Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Global atmospheric CO2 inverse models converging on neutral tropical land exchange, but disagreeing on fossil fuel and atmospheric growth rate
Gaubert, Benjamin ; Stephens, Britton B. ; Basu, Sourish ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Deng, Feng ; Kort, Eric A. ; Patra, Prabir K. ; Peters, Wouter ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Saeki, Tazu ; Schimel, David ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der; Wofsy, Steven ; Yin, Yi - \ 2019
Biogeosciences 16 (2019)1. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 117 - 134.

We have compared a suite of recent global CO2 atmospheric inversion results to independent airborne observations and to each other, to assess their dependence on differences in northern extratropical (NET) vertical transport and to identify some of the drivers of model spread. We evaluate posterior CO2 concentration profiles against observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-To-Pole Observations (HIPPO) aircraft campaigns over the mid-Pacific in 2009-2011. Although the models differ in inverse approaches, assimilated observations, prior fluxes, and transport models, their broad latitudinal separation of land fluxes has converged significantly since the Atmospheric Carbon Cycle Inversion Intercomparison (TransCom 3) and the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) projects, with model spread reduced by 80% since TransCom 3 and 70% since RECCAP. Most modeled CO2 fields agree reasonably well with the HIPPO observations, specifically for the annual mean vertical gradients in the Northern Hemisphere. Northern Hemisphere vertical mixing no longer appears to be a dominant driver of northern versus tropical (T) annual flux differences. Our newer suite of models still gives northern extratropical land uptake that is modest relative to previous estimates (Gurney et al., 2002; Peylin et al., 2013) and near-neutral tropical land uptake for 2009- 2011. Given estimates of emissions from deforestation, this implies a continued uptake in intact tropical forests that is strong relative to historical estimates (Gurney et al., 2002; Peylin et al., 2013). The results from these models for other time periods (2004-2014, 2001-2004, 1992-1996) and reevaluation of the TransCom 3 Level 2 and RECCAP results confirm that tropical land carbon fluxes including deforestation have been near neutral for several decades. However, models still have large disagreements on ocean-land partitioning. The fossil fuel (FF) and the atmospheric growth rate terms have been thought to be the best-known terms in the global carbon budget, but we show that they currently limit our ability to assess regional-scale terrestrial fluxes and ocean-land partitioning from the model ensemble.

Letter tot the editor: Iconic CO2 Time Series at Risk
Houweling, S. ; Badawy, B. ; Baker, D.F. ; Basu, S. ; Belikov, D. ; Bergamaschi, P. ; Bousquet, P. ; Broquet, G. ; Butler, T. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Chen, J. ; Chevallier, F. ; Ciais, P. ; Collatz, G.J. ; Denning, S. ; Engelen, R. ; Enting, I.G. ; Fischer, M.L. ; Fraser, A. ; Gerbig, C. ; Gloor, M. ; Jacobson, A.R. ; Jones, D.B.A. ; Heimann, M. ; Khalil, A. ; Kaminski, T. ; Kasibhatla, P.S. ; Krakauer, N.Y. ; Krol, M. ; Maki, T. ; Maksyutov, S. ; Manning, A. ; Meesters, A. ; Miller, J.B. ; Palmer, P.I. ; Patra, P. ; Peters, W. ; Peylin, P. ; Poussi, Z. ; Prather, M.J. ; Randerson, J.T. ; Rockmann, T. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Sarmiento, J.L. ; Schimel, D.S. ; Scholze, M. ; Schuh, A. ; Suntharalingam, P. ; Takahashi, T. ; Turnbull, J. ; Yurganov, L. ; Vermeulen, A. - \ 2012
Science 337 (2012)6098. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1038 - 1040.
Thermal optimality of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and underlying mechanisms
Niu, S. ; Luo, Y. ; Fei, S. ; Yuan, W. ; Schimel, D. ; Law, B.E. ; Ammann, C. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2012
New Phytologist 194 (2012). - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 775 - 783.
temperature-dependence - soil respiration - european forests - cycle feedback - ponderosa pine - co2 fluxes - climate - photosynthesis - acclimation - responses
It is well established that individual organisms can acclimate and adapt to temperature to optimize their functioning. However, thermal optimization of ecosystems, as an assemblage of organisms, has not been examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. • Here, we compiled data from 169 globally distributed sites of eddy covariance and quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), an ecosystem-level property, to determine whether NEE shows thermal optimality and to explore the underlying mechanisms. • We found that the temperature response of NEE followed a peak curve, with the optimum temperature (corresponding to the maximum magnitude of NEE) being positively correlated with annual mean temperature over years and across sites. Shifts of the optimum temperature of NEE were mostly a result of temperature acclimation of gross primary productivity (upward shift of optimum temperature) rather than changes in the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration. • Ecosystem-level thermal optimality is a newly revealed ecosystem property, presumably reflecting associated evolutionary adaptation of organisms within ecosystems, and has the potential to significantly regulate ecosystem-climate change feedbacks. The thermal optimality of NEE has implications for understanding fundamental properties of ecosystems in changing environments and benchmarking global models.
