Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Regenerative agriculture – the soil is the base
    Schreefel, Loekie ; Schulte, Rogier ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Schrijver, Annemiek Pas ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2020
    Global Food Security 26 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124
    Regenerative agriculture - Circular agricultur - Organic agriculture - Literature review - Cultural domain analysis - Soil health
    Regenerative agriculture (RA) is proposed as a solution towards sustainable food systems. A variety of actors perceive RA differently, and a clear scientific definition is lacking. We reviewed 28 studies to find convergence and divergence between objectives and activities that define RA. Our results show convergence related to objectives that enhance the environment and stress the importance of socio-economic dimensions that contribute to food security. The objectives of RA in relation to socio-economic dimensions, however, are general and lack a framework for implementation. From our analysis, we propose a provisional definition of RA as an approach to farming that uses soil conservation as the entry point to regenerate and contribute to multiple ecosystem services.
    Effects of bioavailable phosphorus and soil biota on typical Nardus grassland species in competition with fast-growing plant species
    Schelfhout, Stephanie ; Wasof, Safaa ; Mertens, Jan ; Vanhellemont, Margot ; Demey, Andreas ; Haegeman, Annelies ; DeCock, Eva ; Moeneclaey, Iris ; Vangansbeke, Pieter ; Viaene, Nicole ; Baeyen, Steve ; Sutter, Nancy De; Maes, Martine ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Verheyen, Kris ; Schrijver, An De - \ 2020
    Ecological Indicators 120 (2020). - ISSN 1470-160X
    Abiotic threshold - Competition - Ecological restoration - Oligotrophic - Species-rich grassland - TITAN

    The restoration of Nardus grasslands is often hampered by high bioavailability of soil phosphorus and disturbed soil communities. In order to better understand these bottlenecks, we studied Nardus grassland species grown together in communities with fast-growing species in 50-liter pots along a gradient of bioavailable phosphorus with or without inoculated soil biota. These mesocosms allowed the plants to freely interact, including competition for light and nutrients. We investigated changes in the plant community composition along the phosphorus gradient using Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN). We found a negative threshold of 11.5 mg POlsen kg−1 with six significant indicator plant species. Above the threshold, a small increase in phosphorus resulted in a disproportionally large drop in biomass for the indicator species, including four typical Nardus grassland species. The decline in these ‘oligotrophic indicator species’ was also linked to increasing plant community biomass, so we suggest the oligotrophic indicator species to be outcompeted for light by fast-growing plant species. We did not find an effect of the soil biota treatment on the biomass of the oligotrophic indicator species, but did observe a positive effect of inoculation with soil biota on the total biomass of the plant community. Interestingly, the threshold for the plant communities in the mesocosm experiment was comparable to the upper bioavailable phosphorus concentrations in remnant Nardus grasslands in northern Belgium. For the restoration of Nardus grasslands, such phosphorus-poor soil conditions appear to be essential, because the plant species that typically occur in these grasslands are able to handle nutrient limitation, but not light limitation.

    Effects of heathland management on seedling recruitment of common juniper (Juniperus communis)
    Frenne, Pieter De; Gruwez, Robert ; Hommel, Patrick W.F.M. ; Schrijver, An De; Huiskes, Rik P.J. ; Waal, Rein W. de; Vangansbeke, Pieter ; Verheyen, Kris - \ 2020
    Plant Ecology and Evolution 153 (2020)2. - ISSN 2032-3913 - p. 188 - 198.
    Germination - Heathland - Juniperus communis - Liming - Rotavation - Seedling survival - Sod cutting

    Background and aims – Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) is one of the most widespread woody species on the planet. Over recent decades, however, common juniper populations are decreasing in size and number in different regions. Lack of recruitment, caused by extremely low seed viability and the absence of suitable microsites for recruitment, is the key reason for this decline. For successful germination, the seeds need gaps in the existing vegetation and a soil with a relatively high base saturation. The aim of this study was therefore to assess how management actions such as sod cutting, rotavation and liming (alone or in various combinations) influence soil characteristics, seed germination and seedling survival of common juniper. Methods – We installed a sowing experiment across 104 1-m2 plots in four different sites in Belgium and the Netherlands using treatments with different combinations of fencing, sod cutting, rotavation, litter addition and liming. We determined how these treatments affected soil characteristics and how they influenced seed germination and seedling survival. Key results and conclusions – Across the whole experiment, germination rates of juniper seeds were very low (almost always < 1%). Our results confirm that bare ground promotes the germination of juniper seeds. Secondly, higher silt and lutum (clay) proportions in the soil and higher soil organic matter content seemed to have a positive impact on recruitment, possibly due to drought reduction. Management actions that negatively affect those soil characteristics, such as deep sod cutting, should thus be avoided in heathlands on sandy soils. Our results reveal a complex relationship between seedling recruitment success, soil conditions and management of common juniper populations. Overall, combinations of fencing, (superficial) sod cutting and liming or rotavation were most successful.

