible to identify escalation patterns of NRM conflicts, there is no single ¿generic¿ pattern that fits all NRM cases. Escalation in NRM is more complex compared to inter-individual conflicts. It is argued that this complexity might be due to the fact that most NRM conflicts are about multi-actors conflicts, involving wide range of issues and management strategies. Further investigation on escalation is necessary by narrowing the scope and focus of analysis in order to increase our knowledge on the subject. In turn this knowledge will contribute to achieving constructive conflict management in NRM.
    Wild plant resources and cultural practices in rural and urban households in South Africa : implications for bio-cultural diversity conservation
    Cocks, M.L. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Schanz, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044710 - 196
    wilde planten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bosbestanden - biodiversiteit - relaties tussen stad en platteland - cultuur - mens - huishoudens - zuid-afrika - wild plants - plant genetic resources - forest resources - biodiversity - rural urban relations - culture - man - households - south africa
    An 'inextricable link' between biological and cultural diversity has been identified and the term bio-cultural diversity has been introduced as a concept denoting the link. Studies on bio-cultural diversity are largely focused on remote and isolated communities with the modes and relations of indigenous production systems being typically subsistence and kin based and involving extraction of wild products from the natural environment. Rural conditions are however rapidly changing in many tropical countries, and the livelihood strategies of communities are becoming increasingly diversified. As a result the worldviews, cultural values and knowledge of large sectors of the population can no longer be classified as 'traditional'noras representative of western culture. Despite these changes, many of these communities are still reliant on wild resources both for utilitarian and cultural needs. Unfortunately, the theory on bio-cultural diversity as it currently stands only pays homage to one end of the continuum — the more 'exotic' and politically under-represented sectors of the population. This has resulted in very little systematic analysis of the interaction between culture and use of biological diversity, and of the question of whether cultural practices linked to the use of biodiversity are resilient, or rather the persistent, and whether they are maintained under processes of commercialisation and globalization The overall aim of this study is to assess the importance of biodiversity with respect to cultural and utilitarian value amongst different categories of non-traditional community households in both peri-urban and urban contexts of South Africa and to evaluate factors which contribute to the persistent use of biodiversity for cultural practices. It is shown that cultural practices of biodiversity are divers and often still poorly recorded. Even in urban areas and amongst richer people several forms of cultural use of biodiversity are maintainedThestudy gives credibility to the idea that the future of conservation movements depends on their ability to deal with the relation between history, culture and conservation in all its complexity.
    Powerful relations: the role of actor-empowerment in the management of natural resource conflicts : a case of forest conflicts in Ghana
    Marfo, E. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Schanz; Bas Arts. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045267 - 222
    bossen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bedrijfsvoering - conflict - bosbeleid - plaatselijke bevolking - ghana - bosbedrijfsvoering - forests - natural resources - management - conflict - forest policy - local population - ghana - forest management
    Keywords: natural resource conflict, power, actor-empowerment,Ghana

    Increasingly, conflicts over natural resource (NR) use and management have attracted the attention of both scholars and professionals. While the recognition that conflict has both constructive and destructive capabilities have dawn on us, the negative outcomes have been prominent in many cases, calling for innovations in conflict management. The question of 'power' has been observed as crucial to any such innovations in conflict management. However, it has been noted that current approaches to the study of conflict and power do not offer in-depth understanding of power and how it plays itself out in NR conflicts. Besides, the role of power in NR conflicts has not been well studied. The aim of the study was to enlighten current understanding of the role of power in conflict management interventions by investigating the patterns of strategies and resources that conflict actors used to empowerthemselvesand others to manage impairments. The study established that actor-empowerment is highly context bound and conflict interventions cannot benefit from any predictive patterns such as strategy reciprocity. Thus, instead of relying on predictions of reciprocity from game models, it has been argued that intervention will benefit from understanding actor and systemic factors that constrain the mobilisation of specific resources for mutual influence. It has also been pointed out that our understanding of the role of power in conflict can be enhanced using chronological reconstruction of conflicts and studying conflicts as a two-actor game model.

    Forstwirtschaft und Forstpolitik in den Niederlanden zwischen Verstädterung und ländlicher Entwicklung
    Schanz, H. ; Maas, D.W. - \ 2004
    Forst und Holz 59 (2004)8. - ISSN 0932-9315 - p. 371 - 375.
