Records 1 - 20 / 582
Meten wat er leeft : de kracht van samenwerking in het Netwerk Ecologische Monitoring
Bink, Ruud ; Knol, Onno ; Meij, Tom van der; Aar, Mies van; Abel, Gerrie ; Beinum, Julia ; Bekker, Dick ; Bulsink, Renée ; Clerkx, Sandra ; Eijk, Jurriën van; Dorsser-Benne, Elza van; Eerden, Mennobart van; Eggink, Gert ; Engelmoer, Meinte ; Felix, Rob ; Gmelig Meyling, Adriaan ; Goverse, Edo ; Groenewoud, Henk ; Heer, Mireille de; Herder, Jelger ; Hinsberg, Arjen ; Hommersen, Vita ; Huijzers, Gert ; Jansen, Eric ; Janssen, Ingo ; Janssen, Nico ; Janssen, René ; Jong, Albert de; Kalkman, Vincent ; Kleunen, André van; Koese, Bram ; Kolenbrander, Gerrit ; Kranenbarg, Jan ; Lamers, Eric ; Haye, Maurice La; Loose, Jella ; Mostert, Kees ; Noordeloos, Machiel ; Notenboom, Jos ; Odé, Baudewijn ; Oene, Martijn van; Remijn, Henk ; Remmelts, Wilmar ; Roos, Mervyn ; Rotteveel, Serge ; Scheepens, Mark ; Schillemans, Marcel ; Schmidt, Anne ; Schoonman, Marten ; Sevilleja, Cristina ; Slootweg, Erik ; Smit, Harry ; Soldaat, Leo ; Sparrius, Laurens ; Spitzen, Annemarieke ; Stark, Tariq ; Stegeman, Wim ; Strien, Arco van; Strien, Willy van; Swaay, Chris van; Tilmans, Raymond ; Turnhout, Chris van; Tweel, Melchior van; Vaessen, Alfons ; Vegte, Jan Willem van der; Vergeer, Jan-Willem ; Verweij, Richard ; Vliegenthart, Albert ; Vogel, Rob ; Vossebelt, Gerrit ; Westrienen, Rob van; Wouda, Harry ; Wynhoff, Irma - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-special 1) - 111
Evaluating structural and compositional canopy characteristics to predict the light-demand signature of the forest understorey in mixed, semi-natural temperate forests
Depauw, Leen ; Perring, Michael P. ; Landuyt, Dries ; Maes, Sybryn L. ; Blondeel, Haben ; Lombaerde, Emiel De; Brūmelis, Guntis ; Brunet, Jörg ; Closset-Kopp, Déborah ; Decocq, Guillaume ; Ouden, Jan Den; Härdtle, Werner ; Hédl, Radim ; Heinken, Thilo ; Heinrichs, Steffi ; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan ; Kopecký, Martin ; Liepiņa, Ilze ; Macek, Martin ; Máliš, František ; Schmidt, Wolfgang ; Smart, Simon M. ; Ujházy, Karol ; Wulf, Monika ; Verheyen, Kris - \ 2020
Applied Vegetation Science (2020). - ISSN 1402-2001
basal area - canopy closure - canopy cover - Ellenberg indicator values - herb layer - light availability - light transmittance - shade-casting ability - temperate forest - understorey
Questions: Light availability at the forest floor affects many forest ecosystem processes, and is often quantified indirectly through easy-to-measure stand characteristics. We investigated how three such characteristics, basal area, canopy cover and canopy closure, were related to each other in structurally complex mixed forests. We also asked how well they can predict the light-demand signature of the forest understorey (estimated as the mean Ellenberg indicator value for light [“EIVLIGHT”] and the proportion of “forest specialists” [“%FS”] within the plots). Furthermore, we asked whether accounting for the shade-casting ability of individual canopy species could improve predictions of EIVLIGHT and %FS. Location: A total of 192 study plots from nineteen temperate forest regions across Europe. Methods: In each plot, we measured stand basal area (all stems >7.5 cm diameter), canopy closure (with a densiometer) and visually estimated the percentage cover of all plant species in the herb (<1 m), shrub (1–7 m) and tree layer (>7 m). We used linear mixed-effect models to assess the relationships between basal area, canopy cover and canopy closure. We performed model comparisons, based on R2 and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), to assess which stand characteristics can predict EIVLIGHT and %FS best, and to assess whether canopy shade-casting ability can significantly improve model fit. Results: Canopy closure and cover were weakly related to each other, but showed no relation with basal area. For both EIVLIGHT and %FS, canopy cover was the best predictor. Including the share of high-shade-casting species in both the basal-area and cover models improved the model fit for EIVLIGHT, but not for %FS. Conclusions: The typically expected relationships between basal area, canopy cover and canopy closure were weak or even absent in structurally complex mixed forests. In these forests, easy-to-measure structural canopy characteristics were poor predictors of the understorey light-demand signature, but accounting for compositional characteristics could improve predictions.
Farmer Behaviour as Reasoned Action : A Critical Review of Research with the Theory of Planned Behaviour
Sok, Jaap ; Borges, Joao Rossi ; Schmidt, Peter ; Ajzen, Icek - \ 2020
Journal of Agricultural Economics (2020). - ISSN 0021-857X
Decision making - farmer behaviour - reasoned action approach - reflective and formative measurement - review - structural equation and MIMIC models - theory of planned behaviour
In many countries farmers face pressure to adopt practices to promote sustainability and resilience while ensuring efficient business management to produce food and other agricultural products at reasonable cost. Given a policy context in which voluntary action is preferred over government regulation, understanding farmers’ motivation to embrace recommended practices has become a major subject for research. Increasingly, this endeavour is guided by the theory of planned behaviour, a reasoned action approach (Fishbein and Ajzen, 2010). We provide a brief overview of the theory of planned behaviour and an elaboration of good practices in the assessment of the theory’s constructs. We systematically review 124 applications of the theory to farmer behaviour on a number of specific review criteria. Based on observations of improper use, we consider theoretical and methodological issues and provide recommendations for research design and data analysis.