    Verrijken, benutten en sparen : Bewegen richting natuurinclusieve landbouw
    Smits, M.J.W. ; Dawson, A.W. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. ; Michels, R. ; Migchels, G. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Sukkel, W. - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research - 11 p.
    innovations - social evolution - returns - circular agriculture
    Van A naar Biodiversiteit : Op weg naar een natuurinclusieve landbouw
    Smits, Marie-José ; Dawson, Andrew ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, Marijke ; Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, Reina ; Michels, Rolf ; Migchels, Gerard ; Polman, Nico ; Schrijver, Raymond ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Vogelzang, Theo ; Kistenkas, Fred - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Rapport / Wageningen Economic Research 2020-043) - ISBN 9789463953955 - 67
    This report explores first of all literature on transition management. The knowledge gained is taken into account to develop a route planner, which can be used to stimulate nature-inclusive agriculture at a regional level. This route planner is intended for stakeholders who want to promote nature-inclusive agriculture in their own region. We then ask ourselves what nature-inclusive agriculture means, and how it relates to circular agriculture and ecosystem services. An important focus in the route planner is the development of a vision. For this reason, concrete measures are described for arable farming and livestock farming that fit into such a nature-inclusive vision.
    Onderzoek naar een kennisbasis voor natuurgedreven landbouw
    Dijk, J. van; Veer, G. van der; Woestenburg, M. ; Stoop, J. ; Wijdeven, M. ; Veluw, K. van; Schrijver, R. ; Akker, J. van den; Woudenberg, E. van; Kerkhoven, D. ; Slot, M. - \ 2020
    WINK - 52
    Regenerative agriculture-the soil is the base
    Schreefel, Loekie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Schrijver, Annemiek Pas ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2020
    In: WIAS Annual Conference 2020. - WIAS - p. 72 - 72.
    Mankind’s key challenge nowadays is to produce enough safe and nutritious food for a growing and wealthier population within the carrying capacity of the planet. An increasing body of literature concludes that regenerative agriculture (RA) might be a solution fora sustainable food system. But what is RA? RA is one of several approaches towards a sustainable food system. Characterisation of the term is still challenging since a variety of actors(e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, sector organisations, industries and farmers)perceive this term differently and a clear definition is missing in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was to identify the background and core themes of RA by examining the convergence and divergence between definitions in existing peer-reviewed articles. We systematically studied 21 peer-reviewed articles to find definitions of RA using the methodological framework PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews). Then,we categorized the different terms mentioned in the definition into themes using a cultural domain analysis and inductive coding. Findings show a strong focus on the environmental pillar of sustainability, e.g. alleviate climate change and improve soil biodiversity,articulated by both aspirations (e.g. improve soil quality) and activities (e.g. use perennials). We also found a socio-economic foundation in RA, to improve human health and improve economic prosperity. This socio-economic foundation, however, relies currently on divergent aspirations and is not operationalized. We propose in our paper a definition for RA based on the peer-reviewed articles and relate RA to organic agriculture as an example of a regulated farming approach and circular agriculture which remains yet a theoretical concept.
    ‘Planten eten voor de planeet: schrijver Jonathan Safran Foer roept op tot klimaatvriendelijk dieet’
    Dagevos, H. - \ 2019
    Voeding Nu 21 (2019)8. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 20 - 21.
    Kan een goede boer natuurinclusief zijn? : De rol van culturele normen in een beweging richting natuurinclusieve landbouw
    Westerink, J. ; Boer, T.A. de; Pleijte, M. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 161) - 86
    What farmers consider as a good farmer and a good landscape influences their views about nature inclusive farming. We investigated the cultural norms concerning the ‘good farmer’ and the ‘good landscape’ in a qualitative study involving 24 farmers in 4 case study areas. A good farmer can be recognised by his/her land, and what good land should look like depends on its use: for food production it should be tidy and well maintained; nature-inclusive land may look a bit ‘messy’. Respondents notice that cultural norms are changing, particularly as a consequence of new practices that are visible in the landscape. New skills are required to put nature-inclusive farming into practice and to recognise and appreciate it in other farmers’ land. This in turn requires subcultures in which such cultural capital can be accumulated. An example of such subcultures are agri-environmental collectives. The report contains action strategies for influencingcultural norms.
    Schrijver Jan van Aken over de wereld na een extreme zeespiegelstijging
    Wamelink, Wieger - \ 2019

