Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Touching the High Complexity of Prebiotic Vivinal Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Porous Graphitic Carbon Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry
    Logtenberg, Madelon J. ; Donners, Kristel M.H. ; Vink, Jolien C.M. ; Leeuwen, Sander S. van; Waard, Pieter de; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)29. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7800 - 7808.
    galacto-oligosaccharides - liquid chromatography - porous graphitic carbon - preparative chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are used in infant formula to replace the health effects of human milk oligosaccharides, which appear to be dependent upon the structure of the individual oligosaccharides present. However, a comprehensive overview of the structure-specific effects is still limited as a result of the high structural complexity of GOS. In this study, porous graphitic carbon (PGC) was used as the stationary phase during ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). This approach resulted in the recognition of more than 100 different GOS structures in one single run, including reducing and non-reducing GOS isomers. Using nuclear magnetic resonance-validated structures of GOS trisaccharides, we discovered MS fragmentation rules to distinguish reducing isomers with a mono- and disubstituted terminal glucose by UHPLC-PGC-MS. UHPLC-PGC-MS enabled effective recognition of structural features of individual GOS components in complex GOS preparations and during, e.g., biological conversion reactions. Hence, this study lays the groundwork for future research into structure-specific health effects of GOS.

    Serum Protein N-Glycans in Colostrum and Mature Milk of Chinese Mothers
    Elwakiel, Mohèb ; Bakx, Edwin J. ; Szeto, Ignatius M. ; Li, Yitong ; Hettinga, Kasper A. ; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)25. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 6873 - 6883.
    glycoproteins - glycosylation - intestinal mucosal barrier - oligosaccharides

    To study the Chinese human milk N-glycome over lactation, N-glycans were released and separated from serum proteins, purified by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In total, 66 different putative N-glycans were found in the colostrum (week 1) and mature milk (week 4) of seven Chinese mothers. A clear difference was observed between milk of five secretor and two nonsecretor mothers, based on the type and relative amounts of the individual N-glycans. The relative levels of the total neutral nonfucosylated and the fucosylated N-glycans in milk of five secretor mothers increased and decreased over lactation, respectively. This pattern could not be observed for the milk from the two nonsecretor mothers. Overall, this was the first study that provided detailed information on individual N-glycans in milk among mothers and over time as well as that fucosylation of N-glycans in milk was associated with the mother's secretor status.

    The importance of amylase action in the porcine stomach to starch digestion kinetics
    Martens, Bianca M.J. ; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M. ; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2020
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 267 (2020). - ISSN 0377-8401
    Bacteria - Dynamic stomach model - Extrusion - In vitro - pH dependency - Saliva

    Starch digestion in the proximal small intestine of pigs exceeds in vitro predictions, suggesting a currently underestimated role for the stomach in starch digestion kinetics. This study aimed to investigate the role of amylase action in the porcine stomach on starch digestion kinetics, including hydrolysis by porcine saliva and degradation by bacterial enzymes present in the stomach. We studied the hydrolysis of starch in pigs fed barley based diets, in which starch was included as isolated powder, ground barley, or extruded barley. We identified soluble maltodextrins originating from starch breakdown in stomach digesta, especially in pigs fed extruded barley. Furthermore, we observed bacterial cells embedded in granular starch with electron microscopy, for pigs fed diets containing isolated barley starch. These observations lead us to measure starch hydrolysis in a dynamic stomach model over the course of a 225 min incubation, in which the pH was step-wise decreased from 6.5 to 2.0. Using this method, feed was either exposed to an enzyme extract obtained from stomach digesta or to porcine saliva. Up to 30 % of starch was hydrolysed into maltodextrins with a degree of polymerisation (DP) <6 when starch was incubated with the enzyme extract obtained from the stomach. Under the same conditions, saliva amylase, with an optimum pH around 7.8, hydrolysed up to 10 % of processed starch into maltodextrins with DP < 6. We conclude that a substantial part of starch may be degraded into oligomers in the porcine stomach by both salivary and bacterial amylases. This implies a considerable role for the stomach on starch digestion kinetics, which is overlooked in current feed evaluation systems.