Biodeterioration Affecting Efficiency and Lifetime of Plastic-Based Photovoltaics
Schmidt, Felix ; Zimmermann, Yannick Serge ; Reis Benatto, Gisele Alves dos; Kolvenbach, Boris A. ; Schäffer, Andreas ; Krebs, Frederik C. ; Hullebusch, Eric D. van; Lenz, Markus - \ 2020
Joule 4 (2020)10. - ISSN 2542-4351 - p. 2088 - 2100.
biocorrosion - degradation mechanisms - failure mechanisms - organic photovoltaics - perovskite solar cells
The low environmental impact of electricity generation using solar cells crucially depends on high energy-conversion efficiencies, long lifetimes, and a minimal energy and material demand during production. Emerging thin-film photovoltaics such as perovskites on plastic substrates could hold promises to fulfill all these requirements. Under real-world operating conditions, photovoltaic operation is challenged by biological stressors, which have not been incorporated for evaluation in any test. Such stressors cause biodeterioration, which impairs diverse, apparently inert materials such as rock, glass, and steel and therefore could significantly affect the function and stability of plastic-based solar cells. Given that different photovoltaic technologies commonly use similar materials, the biodeterioration mechanisms reviewed here may possibly affect the efficiency and lifetimes of several technologies if they occur sufficiently faster (during the expected lifetime of photovoltaics). Once the physical integrity of uppermost module layers is challenged by biofilm growth, microbially mediated dissolution and precipitation reactions of photovoltaic functional materials are very likely to occur. The biodeterioration of substrates and seals also represents emission points for the release of potentially harmful photovoltaic constituents to the environment. Upon exposure to the natural environment, not even diamonds are forever. In real-world operating conditions, photovoltaics are affected by biodeterioration through biofilm growth that impairs diverse, apparently inert materials, such as rock, glass, and steel. Biodeterioration goes beyond obstructing incoming light and affecting energy conversion; it challenges the physical integrity of substrates. This phenomenon may thus heavily degrade primarily plastic-based thin-film photovoltaics. Following initial degradation, functional layers can undergo microbially mediated dissolution and precipitation, thereby affecting the lifetimes of such solar cells. Biofilm development also influences how potentially harmful photovoltaic constituents (e.g., lead from perovskites) are released to the environment. Despite the considerable potentiality of these detrimental effects, however, they are yet to be systematically studied. Given that different types of solar cells commonly use similar materials, the biodeterioration mechanisms reviewed here may affect several technologies. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the colonization of photovoltaics by sub-aerial biofilms and their potential negative impacts on photovoltaics. We discuss why abiotic laboratory tests for PV efficiency and lifetime poorly reflect the stress PVs suffer in outdoor conditions. We then summarize the knowledge on soiling as well as microbial-, algal-, and fungal growth on PVs. This is followed by a discussion of the physical mechanisms that affect PV efficiency via soiling and photon competition as well as chemical and biological mechanisms (plastic degradation, microbially induced dissolution, and precipitation reactions) that can affect active layers and thus the lifetime of PVs in the field. Solar cells are subjected to various physical, chemical, and biological stressors in the field. Here, a perspective on the potential detrimental effects of biofilm growth on solar cells is given. Soiling and photon competition affect the photovoltaic performance of all cells, while a suite of biochemical mechanisms (“biodeterioration”) may affect the efficiency and lifetime of plastic-based solar cells in particular. Further, biodeterioration might provide a pathway for the entry of harmful solar cell components to the environment.
Bending the curve of terrestrial biodiversity needs an integrated strategy
Leclère, David ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Barrett, Mike ; Butchart, Stuart H.M. ; Chaudhary, Abhishek ; Palma, Adriana De; DeClerck, Fabrice A.J. ; Marco, Moreno Di; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Dürauer, Martina ; Freeman, Robin ; Harfoot, Michael ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Hellweg, Stefanie ; Hilbers, Jelle P. ; Hill, Samantha L.L. ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Jennings, Nancy ; Krisztin, Tamás ; Mace, Georgina M. ; Ohashi, Haruka ; Popp, Alexander ; Purvis, Andy ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Valin, Hugo ; Meijl, Hans van; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Visconti, Piero ; Alkemade, Rob ; Almond, Rosamunde ; Bunting, Gill ; Burgess, Neil D. ; Cornell, Sarah E. ; Fulvio, Fulvio Di; Ferrier, Simon ; Fritz, Steffen ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Grooten, Monique ; Harwood, Thomas ; Havlík, Petr ; Herrero, Mario ; Hoskins, Andrew J. ; Jung, Martin ; Kram, Tom ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Matsui, Tetsuya ; Meyer, Carsten ; Nel, Deon ; Newbold, Tim ; Schmidt-Traub, Guido ; Stehfest, Elke ; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Ware, Chris ; Watson, James E.M. ; Wu, Wenchao ; Young, Lucy - \ 2020
Nature 585 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 551 - 556.
Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether—and how—humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042–2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34–50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats—such as climate change—must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy.
