Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
    Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.

    Analysing the state of student participation in two Eco-Schools using Engeström’s Second Generation Activity Systems Model
    Schröder, Laura-Marie U. ; Wals, Arjen E.J. ; Koppen, C.S.A. van - \ 2020
    Environmental Education Research 26 (2020)8. - ISSN 1350-4622 - p. 1088 - 1111.
    Cultural-Historical-Activity-Theory (CHAT) - Eco-Schools programme - Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) - student-led change

    This research investigates the state of student participation in the Eco-Schools programme in two selected secondary schools located in Spain and the Netherlands. The focus is on understanding the levers of student participation and of the factors leading to a whole-school approach. Engeström’s Second Generation Activity Systems Model is used as an analytical framework. The study also reflects on the merits and shortcomings of this framework. The analysis of the two cases revealed contradictions in the intended effect of the Eco-School programme on fostering student-led change towards sustainability and a whole-school approach. The research suggests that student participation in Eco-School programme can be fostered by using an activity-based ‘whole institution’ approach that interlinks a reflective and action-based procedure, by adapting the students’ learning environment according to their needs and capabilities, by providing for close teacher guidance in Eco-School activities and establishing good student-teacher-relationships, and, finally, by incorporating the Eco-School programme into the school’s overall educational framework.

    Transdisciplinary knowledge management : A key but underdeveloped skill in EBM decision-making
    Giebels, Diana ; Carus, Jana ; Paul, Maike ; Kleyer, Michael ; Siebenhüner, Bernd ; Arns, Arne ; Bartholomä, Alexander ; Carlow, Vanessa ; Jensen, Jürgen ; Tietjen, Britta ; Wehrmann, Achim ; Schröder, Boris - \ 2020
    Marine Policy 119 (2020). - ISSN 0308-597X

    The ecosystem-based management (EBM) philosophy draws upon the principle that holistic understanding of the system to be governed needs to guide the decision-making process. However, empirical evidence is growing that knowledge integration is still a main bottleneck for EBM decision-makers. This paper argues that transdisciplinary knowledge management (TKM) is a key competence in achieving knowledge integration, while simultaneously it represents an underdeveloped research area in EBM if understood as a process of human interaction. Based on a literature review, this article summarizes and reflects upon the most recent development in the field of TKM. The paper presents a detailed definition and in-depth description of TKM as a process of human interaction and a diversity of organizational structures that effectuate TKM. Theoretically discussed premises are furthermore illuminated and evaluated by a case study that exemplifies pro-active development and implementation of TKM. Deviating case observations are presented as novel contributions to the field. They suggest new ideas and inspiration for future EBM research and policy agendas.

    Will legal international rhino horn trade save wild rhino populations?
    Eikelboom, Jasper A.J. ; Nuijten, Rascha J.M. ; Wang, Yingying X.G. ; Schroder, Bradley ; Heitkönig, Ignas M.A. ; Mooij, Wolf M. ; Langevelde, Frank van; Prins, Herbert H.T. - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Conservation 23 (2020). - ISSN 2351-9894
    CITES - Conservation - Socioeconomics - South Africa - Traditional Chinese medicine - Wildlife crime

    Wild vertebrate populations all over the globe are in decline, with poaching being the second-most-important cause. The high poaching rate of rhinoceros may drive these species into extinction within the coming decades. Some stakeholders argue to lift the ban on international rhino horn trade to potentially benefit rhino conservation, as current interventions appear to be insufficient. We reviewed scientific and grey literature to scrutinize the validity of reasoning behind the potential benefit of legal horn trade for wild rhino populations. We identified four mechanisms through which legal trade would impact wild rhino populations, of which only the increased revenue for rhino farmers could potentially benefit rhino conservation. Conversely, the global demand for rhino horn is likely to increase to a level that cannot be met solely by legal supply. Moreover, corruption is omnipresent in countries along the trade routes, which has the potential to negatively affect rhino conservation. Finally, programmes aimed at reducing rhino horn demand will be counteracted through trade legalization by removing the stigma on consuming rhino horn. Combining these insights and comparing them with criteria for sustainable wildlife farming, we conclude that legalizing rhino horn trade will likely negatively impact the remaining wild rhino populations. To preserve rhino species, we suggest to prioritize reducing corruption within rhino horn trade, increasing the rhino population within well-protected ’safe havens’ and implementing educational programmes and law enforcement targeted at rhino horn consumers.

