Effect of bismuth subnitrate on in vitro growth of major mastitis pathogens
Notcovich, S. ; Williamson, N.B. ; Flint, S. ; Yapura, J. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Heuer, C. - \ 2020
Journal of Dairy Science 103 (2020)8. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7249 - 7259.
bismuth subnitrate - dry cow - mastitis - teat sealant
The mode of action of bismuth subnitrate in teat sealant formulations as a preventative for intramammary infections during the dry period is unknown. Although previous studies proposed an action mechanism—creating a physical barrier in the teat canal to prevent bacterial invasion—it has not been proven experimentally. We hypothesized that bismuth subnitrate has an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth, in addition to its barrier effect. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of bismuth subnitrate on bacterial growth of major mastitis-causing agents. A strain of Streptococcus uberis (SR115), 2 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (SA3971/59 and SA1), and a strain of Escherichia coli (P17.14291) were tested in vitro for their ability to grow in the presence or absence of bismuth subnitrate. Disk diffusion testing, impedance measurement, and evaluation of bacterial growth in shaking conditions were the methods used to test this hypothesis. A reduction of growth in the presence of bismuth subnitrate occurred for all the strains tested. However, we observed strain and species variations in the extent of growth inhibition. These results suggest that an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth by bismuth subnitrate could partially explain the efficacy of bismuth-based formulations for preventing intramammary infections over the dry period. Further research is required to test the effect of teat sealant formulations on bacterial growth.
Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis intramammary infections: Persistent and transient patterns of infection in a dairy herd
Leelahapongsathon, K. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Srithanasuwan, A. ; Suriyasathaporn, W. - \ 2020
Journal of Dairy Science 103 (2020)4. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3565 - 3576.
duration of infection - persistent mastitis - spontaneous cure - Streptococcus uberis
A longitudinal observational study was carried out to explore transmission dynamics and duration of infection of Streptococcus uberis. Quarter milk samples were collected aseptically for bacterial culture from all lactating cows once a month over a 10-mo period. Molecular typing of S. uberis mastitis was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Molecular typing was used to determine episodes of S. uberis intramammary infection (IMI). Comparisons of spontaneous cure among PFGE types were performed using Fisher's exact chi-squared tests. Differences of duration among PFGE types and between periods of lactation were tested with Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox's proportional hazard model. Among a total of 851 quarter samples, 145 milk samples were detected with S. uberis presence. Based on results of PFGE, 66 episodes of S. uberis IMI were determined. From the 8 main PFGE types (A–H), PFGE type D, E, F1, F2, G, and H had only one episode indicating no evidence for transmission, subsequently defined as environmental S. uberis strains. In contrast, PFGE types A1, A2, B, C1, and C2 had at least 2 infection episodes caused by the same strain in different quarters or cows, indicating that these strains would be able to transmit to other quarters or cows. These strains were defined as contagious strains. The majority of IMI were attributable to PFGE type A1 (55%), B (17%), and A2 (11%). Spontaneous cures were observed in 35 IMI episodes. Of these 35 IMI cures, 91.4% were in IMI with duration of infection of 1 mo, n = 25, and 2 mo, n = 6. The remaining 8.6% was in IMI with duration of infection >2 mo, n = 4. Based on results from Cox's proportional hazard model, environmental S. uberis episodes were likely to have spontaneous cure with shorter duration compared with contagious S. uberis with PFGE type B (hazard ratio = 8.4). Quarters infected with S. uberis strain PFGE type A in early lactation were more likely to persist compared with those infected in late lactation (hazard ratio = 7.57). In conclusion, the majority of S. uberis IMI in this herd were transient and showed spontaneous cure. In addition to environmental S. uberis IMI, at least 3 types of contagious IMI S. uberis can be defined as (1) short duration of IMI and likely to have spontaneous cure, (2) long duration and unlikely to have spontaneous cure, and (3) wide range of duration of IMI either transient or persistent where spontaneous cure may occur depending on host defense capacity.