    Short Communication: The effects of physical feed properties on gastric emptying in pigs measured with the 13C breath test
    Martens, B.M.J. ; Schols, H.A. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2020
    Animal (2020). - ISSN 1751-7311
    extrusion - glycine - liquid phase - octanoic acid - solid phase

    The performance of pigs is affected by the rate of nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, which depends in turn strongly on the rate of stomach emptying. The 13C breath test provides a non-invasive diagnostic tool to measure gastric emptying patterns. Despite the wide acceptance of this method in human intervention studies, it has not found its way to the domain of animal sciences. In this study, we used the breath test to measure gastric emptying in young growing pigs using [1-13C] octanoic acid to trace digesta solids and [1-13C] glycine to study liquids. Pigs were fed a starch-rich diet, varying in starch source (isolated starch from barley, maize or high-amylose maize) or form (isolated barley starch, ground barley or extruded barley), after which 13CO2 enrichment was frequently measured during 11 h. Outliers in 13CO2 enrichment in the response curve of each pig were identified with a Cook 1/4s distance outlier test in combination with a leave-one-out analysis. Effects of experimental treatments on breath test parameters were tested using a GLM. In general, pigs were easy to train and the tailor-made mask allowed effortless sampling. Gastric emptying of all pigs followed a biphasic pattern, with a higher 13C recovery during the first peak. The first peak in gastric emptying of solids reached its maximum enrichment within 2 h after feeding in all cases. For digesta liquids, this peak was reached earlier for pigs fed ground barley (2.2 h after feeding), compared to pigs fed diets containing isolated starch (2.8 h after feeding). The second peak in gastric emptying of solids was reached later for pigs fed ground barley (5.9 h after feeding), compared with pigs fed extruded barley (4.5 h after feeding) and pigs fed diets containing isolated barley starch (4.8 h after feeding). In conclusion, the 13C breath test is a convenient, non-invasive tool to gain more insights into the gastric emptying pattern of pigs.

    Endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase-treatment of oat β-glucan enhances fermentability by infant fecal microbiota, stimulates dectin-1 activation and attenuates inflammatory responses in immature dendritic cells
    Akkerman, Renate ; Logtenberg, Madelon J. ; An, Ran ; Berg, Marco A. Van Den; Haan, Bart J. de; Faas, Marijke M. ; Zoetendal, Erwin ; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Cytokine production - Dendritic cells - In vitro fermentation - Infant formula - Microbiota - Oat β-Glucan

    Background: Non-digestible carbohydrates are added to infant formula to mimic the effects of human milk oligosaccharide by acting as prebiotics and stimulating the immune system. Although not yet used in infant formulas, β-glucans are known to have beneficial health effects, and are therefore of potential interest for supplementation. Methods and results: We investigated the in vitro fermentation of native and endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase-treated oat β-glucan using pooled fecal inocula of 2-and 8-week-old infants. While native oat β-glucan was not utilized, both inocula specifically utilized oat β-glucan oligomers containing β(1→4)-linkages formed upon enzyme treatment. The fermentation rate was highest in the fecal microbiota of 2-week-old infants, and correlated with a high lactate production. Fermentation of media supplemented with native and enzyme-treated oat β-glucans increased the relative abundance of Enterococcus and attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) in immature dendritic cells. This attenuating effect was more pronounced after enzyme treatment. This attenuation might result from the enhanced ability of fermented oat β-glucan to stimulate Dectin-1 receptors. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase treatment enhances the fermentability of oat β-glucan and attenuates pro-inflammatory responses. Hence, this study shows that especially enzyme-treated oat β-glucans have a high potential for supplementation of infant formula.

    Fermentation of Chicory Fructo-Oligosaccharides and Native Inulin by Infant Fecal Microbiota Attenuates Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Immature Dendritic Cells in an Infant-Age-Dependent and Fructan-Specific Way
    Logtenberg, Madelon J. ; Akkerman, Renate ; An, Ran ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Haan, Bart J. de; Faas, Marijke M. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Schols, Henk A. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2020
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64 (2020)13. - ISSN 1613-4125
    dendritic cells - in vitro fermentation - infant formula - inulin-type fructans - microbiota

    Scope: Inulin-type fructans are commonly applied in infant formula to support development of gut microbiota and immunity. These inulin-type fructans are considered to be fermented by gut microbiota, but it is unknown how fermentation impacts immune modulating capacity and whether the process of fermentation is dependent on the infant's age. Methods and results: The in vitro fermentation of chicory fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and native inulin are investigated using pooled fecal inocula of two- and eight-week-old infants. Both inocula primarily utilize the trisaccharides in FOS, while they almost completely utilize native inulin with degree of polymerization (DP) 3–8. Fecal microbiota of eight-week-old infants degrades longer chains of native inulin up to DP 16. This correlates with a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium and higher production of acetate and lactate after 26 h of fermentation. Fermented FOS and native inulin attenuate pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by immature dendritic cells (DCs), but profiles and magnitude of attenuation are stronger with native inulin than with FOS. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that fermentation of FOS and native inulin is dependent on the infant's age and fructan structure. Fermentation enhances attenuating effects of pro-inflammatory responses in DCs, which depend mainly on microbial metabolites formed during fermentation.

