Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Nested circularity in food systems: A Nordic case study on connecting biomass, nutrient and energy flows from field scale to continent
    Koppelmäki, Kari ; Helenius, Juha ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2021
    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 164 (2021). - ISSN 0921-3449
    Bioenergy - Circularity - Food production - Livestock - Nutrients - Waste streams

    Although a circular economy promotes economic and environmental benefits, knowledge gaps remain surrounding the application of these concepts to food systems. A better understanding of the connection between different flows of biomass and energy at different spatial scales is needed to facilitate effective transitions towards circular bioeconomies. This study provides a framework for assessing the circularity of food systems, which we exemplify by identifying key steps towards circularity for three contrasting farming regions in Finland. For each of the regions, we quantified the flows of biomass, nutrients and energy. We found large differences in circularity, depending on the chosen indicator. Most biomass and nutrient flows were related to livestock production, which implies that it plays a key role in circular food systems. Current livestock production was found to be connected to national and global food systems through the international feed trade. This trade generates imbalanced nutrient flows between regions and countries, resulting in excess accumulations of nutrients in regions with net imports. In terms of circularity in energy systems, we found that substantial amounts of energy could be produced from manure and plant-based biomasses without causing food-fuel competition in land use. We also observed that, the inclusion of human excreta would further improve recycling but this was significant only in the region with a high population density. Thus, in his study, we propose a concept of nested circularity in which nutrient, biomass and energy cycles are connected and closed across multiple spatial scales.

    Exploring and assessing trade-offs, synergies and diversity for smallholder agriculture
    Timler, Carl Joachim - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.P.O. Schulte, co-promotor(en): P.A. Tittonell; J.C.J. Groot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463955195 - 220
    Regenerative agriculture – the soil is the base
    Schreefel, Loekie ; Schulte, Rogier ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Schrijver, Annemiek Pas ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2020
    Global Food Security 26 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124
    Regenerative agriculture - Circular agricultur - Organic agriculture - Literature review - Cultural domain analysis - Soil health
    Regenerative agriculture (RA) is proposed as a solution towards sustainable food systems. A variety of actors perceive RA differently, and a clear scientific definition is lacking. We reviewed 28 studies to find convergence and divergence between objectives and activities that define RA. Our results show convergence related to objectives that enhance the environment and stress the importance of socio-economic dimensions that contribute to food security. The objectives of RA in relation to socio-economic dimensions, however, are general and lack a framework for implementation. From our analysis, we propose a provisional definition of RA as an approach to farming that uses soil conservation as the entry point to regenerate and contribute to multiple ecosystem services.
    Framework for “Circularity by Design” : Working Paper M1.1. Framework & Governance
    Valencia, Vivian ; Koppelmäki, Kari ; Morrow, Oona ; Vrieze, A.G.M. de; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. ; Schulte, Rogier ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 21 p.
    In this report, we identify and discuss the key limitations of a “circular economy”: a poor, practically non-existent, inclusion of a social dimension; a reductionist approach that undermines systemic change towards circular agri-food systems; and a focus on shallow leverage points that are not conducive to systemic change. We propose a radical approach to circularity by adopting the concept of a circular society, which extends to incorporate the social dimension. We root circularity by design on the integration of three frameworks: the doughnut economy, a food systems approach, and leverage points. The doughnut economy provides a vision for a safe operating space within planetary boundaries that places emphasis not on economic growth but rather on prosperity; while a food systems approach provides a methodology for mapping and navigating the doughnut economy by using a systemic approach and drawing from all dimensions of sustainability—economy, environmental and social. We draw attention to the need for targeting deep leverage points, which focus on design, and require institutional and value changes. Deep leverage points are in contrast with the technical and reductionists fixes (i.e., shallow points) that dominate interventions in the CE. The next report will delve on the applications of this framework on agri-food systems at the urban scale with a focus on deep leverage points around institutions and governance for the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area.
    Required changes in nitrogen inputs and nitrogen use efficiencies to reconcile agricultural productivity with water and air quality objectives in the EU-27
    Vries, Wim de; Schulte-Uebbing, Lena - \ 2020
    Colchester, United Kingdom : International Fertiliser Society (Proceedings / International Fertiliser Society no. 842) - ISBN 9780853104797 - 40
    Nitrogen (N) losses to air, ground water and surface water in response to agricultural N inputs affect air and water quality. Agricultural N inputs in this article are defined as mineral N fertilisers, N manure and biosolids and biological N fixation. Using a spatially explicit N balance model, we assessed where agricultural N losses within THE EU-27 currently lead to an exceedance of critical ammonia (NH3) emissions in relation to adverse impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, critical N concentrations in runoff to surface water in relation to eutrophication impacts and critical nitrate
    (NO3) concentrations in groundwater in relation to drinking water quality. We then calculated the N inputs at which critical N emissions or concentrations are just not exceeded (‘critical’ N inputs). We also assessed required N inputs in order to achieve target yields, defined as 80% of the water-limited yield potential at actual N use efficiency. Actual, critical and required N inputs were calculated for c.40,000 unique soil-slope-climate combinations throughout the European Union. When actual or required N inputs exceeded critical inputs, we calculated the necessary reduction in
    ammonia emission fractions and necessary increase in NUE to attain actual or target yield while simultaneously reaching air and water quality goals. The ammonia emission fraction referred to the ratio of the total NH3-N emissions, divided by the total N excretion by livestock. Results show that required N inputs at the EU-27 level are on average 27% higher than actual inputs. Average critical N inputs are 31% and 43% lower than actual N inputs in relation to critical NH3 emissions and critical N runoff to surface water, respectively, but 1% higher in relation to critical NO3 leaching to groundwater. The risk for surface water is, however, likely overestimated, since calculated N concentrations in runoff to surface water appear to be higher than concentrations in surface water. An overall reduction in N inputs of 30% to protect air and water quality seems a reasonable average estimate. Critical inputs are most strongly exceeded in regions with high actual N inputs, such as Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, Brittany in France and the Po valley in Italy. The actual N use efficiency (NUE) for all agricultural land, averaged over the EU-27 is 61%. This value has to increase on average to 72% to protect surface water quality at actual crop yields and to 74% at target crop yields. Opportunities thus exist to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture
    by increasing the NUE, while still allowing an increase in crop production in the EU. However, in c.15-20% of the agricultural land area, it is not feasible to achieve the surface water criterion at actual crop yield and this area increases to 25% at target crop yield, because it would require an NUE over 90%. In these areas, an additional reduction of N inputs is necessary, but this comes at the expense of crop yield reductions.
    Land use change drives the spatio-temporal variation of ecosystem services and their interactions along an altitudinal gradient in Brazil
    Gomes, Lucas Carvalho ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Cardoso, Irene M. ; Fernandes Filho, Elpídio I. ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2020
    Landscape Ecology 35 (2020). - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1571 - 1586.
    Atlantic Forest biome - Biophysical conditions - Land use transition - Synergy - Trade-off