Staat van het dier : Beschouwingen en opinies over de verschuivende relatie tussen mens en dier in Nederland
Schukken, Y.H. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Alphen, J.J.M. van; Hopster, H. - \ 2019
Den Haag : Raad voor Dierenaangelegenheden - 199
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - gezelschapsdieren - wilde dieren - laboratoriumdieren - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - diervoeding - diergedrag - dierethiek - animal welfare - animal production - pets - wild animals - laboratory animals - animal health - animal housing - animal nutrition - animal behaviour - animal ethics
De positie van het dier in onze maatschappij verandert. De opstelling van de mens als heerser over dieren maakt geleidelijk plaats voor een houding die gekenmerkt wordt door betrokkenheid bij dieren en acceptatie van hun eigenheid. Inbreuken op dierenwelzijn worden steeds minder geaccepteerd. We bewegen naar een nieuw verbond tussen mensen en dieren. Dat stelt de Raad in zijn rapport 'De Staat van het Dier'.
Dynamics of somatic cell count patterns as a proxy for transmission of mastitis pathogens
Dalen, Gunnar ; Rachah, Amira ; Nørstebø, Håvard ; Schukken, Ynte H. ; Reksen, Olav - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 11349 - 11358.
intramammary infection - online cell count - somatic cell count - transmission
Management of udder health is particularly focused on preventing new infections. Data from the DeLaval Online Cell Counter (DeLaval, Tumba, Sweden) may be used in forecasting to improve decision support for improved udder health management. It provides online cell counts (OCC) as a proxy for somatic cell counts from every milking at the cow level. However, these values are typically too insensitive and nonspecific to indicate subclinical intramammary infection (IMI). Our aim was to describe and evaluate use of dynamic transmission models to forecast subclinical IMI episodes using milk cultures or changes in OCC patterns over time. The latter was expressed by an elevated mastitis risk variable. Data were obtained from the dairy herd of the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Oslo, Norway). In total, 173 cows were sampled monthly for bacteriological milk culture during a 17-mo study period and 5,330 quarter milk samples were cultured. Mastitis pathogens identified were assigned to 1 of 2 groups, Pat 1 or Pat 2. Pathogens from which a high cell count would be expected during a subclinical IMI episode were assigned to the Pat 1 group. Pathogens not in the Pat 1 group were assigned to the Pat 2 group. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were the most common Pat 1 pathogens. Corynebacterium bovis, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus were the most common Pat 2 pathogens. The OCC were successfully recorded from 82,182 of 96,542 milkings. The current study included 324 subclinical IMI episodes. None of the mastitis pathogens demonstrated a basic reproduction number (R0) >1. Patterns of OCC change related to an episode of Pat 1 subclinical IMI at specificity levels of 80, 90, and 95% at sensitivity levels of 69, 59, and 48% respectively, demonstrated an R0 >1. An existing infection was significant for transmission for several Pat 2 pathogens, but only for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis among Pat 1 pathogens. Dynamic transmission models showed that patterns of OCC change related to an episode of Pat 1 subclinical IMI were significantly related to the same pattern occurring in susceptible cows at specificity levels of 80, 90, and 99% at sensitivity levels of 69, 48, and 8%, respectively. We conclude that changes in herd prevalence of subclinical IMI can be predicted using dynamic transmission models based on patterns of OCC change. Choice of specificity level depends on management goals and tolerance for false-positive alerts.
Elucidating transmission patterns of endemic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using molecular epidemiology
Mitchell, Rebecca M. ; Beaver, Annabelle ; Knupfer, Elena ; Pradhan, Abani K. ; Fyock, Terry ; Whitlock, Robert H. ; Schukken, Ynte H. - \ 2019
Veterinary Sciences 6 (2019)1. - ISSN 2306-7381
MLSSR typing - Mutation rate - Mycobacterial co-infections - Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) - Vertical transmission - Within-host evolution
Mycobacterial diseases are persistent and characterized by lengthy latent periods. Thus, epidemiological models require careful delineation of transmission routes. Understanding transmission routes will improve the quality and success of control programs. We aimed to study the infection dynamics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causal agent of ruminant Johne's disease, and to distinguish within-host mutation from individual transmission events in a longitudinally MAP-defined dairy herd in upstate New York. To this end, semi-annual fecal samples were obtained from a single dairy herd over the course of seven years, in addition to tissue samples from a selection of culled animals. All samples were cultured for MAP, and multi-locus short-sequence repeat (MLSSR) typing was used to determine MAP SSR types. We concluded from these precise MAP infection data that, when the tissue burden remains low, the majority of MAP infections are not detectable by routine fecal culture but will be identified when tissue culture is performed after slaughter. Additionally, we determined that in this herd vertical infection played only a minor role in MAP transmission. By means of extensive and precise longitudinal data from a single dairy herd, we have come to new insights regarding MAP co-infections and within-host evolution.