    Variability in immune-active human milk components
    Elwakiel, Mohèb - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.A. Schols; K.A. Hettinga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463953443 - 166

    Human milk contains, among others, a range of biofunctional components, like serum proteins and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). This PhD thesis provides information on the variability in serum proteins, serum protein N-glycans and HMOs in milk of individual mothers during lactation, and offers insights on the degradation of proteins using a newly developed infant (0–3 months) in vitro digestion model.

    The 15 most abundant HMOs cover >95% of the total HMO content. The mother’s secretor (Se) and Lewis (Le) histo-blood groups are related to specific fucosylated HMOs. Based on the total neutral fucosylated HMO concentrations in both Chinese and Dutch human milk, for the first time, Se+Le+ subgroups were identified. Variation among mothers was found in the composition of serum proteins in both colostrum and mature milk, although the group of immune-active proteins, enzymes, and transport proteins were the most abundant for all mothers. These three protein groups encompass many of the 15 most abundant proteins, covering >95% of the total protein concentrations, in both the Chinese and Dutch milk serum proteome. The serum protein N-glycan composition in human milk from 2 different lactational periods was investigated. Analysis showed that neutral fucosylated and nonfucosylated N-glycans dominated the human milk serum glycoproteome. Based on the levels of the individual N-glycans, for the first time, a clear difference can be observed between the milk of secretor and nonsecretor mothers. It also indicated that specific fucosylated N-glycans can be synthesized in the gland of nonsecretor mothers and even in much higher concentrations compared to secretor mothers. In an in vitro infant digestion model, the total milk protein content decreased from the start to the end of infant in vitro digestion with large variation between mothers, especially in the gastric phase (remaining between 25–80%). After intestinal digestion, still  some undigested proteins could be found, ranging from 0.5% to 4.2% of the initial protein content, although no differences could be observed between colostrum and mature milk. More than 40 serum proteins could be detected after intestinal digestion. Overall, caseins are digested more than most serum proteins during digestion. Especially immune-active serum proteins, which are digested to a lower extent, might protect infants from pathogens.

    Dietary Isomalto/Malto-Polysaccharides Increase Fecal Bulk and Microbial Fermentation in Mice
    Mistry, Rima H. ; Borewicz, Klaudyna ; Gu, Fangjie ; Verkade, Henkjan J. ; Schols, Henk A. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Tietge, Uwe J.F. - \ 2020
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64 (2020)12. - ISSN 1613-4125
    bile acids - cholesterol - IMMP - microbiota - polysaccharides - prebiotics - short-chain fatty acids

    Scope: The prevalence of metabolic-syndrome-related disease has strongly increased. Nutritional intervention strategies appear attractive, particularly with novel prebiotics. Isomalto/malto-polysaccharides (IMMPs) represent promising novel prebiotics that promote proliferation of beneficial bacteria in vitro. The present study investigates for the first time the in vivo effects of IMMP in mice. Methods and results: C57BL/6 wild-type mice received control or IMMP-containing (10%, w/w) diets for 3 weeks. IMMP leads to significantly more fecal bulk (+26%, p < 0.05), higher plasma non-esterified fatty acids (colorimetric assay, +10%, p < 0.05), and lower fecal dihydrocholesterol excretion (mass spectrometry, −50%, p < 0.05). Plasma and hepatic lipid levels (colorimetric assays following lipid extraction) are not influenced by dietary IMMP, as are other parameters of sterol metabolism, including bile acids (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry). IMMP is mainly fermented in the cecum and large intestine (high-performance anion exchange chromatography). Next-generation sequencing demonstrates higher relative abundance of Bacteroides and butyrate producers (Lachnospiraceae, Roseburia Odoribacter) in the IMMP group. Conclusion: The combined results demonstrate that IMMP administration to mice increases fecal bulk and induces potentially beneficial changes in the intestinal microbiota. Further studies are required in disease models to substantiate potential health benefits.