    Fertilizer Replacement Value : Linking Organic Residues to Mineral Fertilizers
    Schils, René ; Schröder, Jaap ; Velthof, Gerard - \ 2020
    In: Biorefinery of Inorganics / Meers, Erik, Velthof, Gerard, Michels, Evi, Rietra, René, John Wiley and Sons - ISBN 9781118921456 - p. 189 - 214.
    Organic residues of animal origin are an important nutrient source for crop production. Due to the presence of organic nutrients, manures are more difficult to manage than mineral fertilizers. The increasing diversification in available organic residues makes the need for a correct assessment of the fertilizing value. This chapter outlines the theoretical concept of the fertilizer replacement value (FRV) and explores how it is derived in science and applied in farming practices. It explains the nutrient pathways from land application of organic residues to crop uptake, identifying the different routes to nutrient losses. The chapter reviews the concept of FRVs and discusses methods of obtaining estimates, including potential pitfalls. It also describes some examples of how FRVs are applied in fertilizer plans, including mineral fertilizers and manures. Fertilizer plans or nutrient management plans aim to match nutrient supply from fertilizers, manures, and other sources to nutrient demand from crops
    Dietary patterns are related to cognitive functioning in elderly enriched with individuals at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease
    Wesselman, L.M.P. ; Lent, Melo van; Schröder, A. ; Rest, O. van de; Peters, O. ; Menne, F. ; Fuentes, M. ; Priller, J. ; Spruth, E.J. ; Altenstein, S. ; Schneider, A. ; Fließbach, K. ; Roeske, S. ; Wolfsgruber, S. ; Kleineidam, L. ; Spottke, A. ; Pross, V. ; Wiltfang, J. ; Vukovich, R. ; Schild, A.K. ; Düzel, E. ; Metzger, C.D. ; Glanz, W. ; Buerger, K. ; Janowitz, D. ; Perneczky, R. ; Tatò, M. ; Teipel, S. ; Kilimann, I. ; Laske, C. ; Buchmann, M. ; Ramirez, A. ; Sikkes, S.A.M. ; Jessen, F. ; Flier, W.M. van der; Wagner, M. - \ 2020
    European Journal of Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 1436-6207
    Cognition - Dementia - Dietary patterns - Mediterranean diet - MIND diet

    Purpose: To investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and cognitive functioning in elderly free of dementia. Methods: Data of 389 participants from the German DELCODE study (52% female, 69 ± 6 years, mean Mini Mental State Score 29 ± 1) were included. The sample was enriched with elderly at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by including participants with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and siblings of AD patients. Mediterranean and MIND diets were derived from 148 Food Frequency Questionnaire items, and data-driven patterns by principal component analysis (PCA) of 39 food groups. Associations between dietary patterns and five cognitive domain scores were analyzed with linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics (model 1), and additionally for energy intake, BMI, other lifestyle variables and APOe4-status (model 2). For PCA-derived dietary components, final model 3 included all other dietary components. Results: In fully adjusted models, adherence to Mediterranean and MIND diet was associated with better memory. The ‘alcoholic beverages’ PCA component was positively associated with most cognitive domains. Exclusion of MCI subjects (n = 60) revealed that Mediterranean and MIND diet were also related to language functions; associations with the alcoholic beverages component were attenuated, but most remained significant. Conclusion: In line with data from elderly population samples, Mediterranean and MIND diet and some data-derived dietary patterns were related to memory and language function. Longitudinal data are needed to draw conclusions on the putative effect of nutrition on the rate of cognitive decline, and on the potential of dietary interventions in groups at increased risk for AD.