Modeling the effects of infection status and hygiene practices on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis contamination in bulk tank milk
Rani, Surabhi ; Beaver, Annabelle ; Schukken, Ynte H. ; Pradhan, Abani K. - \ 2019
Food Control 104 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 367 - 376.
Bulk tank milk - Good hygiene practices - Johne's disease - Milk filters - Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis - Washing efficiency
Infectious diseases in dairy cattle are of significant concern to dairy industries because of their huge impact on animal health, milk production, and economics. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)is a pathogenic bacterium that causes Johne's disease, one of the important endemic infectious diseases in dairy cattle. Contamination of bulk tank milk with MAP can occur through direct shedding into milk by infected cows (internal route), fecal contamination (fecal route), or introduction of soil and water containing MAP (environmental route). Humans can be exposed to MAP via raw milk consumption; additionally, there are reports of MAP survival in milk after pasteurization. The risk of human consumption is particularly important due to an association between MAP and human Crohn's disease. In the current study, we used a probabilistic modeling framework to predict the level of MAP contamination per liter in the bulk tank milk and weigh the relative importance of each contamination route. Our model focused on several different infection statuses and the contribution of each group to environmental and fecal contamination, in addition to internal route shedding. We assessed the influence of common hygiene practices, such as washing of udders before milking and the use of milk filters, on the concentration of MAP in bulk tank milk. We extracted parameters and their distributions from national surveys and thorough literature search. Our baseline model comprising all hygiene practices provided an average estimate of 0.76 log CFU/L for the final concentration of MAP in bulk tank milk, with a maximum of 6.70 log CFU/L and a minimum of 0.04 log CFU/L depending on herd size and the ratio of infection statuses. Results from sensitivity analyses indicated that the average fecal contamination showed the greatest impact on the final MAP concentration per liter in bulk tank milk, followed by herd size and washing efficiency. This study emphasized that good hygiene practices are crucial for maintaining the quality of raw milk in an endemically-infected dairy herd.
Quantifying calf mortality on dairy farms: Challenges and solutions
Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Schaik, G. van - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6404 - 6417.
census data - dairy calves - monitoring - mortality
In the Netherlands, the mortality rate of ear-tagged calves <1 yr is one of the indicators that is continuously monitored in census data and is defined as the number of deceased calves relative to the number of calf-days-at-risk. In 2017, yearly calf mortality rates were published in the lay press and resulted in discussions about the calculation of this parameter among stakeholders because the same parameter appeared to be calculated in many different ways by different organizations. These diverse definitions of calf mortality answered different aims such as early detection of deviations, monitoring trends, or providing insight into herd-specific results, but were difficult to understand by stakeholders. The aim of this study was to evaluate several definitions of calf mortality for scientific validity, usefulness for policymakers, and comprehensibility by farmers. Based on expert consultations, 10 definitions for calf mortality were evaluated that assessed different age categories, time periods, and denominators. Differences in definitions appeared to have a large effect on the magnitude of mortality. For example, with the original mortality parameter, the mortality rate was 16.5% per year. When the first year of life was subdivided into 3 age categories, the mortality rate was 3.3, 4.5, and 3.1% for postnatal calves (≤14 d), preweaned calves (15–55 d), and weaned calves (56 d–1 yr), respectively. Although it was logical that these mortality rates were lower than the original, the sum of the 3 separate mortality rates was also lower than the original mortality rate. The reason was that the number of calves present in a herd and the risk of mortality are not randomly distributed over a calf's first year of life and the conditional nature of mortality rates when calculated for different age categories. Ultimately, 4 parameters to monitor calf mortality in Dutch dairy herds were chosen based on scientific value, usefulness for monitoring of trends, and comprehensibility by farmers: perinatal calf mortality risk (i.e., mortality before, during, or shortly after the moment of birth up to the moment of ear-tagging), postnatal calf mortality risk (≤14 d), preweaned calf mortality rate (15–55 d), and weaned calf mortality rate (56 d–1 yr). Slight differences in definitions of parameters can have a major effect on results, and many factors have to be taken into account when defining an important health indicator such as mortality. Our evaluation resulted in a more thorough understanding of the definitions of the selected parameters and agreement by the stakeholders to use these key indicators to monitor calf mortality.
