Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Lifestyle-Intervention-Induced Reduction of Abdominal Fat Is Reflected by a Decreased Circulating Glycerol Level and an Increased HDL Diameter
    Beekman, Marian ; Schutte, Bianca A.M. ; Akker, Erik B. van den; Noordam, Raymond ; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra ; Geus-Oei, Lioe Fee de; Deelen, Joris ; Rest, Ondine van de; Heemst, Diana van; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Slagboom, P.E. - \ 2020
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64 (2020)10. - ISSN 1613-4125
    abdominal fat - biomarkers - lifestyle interventions - metabolomics

    Scope: Abdominal obesity is one of the main modifiable risk factors of age-related cardiometabolic disease. Cardiometabolic disease risk and its associated high abdominal fat mass, cholesterol, and glucose concentrations can be reduced by a healthier lifestyle. Hence, the aim is to understand the relation between lifestyle-induced changes in body composition, and specifically abdominal fat, and accompanying changes in circulating metabolic biomarkers. Methods and results: Data from the Growing Old Together (GOTO) study was used, which is a single arm lifestyle intervention in which 164 older adults (mean age 63 years, BMI 23–35 kg/m2) changed their lifestyle during 13 weeks by 12.5% caloric restriction plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure. It is shown here that levels of circulating metabolic biomarkers, even after adjustment for body mass index, specifically associate with abdominal fat mass. The applied lifestyle intervention mainly reduces abdominal fat mass (−2.6%, SD = 3.0) and this reduction, when adjusted for general weight loss, is highly associated with decreased circulating glycerol concentrations and increased HDL diameter. Conclusion: The lifestyle-induced reduction of abdominal fat mass is particularly associated, independent of body mass index or general weight loss, with decreased circulating glycerol concentrations and increased HDL diameter.

    Whole Grain Wheat Consumption Affects Postprandial Inflammatory Response in a Randomized Controlled Trial in Overweight and Obese Adults with Mild Hypercholesterolemia in the Graandioos Study
    Hoevenaars, Femke P.M. ; Esser, Diederik ; Schutte, Sophie ; Priebe, Marion G. ; Vonk, Roel J. ; Brink, Willem J. van den; Kamp, Jan Willem van der; Stroeve, Johanna H.M. ; Afman, Lydia A. ; Wopereis, Suzan - \ 2019
    The Journal of Nutrition 149 (2019)12. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2133 - 2144.
    (compromised) healthy subjects - challenge test - composite biomarkers - inflammation - liver - metabolic health - phenotypic flexibility - resilience - whole grain wheat

    BACKGROUND: Whole grain wheat (WGW) consumption is associated with health benefits in observational studies. However, WGW randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies show mixed effects. OBJECTIVES: The health impact of WGW consumption was investigated by quantification of the body's resilience, which was defined as the "ability to adapt to a standardized challenge." METHODS: A double-blind RCT was performed with overweight and obese (BMI: 25-35 kg/m2) men (n = 19) and postmenopausal women (n = 31) aged 45-70 y, with mildly elevated plasma total cholesterol (>5 mmol/L), who were randomly assigned to either 12-wk WGW (98 g/d) or refined wheat (RW). Before and after the intervention a standardized mixed-meal challenge was performed. Plasma samples were taken after overnight fasting and postprandially (30, 60, 120, and 240 min). Thirty-one biomarkers were quantified focusing on metabolism, liver, cardiovascular health, and inflammation. Linear mixed-models evaluated fasting compared with postprandial intervention effects. Health space models were used to evaluate intervention effects as composite markers representing resilience of inflammation, liver, and metabolism. RESULTS: Postprandial biomarker changes related to liver showed decreased alanine aminotransferase by WGW (P = 0.03) and increased β-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.001) response in RW. Postprandial changes related to inflammation showed increased C-reactive protein (P = 0.001), IL-6 (P = 0.02), IL-8 (P = 0.007), and decreased IL-1B (P = 0.0002) in RW and decreased C-reactive protein (P < 0.0001), serum amyloid A (P < 0.0001), IL-8 (P = 0.02), and IL-10 (P < 0.0001) in WGW. Health space visualization demonstrated diminished inflammatory (P < 0.01) and liver resilience (P < 0.01) by RW, whereas liver resilience was rejuvenated by WGW (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Twelve-week 98 g/d WGW consumption can promote liver and inflammatory resilience in overweight and obese subjects with mildly elevated plasma cholesterol. The health space approach appeared appropriate to evaluate intervention effects as composite markers. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02385149.