    Context: Land use and land cover (LULC) changes may affect the provision of ecosystem services. However, little is known how LULC changes influence the spatio-temporal variation in ecosystem service and their interactions along altitudinal gradients. Objectives: Here we assessed the spatio-temporal variation of eight ecosystem services in an altitudinal gradient between the year of 1986 and 2015, and quantified the effect of LULC transitions on the provision and interactions of ecosystems services. Methods: We modelled and mapped eight ecosystem services in an altitudinal gradient characterized by low (< 600 m), middle (600–1200) and high altitudes (> 1200) in Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We quantified changes in ecosystem services by contrasting ecosystem service maps between 1986 and 2015, and explored how four common LULC transitions affected the variation and the interactions between the eight ecosystem services. Results: The spatio-temporal analysis indicated that six out of eight ecosystem services increased from 1986 to 2015, while soil erosion control and water flow regulation decreased. In areas above 1200 m, regulating services dominated, while in areas below 1200 m provisioning service were most evidenced. LULC transitions from forest to agricultural areas, and vice versa, resulted in trade-offs between provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Conclusions: LULC changes drive the spatio-temporal variation of ecosystem services along an altitudinal gradient with contrasting biophysical conditions. Future management of ecosystem services in the landscapes should take into the account the biophysical conditions and the consequences of specific LULC transitions.