    Pickering particles as interfacial reservoirs of antioxidants
    Schröder, Anja ; Laguerre, Mickaël ; Sprakel, Joris ; Schroën, Karin ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. - \ 2020
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 575 (2020). - ISSN 0021-9797 - p. 489 - 498.
    Biobased particle - Encapsulation - Fat crystal - Interface - Lipid oxidation - Lipophilic antioxidant - Natural bioactive - Pickering emulsion - α-tocopherol

    Hypothesis: Emulsions are common structures encapsulating lipophilic bioactive molecules, both in biological systems and in manufactured products. Protecting these functional molecules from oxidation is essential; Nature excels at doing so by placing antioxidants at the oil-water interface, where oxidative reactions primarily occur. We imagined a novel approach to boost the activity of antioxidants in designer emulsions by employing Pickering particles that act both as physical emulsion stabilizers and as interfacial reservoirs of antioxidants. Experiments: α-Tocopherol or carnosic acid, two model lipophilic antioxidants, were entrapped in colloidal lipid particles (CLPs) that were next used to physically stabilize sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (“concept” Pickering emulsions). We first assessed the physical properties and stability of the CLPs and of the Pickering emulsions. We then monitored the oxidative stability of the concept emulsions upon incubation, and compared it to that of control emulsions of similar structure, yet with the antioxidant present in the oil droplet interior. Findings: Both tested antioxidants are largely more effective when loaded within Pickering particles than when solubilized in the oil droplet interior, thus confirming the importance of the interfacial localization of antioxidants. This approach revisits the paradigm for lipid oxidation prevention in emulsions and offers potential for many applications.

    Chemical Stability of α-Tocopherol in Colloidal Lipid Particles with Various Morphologies
    Schröder, Anja ; Sprakel, Joris ; Schroën, Karin ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. - \ 2020
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 122 (2020)6. - ISSN 1438-7697
    encapsulation - lipid crystallization - lipophilic bioactives - solid lipid nanoparticles - vitamin E

    Colloidal lipid particles (CLPs) are promising encapsulation systems for lipophilic bioactives, such as oil-soluble antioxidants that are applied in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Currently, there is no clear consensus regarding the relation between particle structure and the chemical stability of such bioactives. Using α-tocopherol as a model antioxidant, it is shown that emulsifier type (Tween 20 or 40, or sodium caseinate) and lipid composition (tripalmitin, tricaprylin, or combinations thereof) modulated particle morphology and antioxidant stability. The emulsifier affects particle shape, with the polysorbates facilitating tripalmitin crystallization into highly ordered lath-like particles, and sodium caseinate resulting in less ordered spherical particles. The fastest degradation of α-tocopherol is observed in tripalmitin-based CLPs, which may be attributed to its expulsion to the particle surface induced by lipid crystallization. This effect is stronger in CLPs stabilized by Tween 40, which may act as a template for crystallization. This work not only shows how the architecture of CLPs can be controlled through the type of lipid and emulsifier used, but also gives evidence that lipid crystallization does not necessarily protect entrapped lipophilic bioactives, which is an important clue for encapsulation system design. Practical Applications: Interest in enriching food and pharmaceutical products with lipophilic bioactives such as antioxidants through encapsulation in lipid particles is growing rapidly. This research suggests that for efficient encapsulation, the particle architecture plays an important role; to tailor this, the contribution of both the lipid carrier and the emulsifier needs to be considered.

    Combined physical and oxidative stability of food Pickering emulsions
    Schröder, Anja - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.G.P.H. Schroën, co-promotor(en): C.C. Berton-Carabin; J.H.B. Sprakel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951968 - 251

    Many food products contain lipid droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase (e.g., milk, mayonnaise), thus are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. Food emulsions may be subjected to destabilization, both from a physical and a chemical perspective. Physical destabilization is generally prevented by the use of conventional emulsifiers such as surfactants and proteins. Chemical destabilization, in particular lipid oxidation, is a major concern in food products, especially when healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids are present, and this degradation is usually mitigated by the use of synthetic antioxidants, often in large amounts.

    The use of alternative ingredients for the formulation of food emulsions has been emerging, for example solid particles (so-called Pickering particles, that are very popular nowadays) that irreversibly adsorb to the interface and therewith provide high physical stability; or natural antioxidants such as tocopherols and rosemary extracts, which are attractive in the current clean-label trend to prevent lipid oxidation. The efficiency of these natural antioxidants is unfortunately often not optimal, which can be explained by their tendency to locate into the oil or water phase, whereas lipid oxidation is initiated at the oil-water interface, and thus is the place where antioxidants should be located to optimally exert their protective effect.