    Update of the Scientific Opinion on opium alkaloids in poppy seeds
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Benford, Diane ; Calò, Girolamo ; Dahan, Albert ; Dusemund, Birgit ; Mulder, Patrick ; Németh‐zámboriné, Éva ; Arcella, Davide ; Baert, Katleen ; Cascio, Claudia ; Levorato, Sara ; Schutte, Marijke ; Vleminckx, Christiane - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)5. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Poppy seeds are obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). They are used as food and to produce edible oil. The opium poppy plant contains narcotic alkaloids such as morphine and codeine. Poppy seeds do not contain the opium alkaloids, but can become contaminated with alkaloids as a result of pest damage and during harvesting. The European Commission asked EFSA to provide an update of the Scientific Opinion on opium alkaloids in poppy seeds. The assessment is based on data on morphine, codeine, thebaine, oripavine, noscapine and papaverine in poppy seed samples. The CONTAM Panel confirms the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 10 μg morphine/kg body weight (bw) and concluded that the concentration of codeine in the poppy seed samples should be taken into account by converting codeine to morphine equivalents, using a factor of 0.2. The ARfD is therefore a group ARfD for morphine and codeine, expressed in morphine equivalents. Mean and high levels of dietary exposure to morphine equivalents from poppy seeds considered to have high levels of opium alkaloids (i.e. poppy seeds from varieties primarily grown for pharmaceutical use) exceed the ARfD in most age groups. For poppy seeds considered to have relatively low concentrations of opium alkaloids (i.e. primarily varieties for food use), some exceedance of the ARfD is also seen at high levels of dietary exposure in most surveys. For noscapine and papaverine, the available data do not allow making a hazard characterisation. However, comparison of the dietary exposure to the recommended therapeutical doses does not suggest a health concern for these alkaloids. For thebaine and oripavine, no risk characterisation was done due to insufficient data. However, for thebaine, limited evidence indicates a higher acute lethality than for morphine and the estimated exposure could present a health risk.
    A 12-wk whole-grain wheat intervention protects against hepatic fat : the Graandioos study, a randomized trial in overweight subjects
    Schutte, Sophie ; Esser, Diederik ; Hoevenaars, Femke P.M. ; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J. ; Priebe, Marion G. ; Vonk, Roel J. ; Wopereis, Suzan ; Afman, Lydia A. - \ 2018
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 108 (2018)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1264 - 1274.

    Background: Whole-grain wheat (WGW) is described as nutritionally superior to refined wheat (RW) and thus advocated as the healthy choice, although evidence from intervention studies is often inconsistent. The liver, as the central organ in energy metabolism, might be an important target organ for WGW interventions. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of WGW consumption compared with RW consumption on liver health and associated parameters. Design: We performed a double-blind, parallel trial in which 50 overweight 45- to 70-y-old men and postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to a 12-wk intervention with either WGW (98 g/d) or RW (98 g/d) products. Before and after the intervention we assessed intrahepatic triglycerides (IHTGs) and fat distribution by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy/magnetic resonance imaging, fecal microbiota composition, adipose tissue gene expression, and several fasting plasma parameters, as well as postprandial plasma lipids after a mixed meal. Results: Fasting plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin were not affected by RW or WGW intervention. We observed a substantial increase of 49.1% in IHTGs in the RW when compared with the WGW group (P = 0.033). Baseline microbiota composition could not predict the increase in IHTGs after RW, but gut microbiota diversity decreased in the RW group when compared with the WGW group (P = 0.010). In the WGW group, we observed increased postprandial triglyceride levels compared with the RW group (P = 0.020). In addition, the WGW intervention resulted in a trend towards lower fasting levels of the liver acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A (P = 0.057) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.064) when compared to the RW intervention. Conclusions: A 12-wk RW intervention increases liver fat and might contribute to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, whereas a 12-wk 98-g/d WGW intervention prevents a substantial increase in liver fat. Our results show that incorporating feasible doses of WGW in the diet at the expense of RW maintains liver health. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02385149.