    Land use and land cover scenarios : An interdisciplinary approach integrating local conditions and the global shared socioeconomic pathways
    Gomes, L.C. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Cardoso, I.M. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Fernandes Filho, E.I. - \ 2020
    Land Use Policy 97 (2020). - ISSN 0264-8377
    Forest transition - Future scenarios - Interdisciplinarity - Land use - Public policies

    Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes have profound impacts on the functioning of (agro)ecosystems and have potential to mitigate global climate change. However, we still lack interdisciplinary methods to project future LULC scenarios at spatial scales that are relevant for local decision making and future environmental assessments. Here we apply an interdisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit projections of LULC at a resolution of 30 × 30 m informed by historic relationships between LULC and their key drivers, within the context of the four qualitative scenarios of global shared socioeconomic pathways. We apply this methodology to a case study in the Zona da Mata, Brazil, which has a history of major LULC changes. The analysis of LULC changes from 1986 to 2015 indicates that pasture area decreased from 76 to 58 % of total area, while forest areas increased from 18 to 24 %, and coffee from 3 to 11 %. Environmental protection legislation, rural credit for smallholder farmers, and demand for agricultural and raw products were identified as main drivers of LULC changes. Projected LULC for 2045 strongly depends on the global socioeconomic pathway scenarios, and forest and coffee areas may increase substantially under strong government measures in the environmentally conscious Green Road scenario or decrease in the high consumption Rocky Road scenario. Our study shows that under the set of drivers during the past three decades reforestation can go hand in hand with increase of agricultural production, but that major and contrasting changes in LULC can be expected depending on the socioeconomic pathway that will be followed in the future. To guide this process, LULC scenarios at the local scale can inform the planning of local and regional development and forest conservation.

    Land use change and ecosystem services: linking social and ecological systems across time
    Carvalho Gomes, Lucas de - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.P.O. Schulte; I.M. Cardoso, co-promotor(en): F.J.J.A. Bianchi; B.J.M. Arts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463953979 - 217

    In light of the projected climate change for the coming decades, there is an urgent need for multifunctional landscapes that are capable to provide a diversity of ecosystem services. This requires a better understanding of social and ecological factors that influence how these landscapes are managed and how this, in turn, influences the provision of ecosystem services. Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes are one of the main factors that lead to spatiotemporal changes of ecosystems services. As such, the identification of the main socioeconomic drivers of LULC can give important insights about the drivers of ecosystem services. However, the analysis of ecosystem services in a context of socio-ecological systems is still underdeveloped. Brazil has witnessed intense changes in LULC in the last five centuries, which may have influenced the provision of ecosystem services at local, regional and global scales. In the southeast mountain area of the Atlantic Forest biome, the Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais is characterized by a heterogeneous landscape mosaic composed of pasture and coffee fields intermingled with forest fragments, which are predominantly inhabited and managed by family farmers. The Zona da Mata is considered a complex socio-ecological system and is an interesting case to study the spatio-temporal provision of ecosystem services. In Chapter 2, I assessed the LULC changes from 1986 to 2015 and their main socioeconomic drivers. By combining data obtained from satellite images, workshops and secondary data, I showed that forest and coffee areas increased, and pasture decreased. These changes were associated with government measures to protect the environment, financial support of family farmers, migration to cities and the agroecological movement. A scenarios analysis of contrasting socio-economic narratives indicated that sustainable measures taken by the government to protect the environment and support family farmers with financial credit will lead to increase forest and coffee areas in the Green Road scenario. In contrast, the socioeconomic development in the Fossil Fuel scenario, which projects a decline in environmental protection and focuses on rapid economic development, there will be a decline in forest areas. In Chapter 3, I explored the spatial variation of ecosystem services from 1986 to 2015 and the impacts of LULC changes on ecosystem services provision levels and their interactions. To map the spatio variation of ecosystem services, I used the LULC maps from 1986 and 2015 (Chapter 2) and the InVEST model. This analysis indicated that the conversion of forest to pasture has strong negative impacts on soil erosion control and water flow regulation, manifesting mostly as trade-offs and dis-synergies between ecosystem services. In Chapter 4, I investigated the separate effects of LULC changes and climate on water dynamics from 1990 to 2015, and explored scenarios of LULC change and climate change for 2045. For this purpose, I used the SWAT model and climate data combined with historical and future LULC maps developed in Chapter 2. I found that the variation in climate variables was the main factor for the observed increase in the river streamflow in the study period and that forest can buffer extreme precipitation events. The exploration of future scenarios indicated that the increase in forest cover under the Green Road scenario is expected to decrease the surface runoff water and increase evapotranspiration as compared to the Fossil Fuel scenario, mitigating the impacts of soil erosion and climatic extremes in the region. Projected changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to have negative impacts for agriculture in the future. In Chapter 5, I assessed the impact of climate change on the suitability of Coffea arabica production in the study region and the potential of agroforestry systems to mitigate these impacts. For this, I combined the species distribution model MaxEnt with current and future climate projections. Agroforestry system have the potential to reduce air temperatures under the canopy of trees. I explored the effect of the altered the microclimate in agroforestry systems on the suitability for coffee production by adjusting future climate data to reflect conditions in agroforestry systems. I found that the area suitability for coffee production from the current monoculture coffee systems will decline by 60% under the projected climatic changes. However, the implementation of coffee agroforestry systems can mitigate these negative impacts of climatic change and maintain 75% of the area suitable for coffee production in 2050. Combining social and ecological systems in an interdisciplinary framework, generated insights in the relationships between climate and LULC change, and how this influences several ecosystem services. This framework connects different research fields and allows different stakeholders to work together to find effective ways to work towards multifunctional landscapes that promote the sustainable use of ecosystem services.