Research Agenda and Policy Input of the Earth System Science Partnership for Coping with Global Environmental Change
Leemans, R. ; Rice, M. ; Henderson-Sellers, A. ; Noone, K. - \ 2011
In: Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security: Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks / Brauch, H.G., Oswald Spring, U., Mesjasz, C., Grin, J., Kameri-Mbote, P., Chourou, B., Dunay, P., Birkmann, J., Berlijn : Springer (Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Secutiry and Peace 5) - ISBN 9783642177750 - p. 1205 - 1220.
Human activities now match (and often exceed) the natural forces of the Earth System (Steffen/Sanderson/ Tyson/Jäger/Matson/Moore/Oldfield/Richardson/ Schellnhuber/Turner/Wasson 2004). Recent ice core data show that current levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane are well outside the range of natural variability over the last 800,000 years (Luthi/Le Floch/ Bereiter/Blunier/Barnola/Siegenthaler/Raynaud/Jouzel/ Fischer/Kawamura/Stocker 2008). Roughly half of the world’s ice-free land surface has been altered by human actions. Humans now fix more nitrogen than does nature. Particles emitted by human activities alter the energy balance of the planet, as well as having adverse effects on human health. Human choices about how we use resources are at the heart of many of these changes. These may seem to be unrelated issues; however, over the last decades, we have gained a deeper understanding of the degree to which all of these separate issues are linked. The Earth System is a very complex coupled system with myriad feedbacks, and it has and inevitably can still exhibit rapid, globalscale responses to changes in environmental conditions (Costanza/Graumlich/Steffen/Crumley/Dearing/Hibbard/ Leemans/Redman/Schimel 2007).
Evolution of the human-environment relationship
Costanza, R. ; Steffen, W. ; Hibbard, K. ; Crumley, C. ; Leemans, R. ; Graumlich, L. ; Dearing, J. ; Redman, C. ; Schimel, D. - \ 2007
In: Encyclopedia of Earth / Cleveland, C.J.,
samenleving - milieu - mens - geologie - ecologie - aarde - society - environment - man - geology - ecology - earth
The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth.
Sustainability or collapse: What can we learn from integrating the history of humans and the rest of nature?
Costanza, R. ; Graumlich, L. ; Steffen, W. ; Crumley, C. ; Dearing, J. ; Hibbard, K. ; Leemans, R. ; Redman, C. ; Schimel, D. - \ 2007
Ambio 36 (2007). - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 522 - 527.
Understanding the history of how humans have interacted with the rest of nature can help clarify the options for managing our increasingly interconnected global system. Simple, deterministic relationships between environmental stress and social change are inadequate. Extreme drought, for instance, triggered both social collapse and ingenious management of water through irrigation. Human responses to change, in turn, feed into climate and ecological systems, producing a complex web of multidirectional connections in time and space. Integrated records of the co-evolving human-environment system over millennia are needed to provide a basis for a deeper understanding of the present and for forecasting the future. This requires the major task of assembling and integrating regional and global historical, archaeological, and paleoenvironmental records. Humans cannot predict the future. But, if we can adequately understand the past, we can use that understanding to influence our decisions and to create a better, more sustainable and desirable future.
Should phosphorus availability be constraining moist tropical forest responses to increasing CO2 concentrations?
Lloyd, J. ; Bird, M.I. ; Veenendaal, E.M. ; Kruijt, B. - \ 2001
In: Global biogeochemical cycles in the climate system. San Diego CA (USA) etc. Academic Press, 2001 / Schulze, E.D., Heimann, M., Harrison, S., Holland, E., Lloyd, J., Prentice, I.C., Schimel, D., - p. 95 - 114.
bodemchemie - fosforkringloop - klimaatverandering - koolstofkringloop - nutriënten - regenwoud - tropen
The influence of soil biodiversity on hydrological pathways and the transfer of materials between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
Bardgett, R.D. ; Anderson, J.M. ; Behan-Pelletier, V. ; Brussaard, L. ; Coleman, D.C. ; Ettema, C. ; Moldenke, A. ; Schimel, J.P. ; Wall, D.H. - \ 2001
Ecosystems 4 (2001). - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 421 - 429.
The terrestrial carbon cycle: implications for the Kyoto Protocol
Steffen, W. ; Noble, I. ; Canadell, J. ; Apps, M. ; Schulze, E.D. ; Jarvis, P.G. ; Baldocchi, D. ; Ciais, P. ; Cramer, W. ; Ehleringer, J. ; Farquhar, G. ; Field, C.B. ; Ghazi, A. ; Gifford, R. ; Heimann, M. ; Houghton, R. ; Kabat, P. ; Korner, C. ; Lambin, E. ; Linder, S. ; Mooney, H.A. ; Murdiyarso, D. ; Post, W.M. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Raupach, M.R. ; Schimel, D.S. ; Shvidenko, A. ; Valentini, R. - \ 1998
Science 280 (1998). - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1393 - 1394.
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