    Phenotyping the effects of nutrient quality on metabolic health : starring the liver & adipose tissue
    Schutte, Sophie - \ 2018
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.H. Kersten, co-promotor(en): L.A. Afman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437776 - 238

    The growing burden of obesity-related pathologies calls for effective dietary strategies that improve metabolic health of overweight and obese individuals. An evidently effective dietary strategy to correct metabolic parameters associated with chronic diseases is limiting the intake of daily calories, i.e. energy restriction (ER). In addition to lowering the energy quantity of the diet, increasing the quality of the diet by consuming more high quality nutrients can also be an appealing dietary approach. However, measuring the effects of dietary strategies is challenging as effects of nutrition on health are usually relatively subtle may take a long time to manifest. In addition, classical blood markers assessed in nutritional intervention studies are typically late disease markers. To be able to more precisely assess the effect of dietary interventions and to elucidate underlying mechanisms, we need to adopt a comprehensive phenotyping approach in which we combine classical markers with sensitive measures, such as the ability of an individual to deal with a dietary stressor, i.e. phenotypic flexibility, and extensive high-throughput techniques. The aim of this thesis was to assess the effects of nutrient quality on metabolic health with a specific focus on the liver and adipose tissue, in overweight and obese individuals.

    We examined the effects of nutrient quality within eucaloric diets by comparing the differential effects of refined wheat and whole grain wheat products in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of the low nutrient quality refined wheat resulted in a pronounced increase in intrahepatic lipids along with a decrease in gut microbiota diversity. Whole grain wheat consumption induced a trend towards lower liver inflammatory markers. Incorporating feasible doses of whole grain wheat in the diet at the expense of refined wheat thus favorably affects liver health. We examined the effects of nutrient quality within ER diet by comparing the differential effects of a high quality ER-diet rich in soy protein, fiber, MUFA, and n-3 PUFA, a low nutrient quality Western-type ER-diet and a control group in subjects with abdominal obesity. Both diets induced clinically relevant weight loss, accompanied by reductions in abdominal fat mass and intrahepatic lipids. Despite equal ER, participants in the high quality diet group lost a third more when compared to Western-type diet group, which resulted in larger adaptations in adipose tissue energy metabolism. Both ER-diets alleviated metabolic complications associated with abdominal obesity, such as reductions in blood pressure and improvements in systemic markers related to glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Only the high quality diet beneficially affected fasted blood lipid profile by reducing plasma triglycerides and total serum cholesterol, which was mainly caused by a reduction in medium and large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. Both ER-diets reduced postprandial responses of VLDL, intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), and low density lipoproteins (LDL) after a mixed meal but these effects were more pronounced in the high quality diet.

    To conclude, consumption of whole grain wheat might prevent intrahepatic lipid accumulation and thus lower non-alcoholic fatty liver disease risk, while a weight loss diet rich in soy protein, fiber, MUFA, and n-3 PUFA holds great potential in lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. This thesis shows that it does matter which nutrients are emphasized within diets. The findings have increased our understanding of the effects of nutrient quality on metabolic health, mediated by the liver and adipose tissue, and can aid in designing optimal dietary strategies to combat pathologies associated with obesity.