Does clinical mastitis in the first 100 days of lactation 1 predict increased mastitis occurrence and shorter herd life in dairy cows?
Hertl, J.A. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Tauer, L.W. ; Welcome, F.L. ; Gröhn, Y.T. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2309 - 2323.
generalized linear mixed models - herd life - mastitis - survival analysis
The objectives of this study were to estimate the direct effects of clinical mastitis (CM) occurring in early productive life (defined as the first 100 d of the first lactation) of Holstein dairy cows on the future rate of CM occurrence and on the length of total productive lifetime. Information on CM cases and other data occurring in 55,144 lactations in 24,831 cows in 5 New York State Holstein herds was collected from January 2004 until February 2014. For the first objective, a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution was used to study the effects of CM cases occurring in the first 100 d of a cow's first lactation, as well as farm indicator and number of days in the cow's lifetime, on the future lifetime rate of CM. Only cows that had completed their productive life [i.e., all had been culled (or sold) or had died; n = 14,440 cows] were included in this analysis. For the second objective, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the effects of CM cases occurring in the first 100 d of a cow's first lactation on the length of total productive lifetime. The model was stratified by farm. All 24,831 cows were included in this analysis with right censoring. Cows experienced between 0 and 4 CM cases in the first 100 d of lactation 1. Over their lifetime, cows experienced between 0 and 25 CM cases. During the study period, 10% of all cows died and nearly half of all cows were culled. The average length of productive life, including censored observations, was 2.0 yr after first calving. Compared with cows having no CM cases in the first 100 d of lactation 1, cows with 1 CM case in that time period had a 1.5 times higher rate of total number of CM cases over their lifetime. Cows with 2 (or 3 or more) CM cases in the first 100 d of lactation 1 had a 1.7 times (or 2.6 times) higher rate of total number of CM cases over their lifetime. For each additional CM case occurring in the first 100 d of lactation 1, the hazard rate of culling increased by 34%. Given economic conditions for preferentially culling mastitic cows, the study findings may help farmers make optimal decisions with regard to culling of such cows.
A data-driven individual-based model of infectious disease in livestock operation : A validation study for paratuberculosis
Al-Mamun, Mohammad A. ; Smith, Rebecca L. ; Nigsch, Annette ; Schukken, Ynte H. ; Gröhn, Yrjo T. - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
Chronic livestock diseases cause large financial loss and affect animal health and welfare. Controlling these diseases mostly requires precise information on both individual animal and population dynamics to inform the farmer’s decisions, but even successful control pro-grammes do by no means assure elimination. Mathematical models provide opportunities to test different control and elimination options rather than implementing them in real herds, but these models require robust parameter estimation and validation. Fitting these models to data is a difficult task due to heterogeneities in livestock processes. In this paper, we develop an infectious disease modeling framework for a livestock disease (paratuberculosis) that is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Infection with MAP leads to reduced milk production, pregnancy rates, and slaughter value and increased culling rates in cattle and causes significant economic losses to the dairy industry. These economic effects are particularly important motivations in the control and elimination of MAP. In this framework, an individual-based model (IBM) of a dairy herd was built and MAP infection dynamics was integrated. Once the model produced realistic dynamics of MAP infection, we implemented an evaluation method by fitting it to data from three dairy herds from the Northeast region of the US. The model fitting exercises used least-squares and parameter space searching methods to obtain the best-fitted values of selected parameters. The best set of parameters were used to model the effect of interventions. The results show that the presented model can complement real herd statistics where the intervention strategies suggest a reduction in MAP prevalence without elimination. Overall, this research not only provides a complete model for MAP infection dynamics in a dairy herd but also offers a method for estimating parameters by fitting IBM models.