    The association between breastmilk oligosaccharides and faecal microbiota in healthy breastfed infants at two, six, and twelve weeks of age
    Borewicz, Klaudyna ; Gu, Fangjie ; Saccenti, Edoardo ; Hechler, Christine ; Beijers, Roseriet ; Weerth, Carolina de; Leeuwen, Sander S. van; Schols, Henk A. ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Several factors affect gut microbiota development in early life, among which breastfeeding plays a key role. We followed 24 mother-infant pairs to investigate the associations between concentrations of selected human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in breastmilk, infant faeces, and the faecal microbiota composition in healthy, breastfed infants at two, six and 12 weeks of age. Lactation duration had a significant effect on breastmilk HMO content, which decreased with time, except for 3-fucosyllactose (3FL) and Lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFP III). We confirmed that microbiota composition was strongly influenced by infant age and was associated with mode of delivery and breastmilk LNFP III concentration at two weeks, with infant sex, delivery mode, and concentrations of 3′sialyllactose (3′SL) in milk at six weeks, and infant sex and Lacto-N-hexaose (LNH) in milk at 12 weeks of age. Correlations between levels of individual breastmilk HMOs and relative abundance of OTUs found in infant faeces, including the most predominant Bifidobacterium OTUs, were weak and varied with age. The faecal concentration of HMOs decreased with age and were strongly and negatively correlated with relative abundance of OTUs within genera Bifidobacterium, Parabacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, Bacteroides, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Lachnospiraceae Incertae Sedis, and Erysipelotrichaceae Incertae Sedis, indicating the likely importance of these taxa for HMO metabolism in vivo.

    Pectin Interaction with Immune Receptors is Modulated by Ripening Process in Papayas
    Prado, Samira B.R. ; Beukema, Martin ; Jermendi, Eva ; Schols, Henk A. ; Vos, Paul de; Fabi, João Paulo - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Dietary fibers have been shown to exert immune effects via interaction with pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. Pectin is a dietary fiber that interacts with PRR depending on its chemical structure. Papaya pectin retains different chemical structures at different ripening stages. How this influence PRR signaling is unknown. The aim of this work was to determine how ripening influences pectin structures and their ability to interact with TLR2, 3, 4, 5 and 9, and NOD1 and 2. It was evaluated the interaction of the water-soluble fractions rich in pectin extracted from unripe to ripe papayas. The pectin extracted from ripe papayas activated all the TLR and, to a lesser extent, the NOD receptors. The pectin extracted from unripe papayas also activated TLR2, 4 and 5 but inhibited the activation of TLR3 and 9. The differences in pectin structures are the higher methyl esterification and smaller galacturonan chains of pectin from ripe papayas. Our finding might lead to selection of ripening stages for tailored modulation of PRR to support or attenuate immunity.

    Structural, rheological and functional properties of galactose-rich pectic polysaccharide fraction from leek
    Ognyanov, Manol ; Remoroza, Connie ; Schols, Henk A. ; Georgiev, Yordan N. ; Petkova, Nadezhda Tr ; Krystyjan, Magdalena - \ 2020
    Carbohydrate Polymers 229 (2020). - ISSN 0144-8617
    Enzymatic fingerprinting - HILIC-MS - Leek - Pectic polysaccharides - Rheology

    An acid-extracted polysaccharide from alchohol-insoluble solids of leek was obtained. The sugar composition indicated that galactose and galacturonic acid were the major sugars, followed by small amounts of rhamnose and arabinose. The fraction contained a relatively high methyl-esterified homogalacturonan next to rhamnogalacturonan type I decorated with galactose-rich side chains. The fraction consisted of three high Mw populations, covering the range of 10–100 kDa. Enzymatic fingerprinting was performed with HG/RG-I degrading enzymes to elucidate the structure. The oligomers were analysed using LC-HILIC-MS, HPAEC, and MALDI-TOF MS. The data revealed the presence of GalA sequences, having different patterns of methyl-esterification, RG-I composed of unbranched segments and segments heavily substituted with β-(1→4)-linked galactan chains of varying length. The rheological study showed the shear-thinning, weak thixotropic, anti-thixotropic, and non-Newtonian behavior of the polysaccharide. The pectin exhibited higher water holding capacity than oil-holding capacity and the fraction did form stable foams at high concentration.