    Das produktorientierte Planungs- und Steuerungssystem des niederländischen Forstdienstes
    Hekhuis, H.J. ; Schanz, H. - \ 2004
    Forst und Holz 59 (2004)8. - ISSN 0932-9315 - p. 389 - 393.
    The future of European Forestry - between urbanization and rural development
    Hoogstra, M.A. ; Schanz, H. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2004
    Forest Policy and Economics 6 (2004)5. - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 441 - 445.
    Sustainable forest management
    Schanz, H. - \ 2004
    In: Encyclopedia of forest sciences / Burley, J., Evans, J., Youngquist, J.A., Oxford, UK : Elsevier - ISBN 9780121451608 - p. 1345 - 1350.
    Vraag het de bomen; creativiteit in bosbeheer
    Dijs, F. ; Ansembourg, F. d'; Claessens, B. ; Fennema, A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Heybroek, H. ; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Hussendörfer, E. ; Klein, J. de; Koopmans, G. ; Kooy, F. van der; Olsthoorn, A.F.M. ; Ouden, J. den; Schanz, H. ; Spek, T. ; Swart, B. ; Waal, R.W. de; Wijk, M.N. van - \ 2003
    Utrecht : Matrijs - ISBN 9789053452349 - 120
    bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbeleid - landgoederen - particuliere bosbouw - particulier eigendom - houtteelt - nederland - dauerwald - forest management - forest policy - estates - private forestry - private ownership - silviculture - netherlands - dauerwald
    De geschiedenis van het bosbeheer van landgoed Middachten, ten tijde van Graaf zu Ortenburg (1927-2001)
    Het bos voor ons allemaal?
    Schanz, H. - \ 2003
    In: 'Vraag het de bomen' Creativiteit in bosbeheer / Dijs, Fred, Utrecht : Uitgeverij Matrijs - ISBN 9789053452349 - p. 65 - 69.
    bosbouw - meervoudig landgebruik - recreatie - nederland - forestry - multiple land use - recreation - netherlands
    Uit onderzoek blijkt, dat recreanten bos verkiezen boven andere natuur in Nederland. In 1997 kwamen er gemiddeld driekwart miljoen mensen per dag naar het bos en werden op jaarbasis 200 miljoen bezoeken afgelegd
    Empirical Determination of Political Cultures as a Basis for Effective Coordination of Forest Management Systems
    Pokorny, B. ; Schanz, H. - \ 2003
    Society & Natural Resources 16 (2003)10. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 887 - 908.
    brazilian amazon - frontier
    To design viable strategies to implement sustainable forest management, tools are needed that allow the understanding and management of the driving forces behind conflicting opinions and divergent solutions. The approach of Thompson et al. (1990) to cultural theory-because of its descriptive power-may be an ideal basis to create such tools. The possibility of determining empirically the cultural bias of the actors and groups involved is fundamental to this approach. We conducted a pilot study in the eastern Amazon region to explore the possibility of characterizing individuals according to the four types of political culture defined by Thompson et al. The findings indicated that the empirical classification of individuals is possible but complex. A relation between the types of political cultures and perceptions of sustainable forest management was observed. A systematic elaboration of adequate indicators and assessment methods is crucial in exploring the potential of transferring the theoretical approach into practice.
    Spirituele waarden van natuur. Een analyse van de ervaring van spiritualiteit in relatie tot bomen en bos
    Trigt, A. van; Koppen, C.S.A. van; Schanz, H. - \ 2003
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 20 (2003)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 155 - 163.
    bossen - perceptie - esthetische waarde - bomen - natuur - forests - trees - perception - aesthetic value - nature
    Via een beperkt empirisch onderzoek is getracht een beter inzicht te verkrijgen in de (spirituele) beleving van de natuur
    Making NFPs Work: Supporting Factors and Procedural Aspects
    Glück, P. ; Carvalho Mendes, A. ; Neven, M.G.G. ; Berge, E. ; Hogl, K. ; Pregernig, M. ; Schanz, H. - \ 2003
    Vienna : Institute of Forest Sector Policy and Economics - 56 p.
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