Altered energy partitioning across terrestrial ecosystems in the European drought year 2018
Graf, Alexander ; Klosterhalfen, Anne ; Arriga, Nicola ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Bogena, Heye ; Bornet, Frédéric ; Brüggemann, Nicolas ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Chi, Jinshu ; Chipeaux, Christophe ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Cuntz, Matthias ; Dušek, Jiří ; El-Madany, Tarek S. ; Fares, Silvano ; Fischer, Milan ; Foltýnová, Lenka ; Gharun, Mana ; Ghiasi, Shiva ; Gielen, Bert ; Gottschalk, Pia ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Heinemann, Günther ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Heliasz, Michal ; Holst, Jutta ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ingwersen, Joachim ; Jurasinski, Gerald ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Koebsch, Franziska ; Konopka, Jan ; Korkiakoski, Mika ; Kowalska, Natalia ; Kremer, Pascal ; Kruijt, Bart ; Lafont, Sebastien ; Léonard, Joël ; Ligne, Anne De; Longdoz, Bernard ; Loustau, Denis ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Mauder, Matthias ; Migliavacca, Mirco ; Mölder, Meelis ; Neirynck, Johan ; Ney, Patrizia ; Nilsson, Mats ; Paul-Limoges, Eugénie ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pitacco, Andrea ; Poyda, Arne ; Rebmann, Corinna ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sachs, Torsten ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schrader, Frederik ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Tuittila, Eeva Stiina ; Varlagin, Andrej ; Vendrame, Nadia ; Vincke, Caroline ; Völksch, Ingo ; Weber, Stephan ; Wille, Christian ; Wizemann, Hans Dieter ; Zeeman, Matthias ; Vereecken, Harry - \ 2020
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 375 (2020)1810. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 1 p.
eddy covariance - energy balance - evapotranspiration - heat flux - net carbon uptake - water-use efficiency
Drought and heat events, such as the 2018 European drought, interact with the exchange of energy between the land surface and the atmosphere, potentially affecting albedo, sensible and latent heat fluxes, as well as CO2 exchange. Each of these quantities may aggravate or mitigate the drought, heat, their side effects on productivity, water scarcity and global warming. We used measurements of 56 eddy covariance sites across Europe to examine the response of fluxes to extreme drought prevailing most of the year 2018 and how the response differed across various ecosystem types (forests, grasslands, croplands and peatlands). Each component of the surface radiation and energy balance observed in 2018 was compared to available data per site during a reference period 2004-2017. Based on anomalies in precipitation and reference evapotranspiration, we classified 46 sites as drought affected. These received on average 9% more solar radiation and released 32% more sensible heat to the atmosphere compared to the mean of the reference period. In general, drought decreased net CO2 uptake by 17.8%, but did not significantly change net evapotranspiration. The response of these fluxes differed characteristically between ecosystems; in particular, the general increase in the evaporative index was strongest in peatlands and weakest in croplands. This article is part of the theme issue 'Impacts of the 2018 severe drought and heatwave in Europe: from site to continental scale'.
Monitoring van insectenpopulaties in Nederland : Visie en aanpak voor de realisatie van een monitorings- en onderzoeksprogramma naar de ontwikkelingen van insectenpopulaties in Nederland
Schmidt, A.M. ; Meij, T. van der - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Rapport / Wageningen Environmental Research 3016) - 63
n response to the article of Hallman et al . (2017) on the drastic decline in biomass of insects in 31 natural reserves in Germany and the subsequent report of Kleijn et al. (2018) on the data and knowledge gaps on the trends in insect populations in The Netherlands a debate was carried out by the house of representatives. During this debate a motion was filed and accepted on the development of long-term monitoring and research program on the trends in insect populations in agricultural areas. In response to this the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality asked Wageningen Environmental Research to develop a vision and a plan of action for the monitoring of insects in The Netherlands. The starting points of this vision, apart from the existing biodiversity policy, are the foreseen transition in the agricultural sector as mentioned in the vision of the Minister of Agriculture, Natura and Food Quality on the circular agriculture and the expected contribution to the conservation and restoration of biodiversity. In doing so the connection and coherence between agriculture and nature has been given special attention, as most of the biodiversity is restricted to natural areas and natural areas are of utmost importance for the restoration of biodiversity in agricultural areas. A comprehensive set of indicators is proposed based on the three dimensions of a nature inclusive circular agriculture, namely caring for the conservation and restoration of biodiversity, better use of functional biodiversity and lowering the impact on biodiversity. A first proposal has been made how to operationalize these indicators and how to make use of existing monitoring programs, plans/initiatives and pilots.
Hunting for insects on farmland
Schmidt, Anne ; Wolterbeek, T. - \ 2020
The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.
The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.
Nest attentiveness drives nest predation in arctic sandpipers
Meyer, Nicolas ; Bollache, Loïc ; Dechaume-Moncharmont, François Xavier ; Moreau, Jérôme ; Afonso, Eve ; Angerbjörn, Anders ; Bêty, Joël ; Ehrich, Dorothée ; Gilg, Vladimir ; Giroux, Marie Andrée ; Hansen, Jannik ; Lanctot, Richard B. ; Lang, Johannes ; Lecomte, Nicolas ; McKinnon, Laura ; Reneerkens, Jeroen ; Saalfeld, Sarah T. ; Sabard, Brigitte ; Schmidt, Niels M. ; Sittler, Benoît ; Smith, Paul ; Sokolov, Aleksandr ; Sokolov, Vasiliy ; Sokolova, Natalia ; Bemmelen, Rob van; Gilg, Olivier - \ 2020
Oikos 129 (2020)10. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 1481 - 1492.