    Zes Nederlandse auteurs spreken op ons verzoek met wetenschappers en schrijven naar aanleiding daarvan een kort verhaal. Vandaag Jan van Aken, die met ecoloog Wieger Wamelink de wereld na een extreme zeespiegelstijging besprak.

    Klimaatcompensatie met agroforestry, wat is mogelijk? : Handreiking voor agrarisch ondernemers die bomen willen planten op hun bedrijf
    Selin Norén, Isabella ; Keur, Joran ; Vijn, M.P. ; Schoutsen, M.A. ; Cuperus, Fogelina ; Slier, Thalisa ; Vries, Wim de; Goor, Wouter van; Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research (Factsheet Agroforestry 3) - 8 p.
    agroforestry - landscape management - circular agriculture
    Natuurinclusief voor een goede toekomst : wat valt te leren van Hoeve Stein als voorbeeld van zelfrealisatie van natuur?
    Westerink, Judith ; Melman, Dick ; Schrijver, Raymond ; Schotman, Alex ; Visser, Tim - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2948) - 89
    The dairy farm Hoeve Stein was converted from a conventional into an organic nature-oriented farm. This was the result of a close collaboration between the farming family, the province, the municipality and the State Forest Service. Important building blocks were the buy-off of the devaluation of the land, solid advisory reports on the business model and the ecology, and experimentation with nature management. This report reviews the development of the farm and its ecological values. In addition, it investigates whether farmers in the neighbourhood consider Hoeve Stein as good example that is worth following, as was the intention of the project.
    Natuurinclusieve landbouw: van niches naar mainstream (fase 1)
    Smits, Marie-José ; Polman, Nico ; Michels, Rolf ; Migchels, Gerard ; Schrijver, Raymond ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Visser, Andries ; Vogelzang, Theo ; Kistenkas, Fred - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-033) - 31
    In deze studie wordt bekeken hoe natuurinclusieve landbouw op de middellange termijn kan uitgroeien van een niche naar de meest gangbare wijze van productie. Centraal staan de vragen: •Welke verdienmodellen zijn er denkbaar om opschaling van natuurinclusieve landbouw naar mainstream financieel mogelijk te maken?•Welk aandachtspunten zijn van belang om de transitie te faciliteren zodat op de middellange termijn natuurinclusieve landbouw kan uitgroeien van niche naar mainstream?
    Fraud vulnerability in the Dutch milk supply chain : Assessments of farmers, processors and retailers
    Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. ; Hettinga, K.A. ; Liu, N. ; Heck, J. ; Schrijver, G.H. ; Gaiardoni, L. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2019
    Food Control 95 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 308 - 317.
    Dairy supply chain - Fraud factor - Fraud mitigation - Milk adulteration - Organic farm - Vulnerability assessment

    Food fraud surfaces regularly, anywhere in the world. Not only the companies involved in food fraud suffer from losses when food fraud occurs, other actors in the supply chain and branch of industry are often painted with the same brush. Milk has been a common fraud target in the past and, therefore, fraud is a concern for companies involved in milk production. In order to manage and prevent fraud in the milk supply chain, a good insight into the vulnerabilities of companies and their supply chain networks is pivotal. The aim of the current study is to understand (a) the fraud vulnerability of the general milk supply chain in the Netherlands and its tiers (farmers, processors, retailers) and (b) the differences in fraud vulnerability of farmers producing organic milk, green intermediate ‘pasture milk’ and conventional milk. The SSAFE food fraud assessment tool was slightly adapted to the milk supply chain and used to examine the fraud vulnerability of the 38 businesses of the three tiers in the study: 30 farmers, 4 milk processors and 4 retailers. Forty-eight fraud factors related to opportunities, motivations and control measures were examined. Subsequently, key fraud factors were identified. The three tier groups showed major similarities in motivation related fraud factors, and large differences in fraud opportunities and controls. There were also differences observed between the organic and non-organic farmers, with organic farmers being slightly more vulnerable than their non-organic counterparts. From this study it appears that the milk supply chain in the Netherlands is low to medium vulnerable to fraud but the key factors contributing to the vulnerability differ between the tiers (farmers, processors, retailers). Management of the fraud risks requires consideration of these differences.