    The objective of this project was to develop food emulsions with a new and controlled architecture directed at yielding both excellent physical and oxidative stability. In these emulsions the oil droplets were covered by food-grade Pickering particles that exert a double role: they act as physical stabilizers, and as a reservoir for antioxidant molecules located close to the oil-water interface, therewith preventing the first lipid oxidation events, which is expected to drastically enhance antioxidant activity.

    The first part of this thesis focused on the preparation and characterization of a new food-grade lipid-based Pickering particles, referred to as colloidal lipid particles (CLPs). We prepared both surfactant-covered and protein-covered CLPs, and found that the type of emulsifier largely determined their morphology: protein-covered CLPs were roughly spherical, whereas surfactant-covered CLPs looked more lath-like (Chapters 3 and 6). We also showed that the lipid material alters the crystal polymorphism and subsequent CLP structure, which consequently influenced their performance as emulsion stabilizers (Chapter 3). For instance, surfactant-covered CLPs containing only high melting point lipids showed highly ordered crystalline structures, and formed jammed, cohesive interfacial layers once adsorbed onto oil droplets, whereas the ones containing a fraction of low melting point lipids showed less ordered crystalline structures and formed thin and bridged layers.

    Since protein-covered CLPs were particularly resilient to subsequent emulsification processes, these particles were used to study the formation of emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device and their stability to short-term coalescence (Chapter 4). We found a non-monotonic dependency of the droplet stability on the particle concentration: at low surface coverage, CLPs had a destabilizing effect as incompletely covered surfaces led to droplet-droplet bridging and subsequent coalescence, whereas at higher surface coverage, particles formed an effective barrier against droplet coalescence, resulting in physically stable emulsions over the time scales probed.

    As a next step, we investigated lipid oxidation in Pickering emulsions stabilized by protein-based CLPs that did not contain antioxidants (Chapter 5). We showed that these Pickering emulsions had a similar oxidative stability as conventional protein-stabilized emulsions for a similar composition of the oil droplets. Yet, when in both emulsions the same amount of solid lipids was present (either as stabilizing CLPs, or within the oil droplet core), a Pickering emulsion had a higher physicochemical stability. This shows that the location of crystallizable lipids influences lipid oxidation in O/W emulsions, and thus needs to be carefully considered in emulsion design.

    CLPs that did contain the lipophilic antioxidant α-tocopherol are presented in Chapter 6. The chemical stability of α-tocopherol was negatively influenced by lipid crystallization that probably promoted the localization of α-tocopherol close to the particle surface, which was further enhanced by emulsifiers that actively induce lipid crystallization. When applied as Pickering stabilizers in O/W emulsions (Chapter 7), lipid oxidation was reduced compared to control emulsions with the same composition and structure, but where the antioxidant was present in the core of the oil droplets. This confirmed that the interfacial localization of the antioxidant is crucial to prevent lipid oxidation in emulsions, and that the two main instability issues (i.e., physical and chemical instability) of emulsions can be mitigated through one single approach.

    After establishing the proof of concept with the CLPs, we used biobased particles (that may contain antioxidants) from various natural sources to stabilize O/W emulsions (Chapter 8). Emulsions stabilized by matcha tea powder or spinach leaf powder were both highly physically and oxidatively stable, which shows that the double functionality that we achieved using purposely built particles (CLPs) can also be achieved with naturally occurring particles.

    In the general discussion of the thesis (Chapter 9) we describe that the dual functionality of CLPs can also be reached using other food components, which makes this approach a generic one. We expect that the system could be further improved, for example, by increasing the residence time of antioxidants at the interface. To do so, we probably need to link the time scale at which the relevant oxidation events occur with those during which the antioxidant actually resides at the interface. Follow-up research on entrapment of antioxidants within particles is needed to reach long residence times at the interface while not compromising the ability of antioxidants to exert their chemical activity. To conclude: through our approach the highly-stable food emulsions of the future may come within reach.