Transmission dynamics of intramammary infections caused by Corynebacterium species
Dalen, Gunnar ; Rachah, Amira ; Nørstebø, Håvard ; Schukken, Ynte H. ; Gröhn, Yrjö T. ; Barlow, John W. ; Reksen, Olav - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)1. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 472 - 479.
Corynebacterium spp. - Intramammary infection - Transmission model
The development of reliable models for transmission of intramammary infections (IMI) is the subject of extensive research. Such models are useful to enhance the identification and understanding of factors that affect pathogen-specific IMI dynamics. Longitudinal transmission models are valuable for predicting infection outbreak risks, quantifying the effectiveness of response tactics, and performing response planning. In this work, we focused on modeling Corynebacterium spp. by using a compartmental model. Previous investigations have considered modeling the transmission dynamics of several bacterial pathogens, but not Corynebacterium spp. We established a Corynebacterium spp. Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model. We simulated the model numerically by using parameters that we estimated by a generalized linear model approach, using month of study as the time variable. The data, from which the parameters of the model were estimated, were obtained in a field trial conducted in 2 US dairy herds. Altogether, 786 cows were sampled at least once during the 13-mo study period. The total number of quarter milk cultures and cases of IMI caused by Corynebacterium spp. were 11,744 and 556, respectively, in farm A; the corresponding figures for farm B were 11,804 and 179. Our modeling study included only transmission from persistent IMI caused by Corynebacterium spp. within the lactation pens. The rate of new infections was significantly related to preexisting IMI in both farms, underscoring the importance of preexisting Corynebacterium spp. IMI for the transmission of Corynebacterium spp. within lactation pens. The estimated basic reproduction numbers (R 0) in the 2 farms were 1.18 and 0.98, respectively. The nonsignificant disparity in R 0 was associated with significant differences in cure rates between farms.
Counts of bovine monocyte subsets prior to calving are predictive for postpartum occurrence of mastitis and metritis
Pomeroy, Brianna ; Sipka, Anja ; Hussen, Jamal ; Eger, Melanie ; Schukken, Ynte - \ 2017
medicine - cell biology - genetics - ecology - immunology - mathematical sciences - developmental biology - infectious diseases - computational biology
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14+/CD16−), intermediate (CD14+/CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14−/CD16+) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences. This study investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets counts in blood at 42 and 14 days prior to expected calving date to occurrence of metritis and mastitis within 2 weeks postpartum. In the enrolled prospective cohort of 27 German Holstein cows, housed at the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute Braunschweig, Germany, n = 13 developed metritis and/or mastitis postpartum. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between prepartum cell counts of monocyte subsets and neutrophils with postpartum disease. Our model revealed that higher counts of the two CD14+ monocyte subsets were predictive of disease. In contrast, higher numbers of the CD14− monocyte subset were negatively associated with disease. Interestingly, the neutrophil count, a common hallmark for inflammatory response, was not associated with the outcome variable at either time point. The results indicate that the number and composition of monocyte subsets before calving are related to the susceptibility to infectious disease within 2 weeks postpartum. Furthermore the oppositional effect of CD14+ and CD14− subsets strengthens the hypothesis that these subsets have different functional roles in the inflammatory response in dairy cows.
|Het celgetal en andere mastitisindicatoren
Lam, T. ; Sandman-Berends, I. ; Kamphuis, C. ; Schukken, Y. ; Vliegher, S. de - \ 2017
In: Handboek Uiergezondheid Rund / Lam, Theo, De Vliegher, Sarne, Nijmegen : Communication In Practice - ISBN 9789082232127 - p. 71 - 86.