Arctic shorebirds - breeding behaviour - incubation recesses - incubation strategy - nest survival - parental care
Most birds incubate their eggs to allow embryo development. This behaviour limits the ability of adults to perform other activities. Hence, incubating adults trade off incubation and nest protection with foraging to meet their own needs. Parents can either cooperate to sustain this tradeoff or incubate alone. The main cause of reproductive failure at this reproductive stage is predation and adults reduce this risk by keeping the nest location secret. Arctic sandpipers are interesting biological models to investigate parental care evolution as they may use several parental care strategies. The three main incubation strategies include both parents sharing incubation duties (‘biparental’), one parent incubating alone (‘uniparental’), or a flexible strategy with both uniparental and biparental incubation within a population (‘mixed’). By monitoring the incubation behaviour in 714 nests of seven sandpiper species across 12 arctic sites, we studied the relationship between incubation strategy and nest predation. First, we described how the frequency of incubation recesses (NR), their mean duration (MDR), and the daily total duration of recesses (TDR) vary among strategies. Then, we examined how the relationship between the daily predation rate and these components of incubation behaviour varies across strategies using two complementary survival analysis. For uniparental and biparental species, the daily predation rate increased with the daily total duration of recesses and with the mean duration of recesses. In contrast, daily predation rate increased with the daily number of recesses for biparental species only. These patterns may be attributed to two independent mechanisms: cryptic incubating adults are more difficult to locate than unattended nests and adults departing the nest or feeding close to the nest can draw predators’ attention. Our results demonstrate that incubation behaviour as mediated by incubation strategy has important consequences for sandpipers’ reproductive success.
The Objectives of Stakeholder Involvement in Transdisciplinary Research : A Conceptual Framework for a Reflective and Reflexive Practise
Schmidt, Laura ; Falk, Thomas ; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna ; Spangenberg, Joachim H. - \ 2020
Ecological Economics 176 (2020). - ISSN 0921-8009 - 9 p.
Participatory approaches - Research project design - Stakeholder involvement - Sustainable land management
Transdisciplinary research is a well-recognised approach to address complex real-world problems. However, the literature on a central aspect of transdisciplinarity, namely stakeholder involvement, largely lacks a reflection on its objectives. In response, we present a framework defining four general rationales for stakeholder involvement: normative, substantive, social-learning, and implementation objectives. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework and analyse how the design and processes of three collaborative research projects dealing with sustainable land management in Southern Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America were affected by motivations to include stakeholders. Our assessment indicates that at the projects' outset, many scientists pursued a normative rationale and saw stakeholder involvement as a burden. In the course of the projects, the substantive objective became more relevant as being closely linked to the core mandate of scientists. The projects also aimed for social learning and implementation processes, which, however, did not remain uncontested among team members. Overall, our study indicates that jointly negotiating, clarifying, communicating, and reflecting the underlying objectives of stakeholder involvement can help developing more effective interaction strategies and clarifying expectations. The conceptual framework can guide a systematic reflective and reflexive practise and support the planning and co-designing of future transdisciplinary research projects.
Effecten van de droge zomer van 2018 op de macrofauna in laaglandbeken
Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Knol, Bert ; Schmidt, Gertie ; Scheepens, Mark ; Brugmans, Bart ; Beers, Peter van; Lenssen, John - \ 2020
H2O online (2020).
In 2018 werd Nederland geconfronteerd met een droogte van een omvang die zich al decennia niet meer had voorgedaan. Hierdoor vielen in de loop van de zomer steeds meer beken droog. Een dramatisch gezicht, maar ook een kans om te leren wat de impact is van zo’n catastrofe. Daarom hebben waterschappen en provincies samen extra metingen uitgevoerd. Dit leverde belangrijke inzichten in de kwetsbaarheid van beken en aanknopingspunten om deze minder gevoelig te maken voor toekomstige droogteperioden. De opnieuw problematische situatie in 2019 onderstreepte nog eens dat deze kennis hard nodig is.
Adapting to extremes : Key insights for bridging climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the European Green Deal
Adams, Kevin M. ; Klein, Richard J.T. ; Pulquério, M. ; Bachofen, Carina ; Barrott, Julia ; Bentz, J. ; Bharwani, S. ; Bojovic, Dragana ; Brandon, Karen ; Buschmann, Daniel ; Lourenço, Tiago Capela ; Coninx, I. ; Curl, Margot ; Giupponi, Carlo ; Houtkamp, J.M. ; Karali, Eleni ; Leitner, M. ; Lokers, R.M. ; Michalek, Gabriela ; Mysiak, J. ; Pringle, Patrick ; Prutsch, Andrea ; Schmidt, Anna ; Schwarze, Reimund ; Street, R.B. ; Sushchenko, Oleksandr ; Talebian, Sara ; Walton, Peter - \ 2020
Brussels, Belgium : Placard (Policy brief ) - 12 p.
Bonding CCA and DRR: recommendations for strengthening institutional coordination and capacities
Leitner, M. ; Buschmann, Daniel ; Lourenço, Tiago Capela ; Coninx, I. ; Schmidt, A. - \ 2020
Lisbon : Placard - 137 p.
“Our house is on fire”, climate activist Greta Thunberg declared to the participants of the World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2020. In 2019, our house was indeed on fire. Large-scale forest fires in Australia, the Amazon, and the Arctic showed how short-term actions of disaster risk reduction and relief need to be considered along with long-term measures of climate change adaptation. Climate-induced extreme weather events are currently increasing and intensifying, thereby leading to new forms of disaster risk. In order to sustainably extinguish this metaphorical fire, separated strategies are no longer enough. Responding to short term climate risks without considering the long-term climate trends, and vice-versa, is no longer an acceptable course of action, as it separates (knowledge and financial) resources that should belong together. However, integrated approaches to DRR and CCA can provide opportunities for building resilience. By collecting the hands-on experience from twenty-eight CCA and DRR experts across Europe, this guidance addresses the challenges and positive results from such integrated approaches in order to synthesise actionable policy advice for institutional actors across various governance levels.We provide twenty recommendations in five areas: 1) safeguarding sound governance, 2) ensuring effective financing, 3) seizing opportunities for cooperation, 4) sharing new forms of communication, and 5) enhancing knowledge management.
Each recommendation (for details, see Annex 7.2) was developed with the aim to:
Formulate a precise advice of what needs to happen.
Introduce the relevance and limitations of the chosen approach.
Showcase a possible way forward to apply such approach.
Explain which institutions are addressed and how they can benefit.