    A multi-method approach for the integrative assessment of soil functions : Application on a coastal mountainous site of the Philippines
    Dingkuhn, Elsa L. ; Wezel, Alexander ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Wagner, Adrian ; Yap, Helen T. ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Management 264 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797

    The projected increase of the world's population and the sustainability challenges the agricultural sector is facing, call for the enhancement of multi-functionality in agriculture in order to simultaneously provide food while meeting environmental targets. Here, we use the Functional Land Management (FLM) framework to assess the supply of and the demand for soil functions to inform agri-environmental policy for Udalo, a mountainous site in the Philippines. As many emerging communities in developing nations, Udalo is on the cusp of rapid development due to the construction of a major road increasing its accessibility and attractiveness for land investment. We assessed the supply of four soil functions in relation to six land-use types and four slope categories. The function “productivity” was assessed by interviews with 128 farmers, “habitat for biodiversity” by a vegetation survey, and “soil conservation” and “water conservation” via a literature review. The demand for functions was first assessed from the “top-down” policy perspective via interviews and reviews of policy targets, then complemented by integrating the local “bottom-up” demands for functions. These were assessed by applying a Q methodology, providing insights in the prioritisation of functions from the perspective of 22 local actors. Maps of supply and demands were generated for each function: supply maps by overlaying land use and slope category, top-down demand maps from administrative zoning/land-use plans, and bottom-up demand maps from local actors designation of geomorphological areas. Our results revealed contrasting demands for functions, as well as a heterogeneous spatial distribution of supply and demands. Discrepancies emerged (i) between supply and demand, (ii) between bottom-up (local) demands and the top-down (policy driven) demand, and (iii) among local actors perspectives. Our study indicates that discrepancies are not necessarily conflicting, but can uncover pathways for defining compromises, representing attainable policy entry points. Not one single development model can meet the needs of every stakeholder; however, a combination of land uses and management strategies can meet divergent interests and allow for optimisation of functions. This integrative approach of FLM provides a socially embedded biophysical analysis and is a valuable tool for the design of customized land-use and agri-environmental policies.