    Digestibility of resistant starch type 3 is affected by molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and crystal type
    Klostermann, Cynthia ; Silva Lagos, L. ; Vos, de, P. ; Schols, H.A. ; Bitter, J.H. ; Buwalda, P.L. - \ 2019
    Mutual Metabolic Interactions in Co-cultures of the Intestinal Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans With an Acetogen, Methanogen, or Pectin-Degrader Affecting Butyrate Production
    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam ; Schols, Henk A. ; Jonathan, Melliana ; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Plugge, Caroline M. - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X
    Anaerostipes - butyrate - butyrate-producing bacteria - gut microbes - microbial interaction

    The human intestinal tract harbors diverse and complex microbial communities that have a vast metabolic capacity including the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into short chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate, and butyrate. As butyrate is beneficial for gut health there is much attention on butyrogenic bacteria and their role in the colonic anaerobic food chain. However, our understanding how production of butyrate by gut microorganisms is controlled by interactions between different species and environmental nutrient availability is very limited. To address this, we set up experimental in vitro co-culture systems to study the metabolic interactions of Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans, a butyrate producer with each of its partners; Blautia hydrogenotrophica, an acetogen; Methanobrevibacter smithii, a methanogen and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a versatile degrader of plant cell wall pectins; through corresponding specific cross-feeding. In all co-cultures, A. rhamnosivorans was able to benefit from its partner for enhanced butyrate formation compared to monocultures. Interspecies transfer of hydrogen or formate from A. rhamnosivorans to the acetogen B. hydrogenotrophica and in turn of acetate from the acetogen to the butyrogen were essential for butyrate formation. A. rhamnosivorans grown on glucose supported growth of M. smithii via interspecies formate/hydrogen transfer enhancing butyrate formation. In the co-culture with pectin, lactate was released by B. thetaiotaomicron which was concomitantly used by A. rhamnosivorans for the production of butyrate. Our findings indicate enhanced butyrate formation through microbe-microbe interactions between A. rhamnosivorans and an acetogen, a methanogen or a pectin-degrader. Such microbial interactions enhancing butyrate formation may be beneficial for colonic health.

    Partial replacement of glucose by galactose in the post-weaning diet improves parameters of hepatic health
    Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Stelt, Inge van der; Schols, Henk ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2019
    Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 73 (2019). - ISSN 0955-2863
    Galactose - Inflammation - Liver health - Post-weaning diet - SAA3 - Transcriptomics

    Replacing part of glucose with galactose in the post-weaning diet beneficially affects later life metabolic health in female mice. The liver is the main site of galactose metabolism, but the direct effects of this dietary intervention on the liver in the post-weaning period are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate this. Weanling female mice (C57BL/6JRccHsd) were fed a starch containing diet with glucose (32 en%) monosaccharide (GLU), or a diet with glucose and galactose (1:1 both 16 en%) (GLU+GAL). Body weight, body composition, and food intake were determined weekly. After 3 weeks, mice were sacrificed, and serum and liver tissues were collected. Global hepatic mRNA expression was analyzed and hepatic triglyceride (TG) and glycogen contents were determined by enzymatic assays. Body weight and body composition were similar in both groups, despite higher food intake in mice on GLU+GAL diet. Hepatic TG content was lower in GLU+GAL-fed than GLU-fed females, while glycogen levels were unaffected. Analysis of global expression patterns of hepatic mRNA showed that mainly inflammation-related pathways were affected by the diet, which were predominantly downregulated in GLU+GAL-fed females compared to GLU-fed females. This reduction in inflammation in GLU+GAL-fed females was also reflected by decreased serum concentrations of acute phase protein Serum amyloid A 3. In conclusion, replacing part of glucose with galactose in the post-weaning diet reduces hepatic TG content and hepatic inflammation.