Provide an example of how the recommendation can work in practice.
Area 1: Safeguarding sound governance
Challenge: Separated decision-making processes and knowledge communities with different languages reduce the possibility of quickly joining resources in extreme events preparedness, when extreme events occur, and to plan for the long term when no emergency assistance is being deployed.
Recommendation: Implementation of a comprehensive Climate Risk Management (CRM) approach with broad stakeholder involvement at and across different risk governance levels.
New ways of including “local reasons for concern” into national policy-making are needed to implement target-oriented and ambitious adaptation and risk reduction solutions. Consequently, national governments should establish a national climate-risk council, to foster putting of CRM into action (see 4.1.1).
Challenge: Separated user and stakeholder engagement processes and taxonomies applied by knowledge and policy communities creates difficulties in establishing proper research and practice communication channels, even if the target agents are common.
Recommendation: Engage stakeholders at different scales that have an interest in both the decision-making process and outcomes.
Robust decision-making that increases resilience to climate risks is embedded within social, economic and cultural landscapes. It is critical to engage all concerned actors in order to recognise the needs of all. Community resilience projects are good examples (see 4.1.2).
Challenge: By focusing mainly on public policy and decision-making CCA and DRR communities often neglect private actors that can provide substantial contributions in case of disasters and planning for the long term.
Recommendation: Develop a stronger focus on self-safeguards or individual prevention and preparedness.
Successful societal implementation of adaptation to climate change and risk management requires substantial contributions by private actors. Here, public administrations lead in coordinating and paving the way. This means a need for new formats for cross-sectoral collaboration which require a strong mandate and considerable national support (see 4.1.3).
Challenge: By failing to capture local knowledge in the preparedness and planning phases many CCA and DRR strategies miss out on valuable data, lessons and experiences that can enhance climate action.
Recommendation: Implement integrated, participatory designed strategies and plans at the municipal level that deal with climate-induced disasters.
This process relies on mobilising local knowledge and ownership, but also on sound climate data. The local scale requires an enabling environment at national level that explicitly addresses aspects of the authority of local governments to plan for and carry out essential integrated actions (see 4.1.4).
Area 2: Ensuring effective financing
Challenge: New funding and insuring methods are needed to address climate risks and adaptation not previously covered by classical risk sharing schemes.
Recommendation: Create Sovereign Climate Insurance Funds with application of index-based insurance and Distributed Ledger Technology.
Yield-based approaches to the insurance of climate-related risks (especially in agriculture) have many drawbacks such as fraud detection and risk modelling. Index-based solutions are a better option and should be worked towards. Sovereign Climate Insurance Funds can cover climate-related risks and provide financial protection and support to affected regions and small farmers (see 4.2.1).Challenge: New risk transference methods are needed to address climate risks and adaptation not previously covered by classical market-based financial debt instruments.
Recommendation: Develop risk transfer and data collection via a European Risk Transfer Mechanism.
EU-institutions need to provide a funding framework, highlighting international priorities in aligning CCA and DRR funding. A Distributed-Ledger-Technology-based platform with the main aim of transferring risk from Sovereign Insurance Funds to the financial market, collecting, processing and storing climate-related data, is warranted. This includes new mechanisms of debt financing, such as climate insurance and risk transfer (see 4.2.2).
Challenge: Current market and policy terminologies are not fit-for-purpose for upcoming transaction of financial assets associated with climate action.
Recommendation: Implement an EU Green Taxonomy with CCA and DRR components.
An EU taxonomy of green projects with a combination of CCA and DDR indicators and metrics can be useful to support national initiatives in mainstreaming protection against climate change and disasters and improving the effectiveness of climate finance. The incorporation of such indicators into the EU Green Bond Standard identifies climate-proof projects and green financial instruments (see 4.2.3).
Challenge: Current forecasting methods focus on what the weather ‘will be’ rather than what the weather ‘will cause’ leaving room for improvements in early warning systems and preparedness mechanisms.
Recommendation: Pursue forecast-based financing to anticipate disasters and reduce human suffering and losses.
Although there are funds for long-term DRR as well as for emergency response, funds for anticipatory action are still lacking. The integration of physical parameters and anticipatory weather information into applied action to reduce disaster risk, offers an opportunity for impact-oriented, forecast-based financing (see 4.2.4).
Challenge: Existing financial and debt financing mechanisms in the area of CCA and DRR are still not up-to-speed with climate funding needs at local-to-national scales.
Recommendation: Elaborate self-financing and crisis financing mechanisms with application of Distributed Ledger Technologies.
There is a disparity between DRR and CCA finance on different levels, especially regarding the improved management of climate-related risks and resilience of the financial system to non-financial threats. National Distributed-Ledger-Technology-based platforms for accumulation of savings and climate-related crisis financing can facilitate this process (see 4.2.5).
Area 3: Seizing opportunities for cooperation
Challenge: Cross-country governance mechanisms for climate and disaster risk management are lacking or do not share common practices.
Recommendation: Develop a strong transnational and interregional collaboration between CCA and DRR with a joint focus on current and future risks.
Climate and disaster risks often become politically charged and rife with conflicts. Mainstreaming of CCA and DRR into existing or new transnational and interregional working groups on risks or geographic areas of mutual concern is a promising way to prevent such tensions from rising (see 4.3.1).
Challenge: Effective communication and collaboration across CCA and DRR knowledge communities is hindered by separated taxonomies and networking mechanisms between groups of actors.
Recommendation: Use Social Network Analysis for stocktaking of stakeholders and to enhance interactions.
Often, particularly for cross-sectoral interaction formats, there is limited information on the reasons why actors have certain roles in their network or interact in certain ways, which can highlight obstacles to effective collaboration. Social Network Analysis helps to identify relevant stakeholders for such formats, learning about them, their network and its properties, and making use of this information to strengthen their interactions and encourage aligned resilience solutions (see 4.3.2).