    Regenerative agriculture-the soil is the base
    Schreefel, Loekie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Schrijver, Annemiek Pas ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2020
    In: WIAS Annual Conference 2020. - WIAS - p. 72 - 72.
    Mankind’s key challenge nowadays is to produce enough safe and nutritious food for a growing and wealthier population within the carrying capacity of the planet. An increasing body of literature concludes that regenerative agriculture (RA) might be a solution fora sustainable food system. But what is RA? RA is one of several approaches towards a sustainable food system. Characterisation of the term is still challenging since a variety of actors(e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, sector organisations, industries and farmers)perceive this term differently and a clear definition is missing in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was to identify the background and core themes of RA by examining the convergence and divergence between definitions in existing peer-reviewed articles. We systematically studied 21 peer-reviewed articles to find definitions of RA using the methodological framework PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews). Then,we categorized the different terms mentioned in the definition into themes using a cultural domain analysis and inductive coding. Findings show a strong focus on the environmental pillar of sustainability, e.g. alleviate climate change and improve soil biodiversity,articulated by both aspirations (e.g. improve soil quality) and activities (e.g. use perennials). We also found a socio-economic foundation in RA, to improve human health and improve economic prosperity. This socio-economic foundation, however, relies currently on divergent aspirations and is not operationalized. We propose in our paper a definition for RA based on the peer-reviewed articles and relate RA to organic agriculture as an example of a regulated farming approach and circular agriculture which remains yet a theoretical concept.
    The use of adverse outcome pathways in the safety evaluation of food additives
    Vinken, Mathieu ; Kramer, Nynke ; Allen, Timothy E.H. ; Hoffmans, Yvette ; Thatcher, Natalie ; Levorato, Sara ; Traussnig, Heinz ; Schulte, Stefan ; Boobis, Alan ; Thiel, Anette ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2020
    Archives of Toxicology 94 (2020). - ISSN 0340-5761
    Adverse outcome pathway - Food additive - Safety evaluation

    In the last decade, adverse outcome pathways have been introduced in the fields of toxicology and risk assessment of chemicals as pragmatic tools with broad application potential. While their use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics sectors has been well documented, their application in the food area remains largely unexplored. In this respect, an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute Europe has recently explored the use of adverse outcome pathways in the safety evaluation of food additives. A key activity was the organization of a workshop, gathering delegates from the regulatory, industrial and academic areas, to discuss the potentials and challenges related to the application of adverse outcome pathways in the safety assessment of food additives. The present paper describes the outcome of this workshop followed by a number of critical considerations and perspectives defined by the International Life Sciences Institute Europe expert group.

    Agroforestry systems can mitigate the impacts of climate change on coffee production: A spatially explicit assessment in Brazil
    Gomes, L.C. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Cardoso, I.M. ; Fernandes, R.B.A. ; Filho, Fernandes E.I. ; Schulte, R.P.O. - \ 2020
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 294 (2020). - ISSN 0167-8809
    Adaptation - Climate change - Coffea arabica - Family farmers - Shade trees

    Climate change may impose severe challenges to farmers to maintain agricultural production levels in the future. In this study we analysed the effect of projected changes in climate on the area suitable for coffee production in 2050, and the potential of agroforestry systems to mitigate these effects in a major coffee production region in southeast Brazil. We conducted a spatially explicit analysis with the bioclimatic model MaxEnt to explore the area that is suitable for coffee production in 2050 when coffee is grown in unshaded plantations and in agroforestry systems. The projected climate in 2050 was assessed using 19 global circulation models, and we accounted for the altered microclimate in agroforestry systems by adjusting the maximum and minimum air temperature. The climate models indicated that the annual mean air temperature is expected to increase 1.7 °C ± 0.3 in the study region, which will lead to almost 60 % reduction in the area suitable for coffee production in unshaded plantations by 2050. However, the adoption of agroforestry systems with 50 % shade cover can reduce the mean temperatures and maintain 75 % of the area suitable for coffee production in 2050, especially between 600 and 800 m altitude. Our study indicates that major shifts in areas suitable for coffee production may take place within three decades, potentially leading to land conflicts for coffee production and nature conservation. Incentives that contribute to the development of coffee agroforestry systems at appropriate locations may be essential to safeguard coffee production in the southeast of Brazil.

    Understanding Landscape Multifunctionality in a Post-forest Frontier: Supply and Demand of Ecosystem Services in Eastern Amazonia
    Pinillos, Daniel ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Poccard-Chapuis, Rene ; Corbeels, Marc ; Tittonell, Pablo ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Environmental Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2296-665X
    ecosystem services - land use - land-use pathways - landscape multi-functionality - pedo-morphology - policy targets