    Provinciale Sturing op verbinding van natuur en economie. Tussenrapportage WOT-04-010-036.99
    Gerritsen, A.L. ; Pleijte, M. ; Kranendonk, R.P. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Wit-de Vries, E. de; Heide, M. van der - \ 2018
    WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-interne notitie 244)
    Wij zorgen ervoor! : ervaringen met nieuwe vormen van beheer in de pilot Natuurbeheer Krimpenerwaard: onderzoek ten bate van de eindevaluatie
    Westerink, Judith ; Boer, Tineke de; Schrijver, Raymond ; Zee, Friso van der - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2916) - 61
    The Importance of Combined Tidal and Meteorological Forces for the Flow and Sediment Transport on Intertidal Shoals
    de Vet, P.L.M. ; van Prooijen, B.C. ; Schrijvershof, R.A. ; van der Werf, J.J. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Schrijver, M.C. ; Wang, Z.B. - \ 2018
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 123 (2018)10. - ISSN 2169-9003 - p. 2464 - 2480.
    hydrodynamics - intertidal area - morphology - numerical model - sediment transport - wind

    Estuarine intertidal areas are shaped by combined astronomical and meteorological forces. This paper reveals the relative importance of tide, surge, wind, and waves for the flow and sediment transport on large intertidal shoals. Results of an intensive field campaign have been used to validate a numerical model of the Roggenplaat intertidal shoal in the Eastern Scheldt Estuary, the Netherlands, in order to identify and quantify the importance of each of the processes over time and space. We show that its main tidal creeks are not the cause for the dominant direction of the net flow on the shoal. The tidal flow over the shoal is steered by the water level differences between the surrounding channels. Also during wind events, the tidal flow (enhanced by surge) is dominant in the creeks. In contrast, wind speeds of order 40 times the typical tidal flow velocity are sufficient to completely alter the flow direction and magnitude on an intertidal shoal. This has significant consequences for the sediment transport patterns. Apart from this wind-driven flow dominance during these events, the wind also increases the bed shear stress by waves. For the largest intertidal part of the Roggenplaat, only ∼1–10% of the yearly transport results from the 50% least windy tides, even if the shoal is artificially lowered half the tidal range. This dominance of energetic meteorological conditions in the transports matches with field observations, in which the migration of the creeks and high parts of the shoal are in line with the predominant wind direction.