Challenge: Joint emergency and preparedness exercises that include both communities are lacking, which reduces learning opportunities.
Recommendation: Organise joint emergency exercises to strengthen collaboration on various levels.
There are many models to prepare action for climate-induced disaster risks, but the actual event may differ significantly from the modelled version. Joint emergency exercises help to explore climate risks, exchange knowledge and jointly prepare for weather anomalies. In addition, national governments need to test their early warning systems and joint disaster prevention models in reality, proving their effectiveness in cases of serious emergencies (see 4.3.3).
Challenge: Transboundary climate and preparedness action is challenging due to different languages and cultural settings making it reactive rather than proactive.
Recommendation: Pursue proactive transboundary cooperation between CCA and DRR actors.
Most existing structures for collaboration vary significantly between national and sub-national governance systems. As a result, effective transboundary crisis cooperation must be driven by proactive rather than reactive collaboration. Traditional, cultural policies should be able to yield to flexible, international perspectives, to provide cooperative risk management for the border zone in a mutually sustainable manner (see 4.3.4).
Area 4: Sharing new forms of communication
Challenge: Monitoring, Reporting and Evaluation (MRE) frameworks for CCA, DRR and sustainable development policies are disconnected and multiply the use of resources.
Recommendation: Foster a dialogue and learning on monitoring, reporting and evaluation.
A shared understanding of the current monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) approaches, and indicators and criteria used in CCA, DRR and SDGs is a crucial starting point for collaboration. To achieve a shared understanding of MRE, a better coordination of the relevant actions and processes, a more effective use of resources, and a stronger collaboration between actors operating at different levels and in the different domains are required (see 4.4.1).
Challenge: The use of storytelling, strategic narratives and art processes is residual across CCA and DRR communities and cross-community collaborative schemes are almost non-existing.
Recommendation: Develop new stories and strategic narratives for joint understanding and collaboration.
Some communication and collaboration barriers cannot be handled by “rational means” such as traditional science-based information and data. Stories and strategic narratives can be useful for national and local policymakers to overcome such barriers. Their success, however, depends heavily on the value orientation of the intended audience (see 4.4.2).
Challenge: Educational and capacity building mechanisms suffer from community silo approaches that reduce learning over time, across and within organisations.
Recommendation: Mainstream integrated approaches through education.
Learning within an institution is critical if it is to achieve its operational goals. A responsive approach to educational needs that recognises the changing organisational landscape will ensure greater efficiency and maximise resources. Here, informal learning can be as beneficial as formal training in strengthening an institution’s capacity, especially when new measures or policies need to be implemented (see 4.4.3).
Area 5: Enhancing knowledge management
Challenge: Effective deployment of nature-based solutions (NbS) in adaptation and risk reduction strategies is still too complex because of the required level of cross-sectoral collaboration and multi-stakeholder coordination.
Recommendation: Foster ecosystem-based adaptation and risk reduction.
The consideration and use of nature-based solutions (NbS) in adaptation and risk reduction strategies should be strengthened through enhanced cooperation, dialogues and inter-sector practices and policies (see 4.5.1).
Challenge: Information and knowledge management (IKM) processes across CCA and DRR communities are hindered by lack of clarity around language and the use of technical terminology.
Recommendation: Promote IKM standards and guidelines for sharing data, information and knowledge.
In CCA and DRR, the lack of clarity around language and the use of technical terminology is a particular barrier to collaboration, which is further inhibited by unclear translations. Information and Knowledge Management standards and guidelines that use a common language and support a cultural shift towards Linked Open Data (LoD) accelerate learning and collaboration, and make it easier for stakeholders to find, access, and use content (see 4.5.2).
Challenge: CCA and DRR knowledge portals and platforms are not fulfilling their true potential regarding learning, practical implementation, monitoring and evaluation of climate preparedness and action.
Recommendation: Use knowledge platforms and portals to enhance learning and collaboration.
These online spaces should serve as connectors of people and knowledge, and forums for peer-to-peer learning and exchange across the two domains. This would require a cultural shift in how knowledge management is currently carried out (see 4.5.3).
Challenge: Significant comprehension and communication gaps between CCA and DRR knowledge producers, providers, and users, as well as between science, policy, and practice persists hindering the effective use of information for practical decisions.
Recommendation: Develop knowledge-action networks to advance quality and usage of information.
Developing knowledge-action networks with multiple layers of producers and users from different sectors is an effective method of tailoring decision-relevant information to different decision environments and of allocating resources where they are most effective to bridge science and practice and integrate CCA and DRR strategies (see 4.5.4).
In addition to these twenty recommendations, this guidance also reflects on the open questions and unresolved challenges by providing an overview of the prevailing knowledge and action gaps (see chapter 5) and reflections and conclusions (see chapter 6). This also includes the need for transformative approaches in CCA and DRR, which can address complex or ‘systemic’ challenges (like migration, health or urbanisation) that were not directly addressed in this report.