    Sustainable food production requires approaches that reconcile agricultural production with the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. While the contribution of agriculture to the provision of individual ecosystem services has received considerable scientific attention, little is known about the extent to which tropical landscapes can meet societal expectations related to food production and environmental sustainability simultaneously. We assessed how the spatial configuration of pedo-morphology and land uses influences the provision of three soil-based ecosystem services in eastern Amazonia: carbon storage (CS), habitat for biodiversity (HB), and agricultural commodity production (CP). We use the Functional Land Management framework to assess the supply and demand of these ecosystem services in a spatially explicit manner to identify areas of (mis)matches and trade-offs in the municipality of Paragominas, Brazil. The supply of ecosystem services was informed by a literature review for the various combinations of pedo-morphological characteristics and land uses in the region. The demand for ecosystem services was mapped based on federal and state policy targets. Mapping the supply and demand of CS indicated that half of the carbon in the region is stored in remnants of undisturbed forest which cover only a third of the municipality. Demand for HB in terms of forested area is met but it does not guarantee safeguarding biodiversity. Roughly a third of the territory shows scarce quality of HB even when compliant with legislation. Concerning CP, we identified areas where both supply and the demand to increase production are relative high due to road access and lower intensification costs. The demand for agricultural production can eventually incentivize the expansion of agriculture on fertile soils, which could compromise environmental targets. Our results suggest that the simultaneous delivery of multiple ecosystem services may require land-use pathways that combine land sparing and sharing approaches. Our analysis can inform integrated land-use planning initiatives where, historically, the supply and demand for CP have been the single dominant driver for the current landscape configuration.

    Scenarios to limit environmental nitrogen losses from dairy expansion
    Hoekstra, N.J. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Forrestal, P.J. ; Hennessy, D. ; Krol, D.J. ; Lanigan, G.J. ; Müller, C. ; Shalloo, L. ; Wall, D.P. ; Richards, K.G. - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 707 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Ammonia - N flow model - N footprint - Nitrate - Nitrous oxide

    Increased global demand for dairy produce and the abolition of EU milk quotas have resulted in expansion in dairy production across Europe and particularly in Ireland. Simultaneously, there is increasing pressure to reduce the impact of nitrogen (N) losses to air and groundwater on the environment. In order to develop grassland management strategies for grazing systems that meet environmental targets and are economically sustainable, it is imperative that individual mitigation measures for N efficiency are assessed at farm system level. To this end, we developed an excel-based N flow model simulating an Irish grass-based dairy farm, to evaluate the effect of farm management on N efficiency, N losses, production and economic performance. The model was applied to assess the effect of different strategies to achieve the increased production goals on N utilization, N loss pathways and economic performance at farm level. The three strategies investigated included increased milk production through increased grass production, through increased concentrate feeding and by applying a high profit grass-based system. Additionally, three mitigation measures; low ammonia emission slurry application, the use of urease and nitrification inhibitors and the combination of both were applied to the three strategies. Absolute N emissions were higher for all intensification scenarios (up to 124 kg N ha−1) compared to the baseline (80 kg N ha−1) due to increased animal numbers and higher feed and/or fertiliser inputs. However, some intensification strategies showed the potential to reduce the emissions per ton milk produced for some of the N-loss pathways. The model showed that the assessed mitigation measures can play an important role in ameliorating the increased emissions associated with intensification, but may not be adequate to entirely offset absolute increases. Further improvements in farm N use efficiency and alternatives to mineral fertilisers will be required to decouple production from reactive N emissions.