    Sugar Beet Pectin Supplementation Did Not Alter Profiles of Fecal Microbiota and Exhaled Breath in Healthy Young Adults and Healthy Elderly
    An, Ran ; Wilms, Ellen ; Smolinska, Agnieszka ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Masclee, Ad A.M. ; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. ; Schooten, Frederik J. van; Smidt, Hauke ; Jonkers, Daisy M.A.E. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Troost, Freddy J. - \ 2019
    Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
    aging - dietary fiber - elderly - exhaled air - microbiota - pectin - young adults

    Aging is accompanied with increased frailty and comorbidities, which is potentially associated with microbiome perturbations. Dietary fibers could contribute to healthy aging by beneficially impacting gut microbiota and metabolite profiles. We aimed to compare young adults with elderly and investigate the effect of pectin supplementation on fecal microbiota composition, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Fifty-two young adults and 48 elderly consumed 15 g/day sugar beet pectin or maltodextrin for four weeks. Fecal and exhaled breath samples were collected before and after the intervention period. Fecal samples were used for microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and for analysis of SCFAs by gas chromatography (GC). Breath was used for VOC analysis by GC-tof-MS. Young adults and elderly showed similar fecal SCFA and exhaled VOC profiles. Additionally, fecal microbiota profiles were similar, with five genera significantly different in relative abundance. Pectin supplementation did not significantly alter fecal microbiota, SCFA or exhaled VOC profiles in elderly or young adults. In conclusion, aside from some minor differences in microbial composition, healthy elderly and young adults showed comparable fecal microbiota composition and activity, which were not altered by pectin supplementation.

    Whole digesta properties as influenced by feed processing explain variation in gastrointestinal transit times in pigs
    Martens, Bianca M.J. ; Noorloos, Marit ; Vries, Sonja De ; Schols, Henk A. ; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M. ; Gerrits, Walter J.J. - \ 2019
    The British journal of nutrition 122 (2019)11. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1242 - 1254.
    digesta passage behaviour - extrusion - Gastric emptying - growing pigs - starch

    Physicochemical properties of diets are believed to play a major role in the regulation of digesta transit in the gastro-intestinal tract. Starch, being the dominant nutrient in pig diets, strongly influences these properties. We studied transport of digesta solids and liquids trough the upper gastro-intestinal tract of 90 pigs in a 3x3 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments varied in starch source (barley, maize, high-amylose maize) and form (isolated starch, ground cereal, extruded cereal). Mean retention times (MRT) of digesta solids ranged 129-225 min for the stomach and 86-124 min for the small intestine (SI). The MRT of solids consistently exceeded that of liquids in the stomach, but not in the SI. Solid digesta of pigs fed extruded cereals remained 29-75 min shorter in the stomach compared with pigs fed ground cereals (P<0.001). Shear stress of whole digesta positively correlated with solid digesta MRT in the stomach (r=0.33, P<0.001), but not in the SI. The saturation ratio (SR), the actual amount of water in stomach digesta as a fraction of the theoretical maximum held by the digesta matrix, explained more variation in digesta MRT than shear stress. The predictability of SR was hampered by the accumulation of large particles in the stomach. In addition, the water holding capacity of gelatinised starch lead to a decreased SR of diets, but not of stomach digesta, which was caused by gastric hydrolysis of starch. Both of these phenomena hinder the predictability of gastric retention times based on feed properties.

    Effect of oat and soybean rich in distinct non-starch polysaccharides on fermentation, appetite regulation and fat accumulation in rat
    Tian, Lingmin ; Scholte, Jan ; Scheurink, Anton J.W. ; Berg, Marco van den; Bruggeman, Geert ; Bruininx, Erik ; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. ; Gruppen, Harry - \ 2019
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 140 (2019). - ISSN 0141-8130 - p. 515 - 521.
    Butyric acid - Dietary fiber - Fat pad

    Consumption of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) is associated with reduced risk of obesity. This study aimed to compare the effects of cereals (oats) and legumes (soybean), rich in different classes of NSP, on appetite regulation and fat accumulation in rats. Soy pectin fermented more efficient than cereal arabinoxylan in rats. Soy pectin and oat β-glucan were utilized mainly in the caecum of rats. Only small amount of maltodextrin, cello-oligosaccharides and xylo-oligosaccharides were detected in the digesta. Caecal fermentation of soy pectin produced significantly higher concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) compared to the control. Retroperitoneal (RP) fat-pad weight was significantly lower for rats fed with soybean meal enriched diet than for controls. An inverse correlation between rat RP fat-pad weight and concentration (and proportion) of butyrate was observed. Consumption of soy pectin and oat β-glucan enriched foods to produce targeted SCFAs in vivo could be a potential strategy to lower fat mass accumulation and a potential tool to manage obesity.