    Rekenregels van de KringloopWijzer 2019 : Achtergronden van BEX, BEA, BEN, BEP en BEC: actualisatie van de 2018-versie
    Dijk, W. van; Schröder, J.J. ; Šebek, L.B. ; Oenema, J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Boer, J. de; Haan, M.H.A. de; Verloop, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Agrosystems Research WPR-956) - 129
    Emulsion comprising antioxidant particles
    Schroder, A.J. ; Sprakel, J.H.B. ; Schroen, C.G.P.H. ; Berton-Carabin, C.C. ; Laguerre, Mickael ; Birtic, Simona - \ 2020
    Octrooinummer: WO2020007885, gepubliceerd: 2020-01-09.
    The present invention relates to compositions comprising particles prepared from one or more biological materials and/or animal lipids and/or plant lipids that are capable of locating to an interface when combined with two or more immiscible liquids. Emulsions comprising the compositions comprising particles, wherein the emulsion has an internal phase dispersed in a continuous external phase and the particles are located at the interface of the external and the internal phase, methods of preparing such compositions and emulsions, the use of such compositions and emulsions and products containing the compositions and emulsions are also described.
    Assessing the nutrient cycling potential in agricultural soils using decision modelling
    Trajanov, Aneta ; Schröder, Jaap ; Wall, David ; Delgado, Antonio ; Schulte, Rogier ; Debeljak, Marko - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Operational Research, SOR 2019. - SLOVENIAN SOCIETY INFORMATIKA (Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Operational Research, SOR 2019 ) - ISBN 9789616165556 - p. 23 - 27.
    Decision model - DEXi - Nutrient cycling - Recommendations - Soil functions

    One of the essential functions that agricultural soils provide is nutrient cycling. The capacity of soils to provide this function is influenced by the interactions between soil properties, climate and management. Understanding these interactions can help in assessing the soil nutrient cycling potential on a field and in identifying best management options. To optimize this process, we developed a multi-attribute decision model using the DEXi modelling tool. The outputs from this model may be used to obtain recommendations for farmers and other stakeholders and assist them with the selection of management practices fostering the nutrient cycling potential of soils.

    Soil quality: a confusing beacon for sustainability
    Berge, H.F.M. ten; Schroder, J.J. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings International Fertiliser Society IFS - ISBN 9780853104780
    Global distribution of earthworm diversity
    Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
    Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.

    Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

    Mutagenesis of odorant coreceptor Orco fully disrupts foraging but not oviposition behaviors in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta
    Fandino, Richard A. ; Alexander, H. ; Bisch-Knaden, S. ; Zhang, J. ; Bucks, S. ; Nguyen, T.A.T. ; Schröder, K. ; Werckenthin, Achim ; Rybak, J. ; Stengl, Monika ; Knaden, M. ; Hansson, Bill S. ; Groβe-Wilde, Ewald - \ 2019
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)31. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 15677 - 15685.
    CRISPR-Cas9 - Insect olfaction - Insect-plant interactions - Manduca sexta - Orco

    The hawkmoth Manduca sexta and one of its preferred hosts in the North American Southwest, Datura wrightii, share a model insect-plant relationship based on mutualistic and antagonistic life-history traits. D. wrightii is the innately preferred nectar source and oviposition host for M. sexta. Hence, the hawkmoth is an important pollinator while the M. sexta larvae are specialized herbivores of the plant. Olfactory detection of plant volatiles plays a crucial role in the behavior of the hawkmoth. In vivo, the odorant receptor coreceptor (Orco) is an obligatory component for the function of odorant receptors (ORs), a major receptor family involved in insect olfaction. We used CRISPR-Cas9 targeted mutagenesis to knock out (KO) the MsexOrco gene to test the consequences of a loss of OR-mediated olfaction in an insect-plant relationship. Neurophysiological characterization revealed severely reduced antennal and antennal lobe responses to representative odorants emitted by D. wrightii. In a wind-tunnel setting with a flowering plant, Orco KO hawkmoths showed disrupted flight orientation and an ablated proboscis extension response to the natural stimulus. The Orco KO gravid female displayed reduced attraction toward a nonflowering plant. However, more than half of hawkmoths were able to use characteristic odor-directed flight orientation and oviposit on the host plant. Overall, OR-mediated olfaction is essential for foraging and pollination behaviors, but plant-seeking and oviposition behaviors are sustained through additional OR-independent sensory cues.