    Regenerative agriculture - the soil is the base
    Schreefel, Loekie ; Schulte, Rogier ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Modernel Hristoff, P.D. - \ 2019
    - p. 57 - 57.
    regeneritive agriculture - Circular agriculture - Organic agriculture - Soil health - Literature review - Cultural domain analysis
    Can we develop an agricultural approach which encourages synergies between the different soil functions? The key challenge nowadays is to produce enough safe and nutritious food for a growing and wealthier population within the carrying capacity of the planet. An increasing body of literature concludes that regenerative farming might be a solution. But what is regenerative farming?Regenerative farming is one of several approaches towards a sustainable food system. Characterisation of the term is still challenging since a variety of actors (e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, sector organisations, industries and farmers) perceive this term differently and a clear definition is missing in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was, therefore, to define regenerative farming with respect to environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects. We, therefore, performed a systematic literature review. We found that the term regenerative farming was first proposed in the 70s as an option for farmers to contribute to a circular agriculture system. It centralizes soil quality and is marked by tendencies towards closed nutrient loops, greater biodiversity, more perennials instead of annuals, greater reliance on internal rather than external resources and builds on the integration of plant and livestock farming in mixed farming systems. Our review will culminate in the definition of a common set of criteria that leads to the creation of indicators for farmers, industry and policy makers to assess regenerative farming, which will represent a first step towards fostering the transition towards regenerative food systems.
    Regenerative Agriculture - The Soil is the Base
    Schreefel, Loekie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Schulte, Rogier ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2019
    - 1 p.
    Regenerative agriculture - Circular agriculture - Organic agriculture - Soil health - Literature review - Cultural domain analysis
    Can we develop an agricultural approach which encourages synergies between the different soil functions? The key challenge nowadays is to produce enough safe and nutritious food for a growing and wealthier population within the carrying capacity of the planet. An increasing body of literature concludes that regenerative farming might be a solution. But what is regenerative farming? Regenerative farming is one of several approaches towards a sustainable food system. Characterisation of the term is still challenging since a variety of actors (e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, sector organisations, industries and farmers) perceive this term differently and a clear definition is missing in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was, therefore, to define regenerative farming with respect to environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects. We, therefore,performed a systematic literature review. We found that the term regenerative farming was first proposed in the 70s as an option for farmers to contribute to a circular agriculture system. It centralizes soil quality and is marked by tendencies towards closed nutrient loops,greater biodiversity, more perennials instead of annuals, greater reliance on internal rather than external resources and builds on the integration of plant and livestock farming in mixed farming systems. Our review will culminate in the definition of a common set of criteria that leads to the creation of indicators for farmers, industry and policy makers to assess regenerative farming, which will represent a first step towards fostering the transition towards regenerative food systems.
    Assessing the nutrient cycling potential in agricultural soils using decision modelling
    Trajanov, Aneta ; Schröder, Jaap ; Wall, David ; Delgado, Antonio ; Schulte, Rogier ; Debeljak, Marko - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Operational Research, SOR 2019. - SLOVENIAN SOCIETY INFORMATIKA (Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Operational Research, SOR 2019 ) - ISBN 9789616165556 - p. 23 - 27.
    Decision model - DEXi - Nutrient cycling - Recommendations - Soil functions

    One of the essential functions that agricultural soils provide is nutrient cycling. The capacity of soils to provide this function is influenced by the interactions between soil properties, climate and management. Understanding these interactions can help in assessing the soil nutrient cycling potential on a field and in identifying best management options. To optimize this process, we developed a multi-attribute decision model using the DEXi modelling tool. The outputs from this model may be used to obtain recommendations for farmers and other stakeholders and assist them with the selection of management practices fostering the nutrient cycling potential of soils.

    Festiviteiten rondom De inauguratie van prof Rogier Schulte
    Schulte, Rogier - \ 2019
    Assessment of land use change scenario to increase primary productivity function at local scale
    Valujeva, Kristine ; Nipers, Aleksejs ; Lupikis, Ainars ; Pilecka, Jovita ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2019
    Livestock Research for Rural Development 1 (2019). - ISSN 1691-4031 - p. 181 - 187.
    Agricultural land - Forestry land - Functional land management - Policy - Production - Soil functions

    The global population has begun to rise exponentially; therefore, the demand for bioresources including food and fibre is increasing. An increasing demand for food and fibre necessitates more sustainable use of natural resources especially for soilbased ecosystem services. In this context, Functional Land Management was developed to optimize agricultural soilbased ecosystem services to meet both agricultural and environmental targets simultaneously. The aim of the research is to evaluate unmanaged agricultural land use change impact on primary productivity function in three parishes in Latvia by using Functional Land Management framework. Evaluation of primary productivity function was accomplished for both sectors agriculture and forestry by using profit and working hours as a proxyindicators. Production of vegetables and perennial plantations have higher supply of primary productivity function comparing to other land uses. Land use changes affect all soil functions that we expect from our land, especially primary productivity function. After applying land use changes, an increase in profit is higher in Liezere parish for both areas on mineral soils (7.1%) and areas on organic soils (5.2%); while an increase in working hours is higher in Usma parish: 36.6% in areas on mineral soils and 1.0% increase in areas on organic soils. Shortterm benefits are received from agricultural land, while forest land provides long-term return which increases over time but can only be obtained after reaching the age of felling. Before applying land use changes or changes in management practices we have to consider other soil function and national commitments.

    ‘I’m looking for farms that are ready for 2050’: Professor Rogier Schulte on his lighthouse farms
    Schulte, Rogier - \ 2019
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