    Application of lactobacilli and prebiotic oligosaccharides for the development of a synbiotic semi-hard cheese
    Langa, S. ; Bulck, E. van den; Peirotén, A. ; Gaya, P. ; Schols, H.A. ; Arqués, J.L. - \ 2019
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 114 (2019). - ISSN 0023-6438
    Cheese - Lactobacillus - Prebiotic oligosaccharides - Probiotics - Synbiotic

    The aim of this study was to test the compatibility of two selected Lactobacillus strains with different prebiotic carbohydrates in order to develop a synbiotic cheese. Initially, the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli with the prebiotic formulations was monitored in optimized growth medium and in milk. Afterwards, semi-hard cheeses were manufactured with the selected combination of Lb. paracasei INIA P272 and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Results showed that the addition of FOS did not affect Lb. paracasei viability in the cheese after 28 days of ripening, but a higher viability of this strain was achieved in the presence of FOS when cheese was tested in a colonic model. Thus, the inclusion of FOS in the cheese could have a beneficial effect by increasing the probiotic strain viability in the host.

    Data from: Quantitative visual soil observation for visual soil evaluation on dairy farms
    Leeuwen, M.W.J. van; Schols, Anne ; Quik, C. - \ 2019
    dairy farm - soil quality assessment - visual soil evaluation
    Quantitative visual observations were collected for two studies on dairy farms in the Netherlands. Data were collected following the same methodology (Van Leeuwen et al., 2018) based on Visual Soil Assessment of Shepherd (2009).
    Starch digestion kinetics in pigs : The impact of starch structure, food processing, and digesta passage behaviour
    Martens, Bianca M.J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.A. Schols; W.J.J. Gerrits, co-promotor(en): E.M.A.M. Bruininx. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439336 - 179

    The nutritional and energetic value of a pig's diet depend on the rate of starch digestion. At the moment, however, the reasons behind variation in in vivo digestion rates of different starches are not fully understood. The main aim of this thesis was to quantify the contribution of intrinsic starch structure, feed processing, and digesta passage behaviour on the kinetics and mechanisms of starch digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs.

    The relation between intrinsic starch properties and in vitro digestion kinetics was studied in a large set of starches from various botanic origins. Across botanic sources, increased concentrations of A-type crystalline structure and short amylopectin side-chains increased hydrolysis rate. Within botanic sources, additional variation in in vitro hydrolysis kinetics was explained by other properties, such as the amylose content and the number of pores. Based on this in vitro work, three starch sources were selected (barley, maize, high amylose maize) and included each in three forms (isolated starch, ground cereals, extruded cereals) in experimental pig diets. Starch hydrolysis and disappearance was measured in the stomach and several parts of the small intestine, in addition to the rheological and physical behaviour and mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. Combining those results, an in vivo starch hydrolysis rate was determined for each diet. Consistent with our in vitro findings, the hydrolysis rate of starch in pigs was increased by extrusion and a decreased amylose content of maize starches. Starch originating from ground barley was fully hydrolysed in pigs, whereas 16% of starch ingested as ground maize was resistant to digestion.

    Starch hydrolysis in the proximal small intestine was underestimated by our in vitro method (by 20% on average), whereas the amount of starch resistant to hydrolysis exceeded our in vitro predictions (by 9% on average). Consequently, glucose release from slowly digestible starch was less gradual than expected. Gastric bacteria were found to degrade granular starch in the stomach of pigs. Bacterial enzymes, extracted from stomach digesta, hydrolysed up to 29% of starch in a dynamic in vitro stomach model with a step-wise pH gradient from 6.5 to 2.0. Porcine salivary α-amylase, which has an optimum pH around 7.8, degraded 10% of gelatinized starch under these in vitro stomach conditions, but barely degraded any native starch.

    The rate at which glucose, originating from starch, appears in the portal circulation does not only depend on the starch hydrolysis rate, but also on the transit time through the upper GIT. The MRT of digesta solids in the stomach of continuously fed pigs was longer (129 to 225 min) than in the small intestine (86 to 124 min). In addition, liquids remained around 60 min shorter in the stomach than digesta solids. Consequently, retention in the stomach will largely affect the appearance rate of glucose in the blood. The MRT in the stomach depended, in turn, mostly on the amount of water in stomach digesta as fraction of the theoretical maximum held by the digesta matrix.

    In conclusion, the difference between the in vitro and in vivo situation is dominated by the initial rate of starch digestion, which was higher in vivo than in vitro. Gastric starch digestion and predigestion seem to contribute to the more rapid initial starch digestion in vivo and is a key factor in an accurate prediction of starch digestion rates.

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