Farm animal health : progress, problems and perspectives
Schukken, Ynte H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463436472 - 28
Normal milk microbiome is reestablished following experimental infection with Escherichia coli independent of intramammary antibiotic treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin in bovines
Ganda, Erika K. ; Gaeta, Natalia ; Sipka, Anja ; Pomeroy, Brianna ; Oikonomou, Georgios ; Schukken, Ynte H. ; Bicalho, Rodrigo C. - \ 2017
Microbiome 5 (2017)1. - ISSN 2049-2618 - p. 74 - 74.
Antimicrobial treatment - Ceftiofur - Cephalosporins - Dairy cattle - E. coli - Mastitis - Milk - Milk microbiome - Third-generation cephalosporin
BACKGROUND: The use of antimicrobials in food animals and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance are global concerns. Ceftiofur is the only third-generation cephalosporin labeled for veterinary use in the USA, and it is the drug of choice in the majority of dairy farms for the treatment of mastitis. Here, we use next-generation sequencing to describe longitudinal changes that occur in the milk microbiome before, during, and after infection and treatment with ceftiofur. Twelve animals were intramammary challenged with Escherichia coli in one quarter and randomly allocated to receive intramammary treatment with ceftiofur (5d) or untreated controls. Serial samples were collected from -72 to 216 h relative to challenge from the challenged quarter, an ipsilateral quarter assigned to the same treatment group, and from a third quarter that did not undergo intervention.RESULTS: Infection with E. coli dramatically impacted microbial diversity. Ceftiofur significantly decreased LogCFUs but had no significant effect on the milk microbiome, rate of pathogen clearance, or somatic cell count. At the end of the study, the microbial profile of infected quarters was indistinguishable from pre-challenge samples in both treated and untreated animals. Intramammary infusion with ceftiofur did not alter the healthy milk (i.e., milk devoid of clots or serous appearance and collected from a mammary gland that shows no clinical signs of mastitis) microbiome.CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the mammary gland harbors a resilient microbiome, capable of reestablishing itself after experimental infection with E. coli independent of antimicrobial treatment.
Relationship between intramammary infection prevalence and somatic cell score in commercial dairy herds
Shook, G.E. ; Kirk, R.L.B. ; Welcome, Frank L. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Ruegg, P.L. - \ 2017
Journal of Dairy Science 100 (2017)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 9691 - 9701.
Intramammary infection - Mastitis pathogens - Somatic cell score - Udder health
We examined consistency of the relationship between intramammary infection (IMI) and somatic cell score (SCS) across several classes of cow, herd, and sampling time variables. Microbial cultures of composite milk samples were performed by New York Quality Milk Production Services from 1992 to 2004. SCS was from the most recent Dairy Herd Improvement test before IMI sampling. Records were analyzed from 79,308 cows in 1,124 commercial dairy herds representing a broad range of production systems. Three binary dependent variables were presence or absence of contagious IMI, environmental IMI, and all IMI. Independent variables in the initial models were SCS, SCS2, lactation number, days in milk, sample day milk yield, use of coliform mastitis vaccine, participant type (required by regulation or voluntary), production system (type of housing, milking system, and herd size), season of sampling, year of sampling, and herd; also the initial models included interactions of SCS and SCS2 with other independent variables, except herd and milk yield. Interaction terms characterize differences in the IMI-SCS relationship across classes of the independent variables. Models were derived using the Glimmix macro in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with a logistic link function and employing backward elimination. The final model for each dependent variable included all significant independent variables and interactions. Simplified models omitted SCS2 and all interactions with SCS. Interactions of SCS with days in milk, use of coliform mastitis vaccine, participant type, season, and year were not significant in any of the models. Interaction of SCS with production system was significant for the all IMI model, whereas interaction of SCS with lactation number was significant for the environmental and all IMI models. Each 1 point increase in SCS (or doubling of somatic cell count) was associated with a 2.3, 5.5%, and 9.1% increase in prevalence of contagious, environmental, and all IMI, respectively. Empirical receiver operator characteristic curves and areas under the curve were derived for final and simplified models. The areas under the curve for simplified and final models within each type of IMI differed by 0.009 or less. We concluded that the relationship of IMI with SCS was generally stable over time and consistent across seasons, production systems, and cow factors.