    Regulation of angiopoietin-like 4 and lipoprotein lipase in human adipose tissue
    Dijk, Wieneke ; Schutte, Sophie ; Aarts, Edo O. ; Janssen, Ignace M.C. ; Afman, Lydia ; Kersten, Sander - \ 2018
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 12 (2018)3. - ISSN 1933-2874 - p. 773 - 783.
    ANGPTL4 - Human adipose tissue - Lipid metabolism - LPL - Triglycerides
    Background: Elevated plasma triglycerides are increasingly viewed as a causal risk factor for coronary artery disease. One protein that raises plasma triglyceride levels and that has emerged as a modulator of coronary artery disease risk is angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4). ANGPTL4 raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of circulating triglycerides on the capillary endothelium. Objective: The objective of the present study was to assess the association between ANGPTL4 and LPL in human adipose tissue, and to examine the influence of nutritional status on ANGPTL4 expression. Methods: We determined ANGPTL4 and LPL mRNA and protein levels in different adipose tissue depots in a large number of severely obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Furthermore, in 72 abdominally obese subjects, we measured ANGPTL4 and LPL mRNA levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the fasted and postprandial state. Results: ANGPTL4 mRNA levels were highest in subcutaneous adipose tissue, whereas LPL mRNA levels were highest in mesenteric adipose tissue. ANGPTL4 and LPL mRNA levels were strongly positively correlated in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots. In contrast, ANGPTL4 and LPL protein levels were negatively correlated in subcutaneous adipose tissue, suggesting a suppressive effect of ANGPTL4 on LPL protein abundance in subcutaneous adipose tissue. ANGPTL4 mRNA levels were 38% higher in the fasted compared to the postprandial state. Conclusion: Our data provide valuable insights into the relationship between ANGPTL4 and LPL in human adipose tissue, as well as the physiological function and regulation of ANGPTL4 in humans.
    The effect of standardized food intake on the association between BMI and 1H-NMR metabolites
    Schutte, A.M. ; Akker, Erik B. van den; Deelen, Joris ; Rest, O. van de; Heemst, D. van; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Beekman, M. ; Slagboom, P.E. - \ 2016
    Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322
    Multiple studies have shown that levels of 1H-NMR metabolites are associated with disease and risk factors of disease such as BMI. While most previous investigations have been performed in fasting samples, meta-analysis often includes both cohorts with fasting and non-fasting blood samples. In the present study comprising 153 participants (mean age 63 years; mean BMI 27 kg/m2) we analyzed the effect of a standardized liquid meal (SLM) on metabolite levels and how the SLM influenced the association between metabolites and BMI. We observed that many metabolites, including glycolysis related metabolites, multiple amino acids, LDL diameter, VLDL and HDL lipid concentration changed within 35 minutes after a standardized liquid meal (SLM), similarly for all individuals. Remarkable, however, is that the correlations of metabolite levels with BMI remained highly similar before and after the SLM. Hence, as exemplified with the disease risk factor BMI, our results suggest that the applicability of 1H-NMR metabolites as disease biomarkers depends on the standardization of the fasting status rather than on the fasting status itself. Future studies are required to investigate the dependency of metabolite biomarkers for other disease risk factors on the fasting status.
    Metabolic effects of a 13-weeks lifestyle intervention in older adults: The Growing Old Together Study
    Rest, O. van de; Schutte, A.M. ; Deelen, J.G. ; Stassen, Stephanie ; Akker, E.B. van den; Heemst, D. van; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Slagboom, P.E. - \ 2016
    Aging-US 8 (2016)1. - ISSN 1945-4589 - p. 111 - 124.
    For people in their 40s and 50s, lifestyle programs have been shown to improve metabolic health. For older adults, however, it is not clear whether these programs are equally healthy. In the Growing Old Together study, we applied a 13-weeks lifestyle program, with a target of 12.5% caloric restriction and 12.5% increase in energy expenditure through an increase in physical activity, in 164 older adults (mean age=63.2 years; BMI=23-35 kg/m2). Mean weight loss was 4.2% (SE=2.8%) of baseline weight, which is comparable to a previous study in younger adults. Fasting insulin levels, however, showed a much smaller decrease (0.30 mU/L (SE=3.21)) and a more heterogeneous response (range=2.0-29.6 mU/L). Many other parameters of metabolic health, such as blood pressure, and thyroid, glucose and lipid metabolism improved significantly. Many 1H-NMR metabolites changed in a direction previously associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and partially independently of weight loss. In conclusion, 25% reduction in energy balance for 13 weeks induced a metabolic health benefit in older adults, monitored by traditional and novel metabolic markers.
    One-year results of the Beweeg-Kuur lifestyle intervention implemented in Dutch primary healthcare settings
    Schutte, B.A.M. ; Haveman-Nies, Annemien ; Preller, Liesbeth - \ 2015
    BioMed Research International 2015 (2015). - ISSN 2314-6133 - 7 p.

    Background. Lifestyle interventions focusing on healthy diet and physical activity (PA) are effective in reducing health risks in controlled research settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the one-year results of the BeweegKuur lifestyle intervention implemented nationwide in Netherlands for people with a weight-related health risk. Materials and Methods. Data were requested from all 160 locations participating in the BeweegKuur. In a one group pretest/posttest study, one-year changes in health outcome variables and time spent on physical activity were tested with dependent t-tests. Associations between one-year changes in weight and waist circumference and sociodemographic factors and uptake of the program were analysed with ANOVA. Results. Data for 517 participants from 47 locations were available for analysis. One year after the intervention, weight reduced by 2.9 kg (95% CI -3.3;, -2.5), waist circumference by 4.3 cm (-4.9; -3.7), and blood glucose by 0.5 mmol/L (-0.8; -0.3). Physical activity increased significantly. Higher uptake of the program was associated with a larger decrease in waist circumference. Conclusion. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle interventions implemented in real-life primary healthcare settings with tailor-made supervision can contribute meaningfully to primary prevention.