    No systematic effects of sampling direction on climate-growth relationships in a large-scale, multi-species tree-ring data set
    Gut, Urs ; Árvai, Mátyás ; Bijak, Szymon ; Camarero, J.J. ; Cedro, Anna ; Cruz-García, Roberto ; Garamszegi, Balázs ; Hacket-Pain, Andrew ; Hevia, Andrea ; Huang, Weiwei ; Isaac-Renton, Miriam ; Kaczka, Ryszard J. ; Kazimirović, Marko ; Kędziora, Wojciech ; Kern, Zoltán ; Klisz, Marcin ; Kolář, Tomáš ; Körner, Michael ; Kuznetsova, Veronica ; Montwé, David ; Petritan, Any Mary ; Petritan, Ion Catalin ; Plavcová, Lenka ; Rehschuh, Romy ; Rocha, Eva ; Rybníček, Michal ; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl ; Schröder, Jens ; Schwab, Niels ; Stajić, Branko ; Tomusiak, Robert ; Wilmking, Martin ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Buras, Allan - \ 2019
    Dendrochronologia 57 (2019). - ISSN 1125-7865
    Climate signal - Correlation analysis - Dendro-provenancing - Directional growth - Principal Component Gradient Analysis - Tree-rings

    Ring-width series are important for diverse fields of research such as the study of past climate, forest ecology, forest genetics, and the determination of origin (dendro-provenancing) or dating of archaeological objects. Recent research suggests diverging climate-growth relationships in tree-rings due to the cardinal direction of extracting the tree cores (i.e. direction-specific effect). This presents an understudied source of bias that potentially affects many data sets in tree-ring research. In this study, we investigated possible direction-specific growth variability based on an international (10 countries), multi-species (8 species) tree-ring width network encompassing 22 sites. To estimate the effect of direction-specific growth variability on climate-growth relationships, we applied a combination of three methods: An analysis of signal strength differences, a Principal Component Gradient Analysis and a test on the direction-specific differences in correlations between indexed ring-widths series and climate variables. We found no evidence for systematic direction-specific effects on tree radial growth variability in high-pass filtered ring-width series. In addition, direction-specific growth showed only marginal effects on climate-growth correlations. These findings therefore indicate that there is no consistent bias caused by coring direction in data sets used for diverse dendrochronological applications on relatively mesic sites within forests in flat terrain, as were studied here. However, in extremely dry, warm or cold environments, or on steep slopes, and for different life-forms such as shrubs, further research is advisable.

    'Koningin laat zich voor karretje spannen'
    Schroder, J.J. - \ 2019
    Improving the precision and accuracy of animal population estimates with aerial image object detection
    Eikelboom, Jasper A.J. ; Wind, Johan ; Ven, Eline van de; Kenana, Lekishon M. ; Schroder, Bradley ; Knegt, Henrik J. de; Langevelde, Frank van; Prins, Herbert H.T. - \ 2019
    Methods in Ecology and Evolution 10 (2019)11. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 1875 - 1887.
    computer vision - convolutional neural network - deep machine learning - drones - game census - image recognition - savanna - wildlife survey

    Animal population sizes are often estimated using aerial sample counts by human observers, both for wildlife and livestock. The associated methods of counting remained more or less the same since the 1970s, but suffer from low precision and low accuracy of population estimates. Aerial counts using cost-efficient Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or microlight aircrafts with cameras and an automated animal detection algorithm can potentially improve this precision and accuracy. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the multi-class convolutional neural network RetinaNet in detecting elephants, giraffes and zebras in aerial images from two Kenyan animal counts. The algorithm detected 95% of the number of elephants, 91% of giraffes and 90% of zebras that were found by four layers of human annotation, of which it correctly detected an extra 2.8% of elephants, 3.8% giraffes and 4.0% zebras that were missed by all humans, while detecting only 1.6 to 5.0 false positives per true positive. Furthermore, the animal detections by the algorithm were less sensitive to the sighting distance than humans were. With such a high recall and precision, we posit it is feasible to replace manual aerial animal count methods (from images and/or directly) by only the manual identification of image bounding boxes selected by the algorithm and then use a correction factor equal to the inverse of the undercounting bias in the calculation of the population estimates. This correction factor causes the standard error of the population estimate to increase slightly compared to a manual method, but this increase can be compensated for when the sampling effort would increase by 23%. However, an increase in sampling effort of 160% to 1,050% can be attained with the same expenses for equipment and personnel using our proposed semi-automatic method compared to a manual method. Therefore, we conclude that our proposed aerial count method will improve the accuracy of population estimates and will decrease the standard error of population estimates by 31% to 67%. Most importantly, this animal detection algorithm has the potential to outperform humans in detecting animals from the air when supplied with images taken at a fixed rate.