    Bioeconomy mapping report, D 1.1 : An overview of the bioeconomy
    Bos, H.L. ; Kranendonk, R.P. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Leeuwen, J.J.A. van - \ 2018
    EU (Bloom ) - 45 p.
    biobased economy - biomass - biobased materials - biobased chemistry
    De waarde van maatschappelijke kostenbatenanalyses voor natuur en landschap
    Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Heide, C.M. van der - \ 2018
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap (2018)146. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 3 - 7.
    Om relevante effecten van overheidsprojecten
    in beeld te brengen en te wegen,
    wordt vaak gebruik gemaakt van een
    maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse
    (MKBA). Een MKBA verschaft een overzicht
    van de voor- en nadelen van een
    voorgenomen besluit. Om verschillende
    projectalternatieven goed met elkaar te
    vergelijken, worden de voor- en nadelen
    ervan in euro’s uitgedrukt. Wanneer de
    baten van het project de kosten overschrijden,
    dan gaat de maatschappij ‘erop
    vooruit’ – de maatschappelijke welvaart
    stijgt door het project. Voor het schetsen
    van het complete plaatje is het van belang
    dat ook natuur en landschap onderdeel
    uitmaken van een MKBA
    Naar een Heideboerderij en een nieuwe marke voor de Sallandse Heuvelrug
    Schrijver, Raymond ; Vijn, Marcel - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Wageningen University & Research Wetenschapswinkel rapport 345) - ISBN 9789463434683 - 57
    Stichting Heideboerderij Nederland werkt aan de ontwikkeling van het concept van de Heideboerderij. Op een vijftiental locaties in Nederland wordt samen met boeren, schaapherders, natuurorganisaties, burgers, ondernemers en lokale en provinciale overheden gewerkt aan de realisatie van Heideboerderijen. De stichting Heideboerderij Nederland (SHN) heeft de Wetenschapswinkel gevraagd om Wageningen University & Research een verkenning te laten doen naar de mogelijkheden voor realisatie van het door hen ontwikkelde concept van de Heideboerderij op diverse plaatsen in Nederland. In het concept van de Heideboerderij wordt de samenwerking vormgegeven tussen natuurbeheerders, schaapherders, boeren, streekgebonden bedrijven en bewoners als onderdeel van een common en met wortels in een eeuwenoud heidelandbouwsysteem. Het woord ‘commons’ is de gebruikelijke Engelse term voor het gemeenschappelijk bezit van natuurlijke hulpbronnen. Verwante Nederlandse benamingen zijn onder andere Meent, Gemeynt, Boermarke en Marke. De term Marke werd (en wordt) gebruikt in Salland. Op de Sallandse Heuvelrug ging het om bossen en heidevelden (outfields) vanwaar nutriënten werden verzameld in een potstal voor gebruik op de akkers (infields). In de huidige tijd komen daar talrijke nieuwe ‘commons’ bij zoals het korhoen (biodiversiteit) en bijna verloren gegane ambachten (cultuurhistorie). Het antwoord op de gestelde vragen aan de Wetenschapswinkel wordt gegeven door een fictieve samenwerkingsovereenkomst voor de Marke op te stellen met voorwaarden waaraan de business modellen van de diverse samenwerkingspartners moeten voldoen. De acht principes van Elinor Ostrom voor het ontwerp van een ‘common’ zijn daarbij als leidraad genomen. Het concept van de Heideboerderij kan verbetering brengen wat betreft de natuur op en vooral rond de Sallandse Heuvelrug mits aan een aantal randvoorwaarden wordt voldaan. Randvoorwaarden waaraan met prioriteit moet worden gewerkt zijn een samenwerking tussen actoren in het gebied gericht op een gemeenschappelijke business case die aanvullend is op individuele verdienmodellen van ondernemers en de instelling van een Markefonds. Dit Markefonds is noodzakelijk voor het overbruggen van het gat in verdiencapaciteit tussen bedrijven die zich primair richten op productie voor de wereldmarkt en bedrijven met een nadruk op maatschappelijke waarden en ook voor het borgen van een langetermijnzekerheid daarbij---Stichting Heideboerderij Nederland (SHN, The Dutch Heath Farm Foundation) works on the development of the heath farm concept in The Netherlands. At fifteen locations farmers, shepherds, nature organisations, citizens, entrepreneurs and the local and provincial governments work together on the realisation of heath farms. The SHN asked the Wetenschapswinkel (Science Shop) at Wageningen University & Research to explore the possibility of realising the Heath Farm concept at various locations in The Netherlands. The concept of the SHN gives form to the collaboration between nature conservationists, shepherds, farmers, regional businesses and residents, who together make use of the common, this has an historical context. The word “commons” is the English term for the common ownership of natural resources. Related Dutch names are Meent, Gemeynt, Boermarke en Marke. The term Marke is used in Salland. On the Sallandse Heuvelrug it describes the forest and heather fields. These fields were farmers outfields, which were used for grazing animals, who later brought nutrients (manure) back to the stable and this was used to enrich the crop fields. In the present time we find many new ‘commons’, where we find new uses, such as for the conservation of black grouse (and other biodiversity) and almost forgotten crafts (cultural history). The answer to the questions the Science shop received was to draw up a fictitious cooperation agreement for the Marke (commons) with conditions that the various partners must meet. The eight principles of Elinor Ostrom, for the design of a common, were taken as a guideline. The concept of the Heathfarm can provide improvements to nature, both on and around the Sallandse Heuvelrug, provided that certain preconditions are met. The precondition with the highest priority is that the different actors cooperate and develop a common business case, that is complementary to the individual business models of the entrepreneurs. Additionally, they have to establish a Markefund (common fund). This is necessary to bridge the gap between the earning capacity of companies focused primarily on production for the world market and companies which focus on social values and long term sustainability
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