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a distinct fecal microbiome signature–a case control study
    Schulz, C. ; Lerch, M. ; Lahti, L.M. ; Kühn, J. ; Schütte, K. ; Weiss, F. ; Völzke, H. ; Baumeister, S. ; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S. ; Fluhr, G. ; Vos, W.M. de; Mayerle, J. - \ 2015
    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now being recognized as the most common liver disorder worldwide. The majority of NAFLD patients are characterized by mere liver steatosis but up to one third progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood but changes in the gut microbiome have been suggested to be involved. Design: Using a case control design we recruited 84 subjects with liver steatosis and 83 controls from the population-based Study of Health in Pommerania. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, BMI > 25 kg/m2, immoderate alcohol intake or gallstone disease were excluded. Liver fat content was quantitated by confounder corrected chemical shift encoded MRI sequence at 1.5T. Cases with steatosis were defined as subjects with a mean liver fat content of 24.9% and controls with 2.2%. NAFLD and NASH were distinguished by using the FIB-4 score (Cut-off 1.3). Phylogenetic profiling of fecal samples was performed using the Human intestinal tract Chip (HITChip). For phenotypic correlation of the gut microbiome signature up to 224 host variables, including diet, were available and 38 reached significance. Results: By study design the extent of steatosis on liver MRI differed significantly between cases and controls (p <10 – 6). Hierarchical clustering showed a clustering tendency. Random Forrest analysis revealed 69%± 14% 95CI classification accuracy on 130 genus-level taxa. Diet did not affect the classification accuracy. Reduced Shannon diversity (p = 0.046) and richness (p = 0.007) in cases were detected. PCA cluster analysis identified 4 out of 130 taxa discriminating between cases and controls (Prevotella oralis and P. melaninogenica, Sutterella wadsworthia, Uncultured Clostridiales) all of those with bimodal distribution. NASH cases showed a significantly increased abundancy of Gram-positive taxa as well as several Bacteroides spp. that could be used as a classifier. Conclusion: In the absence of metabolic syndrome NAFLD is associated with a distinct gut microbiome signature, which is unaffected by diet. Decreased abundancy of taxa, previously defined as tipping elements, points to a pathophysiological relevance. Progression to NASH is correlated with additional distinct changes in the microbiome.
    Cell kinetics during regeneration in the sponge Halisarca caerulea: how local is the response to tissue damage?
    Alexander, B.E. ; Achlatis, M. ; Osinga, R. ; Geest, H.G. van der; Cleutjens, J.P.M. ; Schutte, B. ; Goeij, J.M. de - \ 2015
    PeerJ 3 (2015). - ISSN 2167-8359
    coral-reef sponges - morphological strategies - sublittoral demosponge - chemical defenses - cycle checkpoints - gene-expression - life-history - trade-off - growth - population
    Sponges have a remarkable capacity to rapidly regenerate in response to wound infliction. In addition, sponges rapidly renew their filter systems (choanocytes) to maintain a healthy population of cells. This study describes the cell kinetics of choanocytes in the encrusting reef sponge Halisarca caerulea during early regeneration (0–8 h) following experimental wound infliction. Subsequently, we investigated the spatial relationship between regeneration and cell proliferation over a six-day period directly adjacent to the wound, 1 cm, and 3 cm from the wound. Cell proliferation was determined by the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). We demonstrate that during early regeneration, the growth fraction of the choanocytes (i.e., the percentage of proliferative cells) adjacent to the wound is reduced (7.0 ± 2.5%) compared to steady-state, undamaged tissue (46.6 ± 2.6%), while the length of the cell cycle remained short (5.6 ± 3.4 h). The percentage of proliferative choanocytes increased over time in all areas and after six days of regeneration choanocyte proliferation rates were comparable to steady-state tissue. Tissue areas farther from the wound had higher rates of choanocyte proliferation than areas closer to the wound, indicating that more resources are demanded from tissue in the immediate vicinity of the wound. There was no difference in the number of proliferative mesohyl cells in regenerative sponges compared to steady-state sponges. Our data suggest that the production of collagen-rich wound tissue is a key process in tissue regeneration for H. caerulea, and helps to rapidly occupy the bare substratum exposed by the wound. Regeneration and choanocyte renewal are competing and negatively correlated life-history traits, both essential to the survival of sponges. The efficient allocation of limited resources to these life-history traits has enabled the ecological success and diversification of sponges.