The handbook for standardized field and laboratory measurements in terrestrial climate change experiments and observational studies (ClimEx)
Halbritter, Aud H. ; Boeck, Hans J. De; Eycott, Amy E. ; Reinsch, Sabine ; Robinson, David A. ; Vicca, Sara ; Berauer, Bernd ; Christiansen, Casper T. ; Estiarte, Marc ; Grünzweig, José M. ; Gya, Ragnhild ; Hansen, Karin ; Jentsch, Anke ; Lee, Hanna ; Linder, Sune ; Marshall, John ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Kappel Schmidt, Inger ; Stuart-Haëntjens, Ellen ; Wilfahrt, Peter ; Vandvik, Vigdis ; Abrantes, Nelson ; Almagro, María ; Althuizen, Inge H.J. ; Barrio, Isabel C. ; Beest, Mariska Te; Beier, Claus ; Beil, Ilka ; Carter Berry, Z. ; Birkemoe, Tone ; Bjerke, Jarle W. ; Blonder, Benjamin ; Blume-Werry, Gesche ; Bohrer, Gil ; Campos, Isabel ; Cernusak, Lucas A. ; Chojnicki, Bogdan H. ; Cosby, Bernhard J. ; Dickman, Lee T. ; Djukic, Ika ; Filella, Iolanda ; Fuchslueger, Lucia ; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert ; Gillespie, Mark A.K. ; Goldsmith, Gregory R. ; Gough, Christopher ; Halliday, Fletcher W. ; Hegland, Stein Joar ; Ploeg, Martine van der; Verbruggen, Erik - \ 2020
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 22 - 37.
best practice - coordinated experiments - data management and documentation - ecosystem - experimental macroecology - methodology - open science - vegetation
Climate change is a world-wide threat to biodiversity and ecosystem structure, functioning and services. To understand the underlying drivers and mechanisms, and to predict the consequences for nature and people, we urgently need better understanding of the direction and magnitude of climate change impacts across the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. An increasing number of climate change studies are creating new opportunities for meaningful and high-quality generalizations and improved process understanding. However, significant challenges exist related to data availability and/or compatibility across studies, compromising opportunities for data re-use, synthesis and upscaling. Many of these challenges relate to a lack of an established ‘best practice’ for measuring key impacts and responses. This restrains our current understanding of complex processes and mechanisms in terrestrial ecosystems related to climate change. To overcome these challenges, we collected best-practice methods emerging from major ecological research networks and experiments, as synthesized by 115 experts from across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Our handbook contains guidance on the selection of response variables for different purposes, protocols for standardized measurements of 66 such response variables and advice on data management. Specifically, we recommend a minimum subset of variables that should be collected in all climate change studies to allow data re-use and synthesis, and give guidance on additional variables critical for different types of synthesis and upscaling. The goal of this community effort is to facilitate awareness of the importance and broader application of standardized methods to promote data re-use, availability, compatibility and transparency. We envision improved research practices that will increase returns on investments in individual research projects, facilitate second-order research outputs and create opportunities for collaboration across scientific communities. Ultimately, this should significantly improve the quality and impact of the science, which is required to fulfil society's needs in a changing world.
Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijnrapportage 2019
Adams, Annemiek ; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan ; Bos, Gerdien ; Clerkx, Sandra ; Janssen, John ; Kleunen, André van; Remmelts, Wilmar ; Rooijen, Nils van; Schaminée, Joop ; Schmidt, Anne ; Swaay, Chris van; Wijnhoven, Sander ; Woestenburg, Martin ; Aar, Mies van - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (Thema Informatievoorziening Natuur / Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu ) - 52
Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase II phylogenetics reveals five main clades throughout the plant kingdom
Hosseini, Samin ; Schmidt, Ed D.L. ; Bakker, Freek T. - \ 2020
The Plant Journal 103 (2020)2. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 547 - 560.
kinase - leucine-rich repeat receptor - LRR-RLKII - phylogeny - SERK
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) represent the largest group of cell surface receptors in plants. The monophyletic leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-RLK subfamily II is considered to contain the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) and NSP-interacting kinases known to be involved in developmental processes and cellular immunity in plants. There are only a few published studies on the phylogenetics of LRR-RLKII; unfortunately these suffer from poor taxon/gene sampling. Hence, it is not clear how many and what main clades this family contains, let alone what structure–function relationships exist. We used 1342 protein sequences annotated as ‘SERK’ and ‘SERK-like’ plus related sequences in order to estimate phylogeny within the LRR-RLKII clade, using the nematode protein kinase Pelle as an outgroup. We reconstruct five main clades (LRR-RLKII 1–5), in each of which the main pattern of land plant relationships re-occurs, confirming previous hypotheses that duplication events happened in this gene subfamily prior to divergence among land plant lineages. We show that domain structures and intron–exon boundaries within the five clades are well conserved in evolution. Furthermore, phylogenetic patterns based on the separate LRR and kinase parts of LRR-RLKs are incongruent: whereas the LRR part supports a LRR-RLKII 2/3 sister group relationship, the kinase part supports clades 1/2. We infer that the kinase part includes few ‘radical’ amino acid changes compared with the LRR part. Finally, our results confirm that amino acids involved in each LRR-RLKII–receptor complex interaction are located at N-capping residues, and that the short amino acid motifs of this interaction domain are highly conserved throughout evolution within the five LRR-RLKII clades.