Counts of bovine monocyte subsets prior to calving are predictive for postpartum occurrence of mastitis and metritis
Pomeroy, Brianna ; Sipka, Anja ; Hussen, Jamal ; Eger, Melanie ; Schukken, Ynte ; Schuberth, Hans Joachim - \ 2017
Veterinary Research 48 (2017). - ISSN 0928-4249 - 11 p.
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14+/CD16-), intermediate (CD14+/CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-/CD16+) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences. This study investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets counts in blood at 42 and 14 days prior to expected calving date to occurrence of metritis and mastitis within 2 weeks postpartum. In the enrolled prospective cohort of 27 German Holstein cows, housed at the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute Braunschweig, Germany, n = 13 developed metritis and/or mastitis postpartum. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between prepartum cell counts of monocyte subsets and neutrophils with postpartum disease. Our model revealed that higher counts of the two CD14+ monocyte subsets were predictive of disease. In contrast, higher numbers of the CD14- monocyte subset were negatively associated with disease. Interestingly, the neutrophil count, a common hallmark for inflammatory response, was not associated with the outcome variable at either time point. The results indicate that the number and composition of monocyte subsets before calving are related to the susceptibility to infectious disease within 2 weeks postpartum. Furthermore the oppositional effect of CD14+ and CD14- subsets strengthens the hypothesis that these subsets have different functional roles in the inflammatory response in dairy cows.
Use of an Individual-based Model to Control Transmission Pathways of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle Herds
Mamun Hossain, Shaikh Abdullah Al; Smith, R.L. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Gröhn, Y.T. - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 14 p.
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease in cattle caused by Mycobacterium avian subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Eradicating JD is a difficult task due to the long incubation period of MAP, inefficient diagnostic tests, and delayed clinical signs. Effective control strategies can help farmers to reduce prevalence, but those most acceptable to farmers combine specific information about lactation performance and testing results, which existing models do not provide. This paper presents an individual-based model of MAP infection dynamics and assesses the relative performance of the applied alternative control strategies. The base dairy herd model included the daily life events of a dairy cow and reflects several current dairy management processes. We then integrated MAP infection dynamics into the model. The model adopted four different test-based control strategies based on risk-based culling decisions and three hygiene scenarios. The model tracked the source of each infection and quantified the efficacy of each control strategy in reducing the risks of different transmission routes. The results suggest that risk-based culling can reduce prevalence compared with no control, but cannot eliminate the infection. Overall, this work provides not only a valuable tool to investigate MAP transmission dynamics but also offers adaptability to model similar infectious diseases.
Longitudinal assessment of dairy farm management practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant Bacillales spores in bulk tank milk on 10 New York State dairy farms
Masiello, S.N. ; Kent, D. ; Martin, N.H. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Wiedmann, M. ; Boor, K.J. - \ 2017
Journal of Dairy Science 100 (2017)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8783 - 8795.
Bacillus spp. - Management practice - Paenibacillus spp. - Spoilage
The ability of certain spore-forming bacteria in the order Bacillales (e.g., Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp.) to survive pasteurization in spore form and grow at refrigeration temperatures results in product spoilage and limits the shelf life of high temperature, short time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk. To facilitate development of strategies to minimize contamination of raw milk with psychrotolerant Bacillales spores, we conducted a longitudinal study of 10 New York State dairy farms, which included yearlong monthly assessments of the frequency and levels of bulk tank raw milk psychrotolerant spore contamination, along with administration of questionnaires to identify farm management practices associated with psychrotolerant spore presence over time. Milk samples were first spore pasteurized (80°C for 12 min) and then analyzed for sporeformer counts on the initial day of spore pasteurization (SP), and after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 7, 14, and 21 d after SP. Overall, 41% of samples showed sporeformer counts of >20,000 cfu/mL at d 21, with Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. being predominant causes of high sporeformer counts. Statistical analyses identified 3 management factors (more frequent cleaning of the bulk tank area, the use of a skid steer to scrape the housing area, and segregating problem cows during milking) that were all associated with lower probabilities of d-21 Bacillales spore detection in SP-treated bulk tank raw milk. Our data emphasize that appropriate on-farm measures to improve overall cleanliness and cow hygiene will reduce the probability of psychrotolerant Bacillales spore contamination of bulk tank raw milk, allowing for consistent production of raw milk with reduced psychrotolerant spore counts, which will facilitate production of HTST-pasteurized milk with extended refrigerated shelf life.