    A Field-Scale Decision Support System for Assessment and Management of Soil Functions
    Debeljak, Marko ; Trajanov, Aneta ; Kuzmanovski, Vladimir ; Schroder, J.J. ; Sandén, Taru ; Spiegel, Heide ; Wall, David ; Broek, Marijn van de; Rutgers, Michiel ; Bampa, Francesca ; Creamer, Rachel ; Henriksen, Christian Bugge - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Environmental Science 7 (2019). - ISSN 2296-665X
    Agricultural decision support systems (DSS) are mostly focused on increasing the supply of individual soil functions such as e.g. primary productivity or nutrient cycling, while neglecting other important soil functions, such as e.g. water purification and regulation, climate regulation and carbon sequestration, soil biodiversity and habitat provision. Making right management decisions for long-term sustainability is therefore challenging, and farmers and farm advisors would greatly benefit from an evidence-based DSS targeted for assessing and improving the supply of several soil functions simultaneously. To address this, need we designed the Soil Navigator DSS by applying a qualitative approach to multi criteria decision modelling using Decision Expert (DEX) integrative methodology. Multi-criteria decision models for the five main soil functions were developed, calibrated and validated using knowledge of involved domain experts and knowledge extracted from existing datasets by data mining. Subsequently, the five DEX models were integrated into a DSS to assess the soil functions simultaneously, and to provide management advises for improving the performance of prioritized soil functions. To enable communication between the users and the DSS, we developed a user-friendly computer-based graphical user interface, which enables users to provide the required data regarding their field to the DSS and to get textual and graphical results about the performance of each of the five soil functions in a qualitative way. The final output from the DSS is a list of soil mitigation measures that the end-users could easily apply in the field in order to achieve the desired soil function performance. The Soil Navigator DSS has a great potential to complement the Farm Sustainability Tools for Nutrients included in the Common Agricultural Policy 2021-2027 proposal adopted by the European Commission. The Soil Navigator has also a potential to be spatially upgraded to assist decisions on which soil functions to prioritize in a specific region or member state. Furthermore, the Soil Navigator DSS could be used as an educational tool for farmers, farm advisors and students, and its potential should be further exploited for the benefit of farmers and the society as a whole.
    Stikstofwerking van organische meststoffen en hun relatie met gebruiksnormen
    Schröder, J.J. ; Dijk, W. van - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Agrosysteemkunde (Wageningen Plant Research rapport WPR-916) - 45
    Manures supply nitrogen (N) to crops in the year of their application but also in later years. This mineralisation extends over several decades. Regular manuring therefore results in a gradual increase of the N fertilizer replacement values (NFRV) of manures. However, prescribed NFRV’s in the present regulations refer to ‘first year’s’ N supply in most cases. In view of the common regular applications of manures, it seems reasonable to consistently adopt long term NFRV’s in recommendations and regulations. We hence propose to increase the NFRV of liquid manures, including slurries, to 70-80% and those of solid manures to 55-75%. Attention is required for possible ‘double counting’ because residual N-effects of manures have in some cases become confounded with current crop-related N-recommendations.If the composition of a manure or the conditions under which manures are applied would change, a simple set of rules allows to make an informed estimate of the NFRV. However, there still is a need for a better insight into the synchronisation between mineralisation and the seasonal N uptake pattern of crops. Besides, we need to know more precisely when and where manures stimulate the production of elementary N and nitrous oxide.As far as policies and regulations are concerned, there are close relationships between legal NFRV’s and the crop specific N application standards. The premises behind the definition of N application standards of grassland and silage maize differ from those of other crops. That implies that the proposed raise of NFRV’s justifies a proportional raise of the N application standards for grassland and silage maize as that has no negative environmental consequences. For any other crop a change of NFRV’s does not justify a moderation of the N application standards
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