A global database of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition
Hoogen, Johan van den; Geisen, Stefan ; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Traunspurger, Walter ; Goede, Ron G.M. de; Adams, Byron J. ; Ahmad, Wasim ; Ferris, Howard ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Bonkowski, Michael ; Campos-Herrera, Raquel ; Cares, Juvenil E. ; Caruso, Tancredi ; Brito Caixeta, Larissa de; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Costa, Sofia R. ; Creamer, Rachel ; Cunha e Castro, José Mauro da; Dam, Marie ; Djigal, Djibril ; Escuer, Miguel ; Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Gutiérrez, Carmen ; Hohberg, Karin ; Kalinkina, Daria ; Kardol, Paul ; Kergunteuil, Alan ; Korthals, Gerard ; Krashevska, Valentyna ; Kudrin, Alexey A. ; Li, Qi ; Liang, Wenju ; Magilton, Matthew ; Marais, Mariette ; Martín, José Antonio Rodríguez ; Matveeva, Elizaveta ; Mayad, El Hassan ; Mzough, E. ; Mulder, Christian ; Mullin, Peter ; Neilson, Roy ; Nguyen, Duong T.A. ; Nielsen, Uffe N. ; Okada, Hiroaki ; Rius, Juan Emilio Palomares ; Pan, Kaiwen ; Peneva, Vlada ; Pellissier, Loïc ; Silva, Julio Carlos Pereira da; Pitteloud, Camille ; Powers, Thomas O. ; Powers, Kirsten ; Quist, Casper W. ; Rasmann, Sergio ; Moreno, Sara Sánchez ; Scheu, Stefan ; Setälä, Heikki ; Sushchuk, Anna ; Tiunov, Alexei V. ; Trap, Jean ; Vestergård, Mette ; Villenave, Cecile ; Waeyenberge, Lieven ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Wright, Daniel G. ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Yang, Jiuein ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Bouharroud, R. ; Ferji, Z. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Routh, Devin ; Crowther, Thomas W. - \ 2020
Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463
As the most abundant animals on earth, nematodes are a dominant component of the soil community. They play critical roles in regulating biogeochemical cycles and vegetation dynamics within and across landscapes and are an indicator of soil biological activity. Here, we present a comprehensive global dataset of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition. This dataset includes 6,825 georeferenced soil samples from all continents and biomes. For geospatial mapping purposes these samples are aggregated into 1,933 unique 1-km pixels, each of which is linked to 73 global environmental covariate data layers. Altogether, this dataset can help to gain insight into the spatial distribution patterns of soil nematode abundance and community composition, and the environmental drivers shaping these patterns.
Deterioration of sandstones: Insights from experimental weathering in acidic, neutral and biotic solutions with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans
Potysz, Anna ; Bartz, Wojciech ; Zboińska, Katarzyna ; Schmidt, Felix ; Lenz, Markus - \ 2020
Construction and Building Materials 246 (2020). - ISSN 0950-0618
Bacteria - Bio-weathering - Building materials - Deterioration - Quartz arenites - Sandstone
The susceptibility of sandstones to deteriorative factors when used for construction requires detailed experimental evaluation. This study investigated the (bio)weathering behaviour of Lower-Silesian Cretaceous sandstones (quartz arenites) to quantify the deteriorative effect of bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. For controls, ultrapure water (in undersaturated conditions) and sterile acidic medium (in abiotic acidic conditions pH 2.5) were used. Sandstone exposure to A. thiooxidans mimicked the extremely acidic conditions (pH up to 0.9) that may develop under long-term weathering, which promote microbial activity and acidic metabolite production. Element release was assessed using triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (QQQ-ICP-MS) and identifying potential element donor minerals through scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The results demonstrated that sandstones were relatively susceptible to weathering, especially when exposed to aggressive acidic conditions, where the presence of bacteria apparently acts as an accelerating factor in deterioration. Based on Si release, sandstone degradation under biotic conditions was 0.27% within 86 days, whereas the dissolution achieved in ultrapure water did not exceed 0.02%. A highly pronounced weathering feature observed on sandstones was the dissolution of goethite and/or kaolinite cement, whereas quartz was less susceptible to weathering under the conditions studied. Bioweathering investigations may help solve deterioration issues in sandstone building materials.
Light availability and land-use history drive biodiversity and functional changes in forest herb layer communities
Depauw, Leen ; Perring, Michael P. ; Landuyt, Dries ; Maes, Sybryn L. ; Blondeel, Haben ; Lombaerde, Emiel De; Brūmelis, Guntis ; Brunet, Jörg ; Closset-Kopp, Déborah ; Czerepko, Janusz ; Decocq, Guillaume ; Ouden, Jan den; Gawryś, Radosław ; Härdtle, Werner ; Hédl, Radim ; Heinken, Thilo ; Heinrichs, Steffi ; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan ; Kopecký, Martin ; Liepiņa, Ilze ; Macek, Martin ; Máliš, František ; Schmidt, Wolfgang ; Smart, Simon M. ; Ujházy, Karol ; Wulf, Monika ; Verheyen, Kris - \ 2020
Journal of Ecology 108 (2020)4. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1411 - 1425.
atmospheric depositions - biodiversity measures - climate change - forest canopy features - functional signature - post-agricultural forests - resurvey
A central challenge of today's ecological research is predicting how ecosystems will develop under future global change. Accurate predictions are complicated by (a) simultaneous effects of different drivers, such as climate change, nitrogen deposition and management changes; and (b) legacy effects from previous land use. We tested whether herb layer biodiversity (i.e. richness, Shannon diversity and evenness) and functional (i.e. herb cover, specific leaf area [SLA] and plant height) responses to environmental change drivers depended on land-use history. We used resurvey data from 192 plots across nineteen European temperate forest regions, with large spatial variability in environmental change factors. We tested for interactions between land-use history, distinguishing ancient and recent (i.e. post-agricultural) forests and four drivers: temperature, nitrogen deposition, and aridity at the regional scale and light dynamics at the plot-scale. Land-use history significantly modulated global change effects on the functional signature of the herb layer (i.e. cover, SLA and plant height). Light availability was the main environmental driver of change interacting with land-use history. We found greater herb cover and plant height decreases and SLA increases with decreasing light availability in ancient than in recent forests. Furthermore, we found greater decreases in herb cover with increased nitrogen deposition in ancient forests, whereas warming had the strongest decreasing effect on the herb cover in recent forests. Interactive effects between land-use history and global change on biodiversity were not found, but species evenness increased more in ancient than in recent forests. Synthesis. Our results demonstrate that land-use history should not be overlooked when predicting forest herb layer responses to global change. Moreover, we found that herb layer composition in semi-natural deciduous forests is mainly controlled by local canopy characteristics, regulating light levels at the forest floor, and much less by environmental changes at the regional scale (here: warming, nitrogen deposition and aridity). The observed disconnect between biodiversity and functional herb layer responses to environmental changes demonstrates the importance of assessing both types of responses to increase our understanding of the possible impact of global change on the herb layer.