The effect of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection on clinical mastitis occurrence in dairy cows
Rossi, G. ; Grohn, Y.T. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Smith, R.L. - \ 2017
Journal of Dairy Science 100 (2017)9. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7446 - 7454.
Clinical mastitis - Comorbidity - Dairy farm - Johne's disease - Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis
Endemic diseases can be counted among the most serious sources of losses for livestock production. In dairy farms in particular, one of the most common diseases is Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Infection with MAP causes direct costs because it affects milk production, but it has also been suspected to increase the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) among infected animals. This might contribute to further costs for farmers. We asked whether MAP infection represents a risk factor for CM and, in particular, whether CM occurrences were more common in MAP-infected animals. Our results, obtained by survival analysis, suggest that MAP-infected cows had an increased probability of experiencing CM during lactation. These results highlight the need to account for the interplay of infectious diseases and other health conditions in economic and epidemiological modeling. In this case, accounting for MAP-infected cows having an increased CM occurrence might have nonnegligible effects on the estimated benefit of MAP control.
Longitudinal relationship between fecal culture, fecal quantitative PCR, and milk ELISA in Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infected cows from low-prevalence dairy herds
Beaver, A. ; Sweeney, R.W. ; Hovingh, E. ; Wolfgang, D.R. ; Gröhn, Yrjö T. ; Schukken, Y.H. - \ 2017
Journal of Dairy Science 100 (2017)9. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7507 - 7521.
Fecal culture - Fecal quantitative PCR - Johne's disease - Milk ELISA - Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of ruminant Johne's disease, presents a particular challenge with regard to infection mitigation on dairy farms. Diagnostic testing strategies to identify and quantify MAP and associated antibodies are imperfect, and certain facets of the relationship between diagnostic tests remain to be explored. Additional repeated-measures data from known infected animals are needed to complement the body of cross-sectional research on Johne's disease-testing methods. Statistical models that accurately account for multiple diagnostic results while adjusting for the effects of individual animals and herds over time can provide a more detailed understanding of the interplay between diagnostic outcomes. Further, test results may be considered as continuous wherever possible so as to avoid the information loss associated with dichotomization. To achieve a broader understanding of the relationship between diagnostic tests, we collected a large number of repeated fecal and milk samples from 14 infected cows, in addition to bulk milk samples, from 2 low-prevalence dairy herds in the northeast United States. Predominately through the use of mixed linear modeling, we identified strong associations between milk ELISA optical density, fecal quantitative PCR, and fecal culture in individual animals while concurrently adjusting for variables that could alter these relationships. Notably, we uncovered subtleties in the predictive abilities of fecal shedding level on milk ELISA results, with animals categorized as disease progressors reaching higher ELISA optical density levels. Moreover, we observed that spikes in fecal shedding could predict subsequent high ELISA values up to 2 mo later. We also investigated the presence of MAP in individual milk samples via PCR and noted an association between poor udder hygiene and MAP positivity in milk, suggesting some level of environmental contamination. The paucity of positive milk samples and the complete absence of detectable MAP in the bulk tank throughout the study period indicate that contamination of milk with MAP may not be of chief concern in low-prevalence herds. An enhanced understanding of the interrelationships between diagnostic tests can only benefit the development of testing strategies and objectives, which in turn may lessen MAP infection prevalence in dairy herds.