    Cell Turnover and Detritus Production in Marine Sponges from Tropical and Temperate Benthic Ecosystems
    Alexander, B.E. ; Liebrand, K. ; Osinga, R. ; Geest, H. van der; Admiraal, W. ; Cleutjens, J.P.M. ; Schutte, B. ; Verheyen, F. ; Ribes, M. ; Loon, E. van; Goeij, J.M. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    marine ecology - porifera
    This study describes in vivo cell turnover (the balance between cell proliferation and cell loss) in eight marine sponge species from tropical coral reef, mangrove and temperate Mediterranean reef ecosystems. Cell proliferation was determined through the incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and measuring the percentage of BrdU-positive cells after 6 h of continuous labeling (10 h for Chondrosia reniformis). Apoptosis was identified using an antibody against active caspase-3. Cell loss through shedding was studied quantitatively by collecting and weighing sponge-expelled detritus and qualitatively by light microscopy of sponge tissue and detritus. All species investigated displayed substantial cell proliferation, predominantly in the choanoderm, but also in the mesohyl. The majority of coral reef species (five) showed between 16.1±15.9% and 19.0±2.0% choanocyte proliferation (mean±SD) after 6 h and the Mediterranean species, C. reniformis, showed 16.6±3.2% after 10 h BrdU-labeling. Monanchora arbuscula showed lower choanocyte proliferation (8.1±3.7%), whereas the mangrove species Mycale microsigmatosa showed relatively higher levels of choanocyte proliferation (70.5±6.6%). Choanocyte proliferation in Haliclona vansoesti was variable (2.8–73.1%). Apoptosis was negligible and not the primary mechanism of cell loss involved in cell turnover. All species investigated produced significant amounts of detritus (2.5–18% detritus bodyweight−1·d−1) and cell shedding was observed in seven out of eight species. The amount of shed cells observed in histological sections may be related to differences in residence time of detritus within canals. Detritus production could not be directly linked to cell shedding due to the degraded nature of expelled cellular debris. We have demonstrated that under steady-state conditions, cell turnover through cell proliferation and cell shedding are common processes to maintain tissue homeostasis in a variety of sponge species from different ecosystems. Cell turnover is hypothesized to be the main underlying mechanism producing sponge-derived detritus, a major trophic resource transferred through sponges in benthic ecosystems, such as coral reefs.
    Growth measurements of dairy calves using a 3-D camera
    Song, X. ; Schutte, J.J.W. ; Kamp, Arjen van der; Tol, van der, P.P.J. ; Halsema, F.E.D. van; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2014
    The health of dairy calves represents the herd’s future production capacity. Frequently monitoring calves’ growth can minimize losses caused by disease, death and infertility. Also, it provides the basis for a higher standard of animal welfare. A widely used variable for this monitoring is the live Body Weight (BW). However, BW being the major criterion, has its limitations. Body dimensionssuch as the height at hips, which show the skeletal development are also required as inputs for body development estimation. Inpractice, individual BW and size (e.g. chest girth) are often measured manually by farmers. This labour intensive measurement often introduces a high level distress to young cows. The objective of this research was to develop a 3D vision system to estimate a dairy calf’s body weight and skeletal dimensions automatically in order to monitor the individual growth.
    Sixty-eight Holstein Friesian calves (age between one and twelve weeks) were selected at seven farms in The Netherlands in 2013. All animals were kept in group-housing systems and could freely visit an automatic calf feeding machine (CALMTM, Lely Industries N.V., Maassluis, The Netherlands). A 3D Time of Flight (ToF) camera was placed above the feeding machine horizontally (1.6 meters high). Images combined with animal identifications were recorded for six weeks. Calf’s body weight and height at hips were manually measured every week to serve as references. Locations of hipbones, tail head, body volume, rump surface and average body height were determined from the 3D body surface image. 21 image variables were created as inputs of a forward stepwise selection procedure. Based on the output from this procedure, the four most relevant variables were selected to estimate calf BW by using a multiple linear regression model. Data from forty-nine calves were selected for training the model, the other nineteen were used for validation.
    As the result, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the weight estimation model was 4.26 kg with corresponding Standard Deviation (SD) of 5.30 kg (measured BWs ranged from 41 kg to 132.1 kg). The height measurements at hips had RMSEs of 2.78 cm (measured heights at hips ranged from 78 cm to 120 cm). Moreover, in weight estimations and distance measurements, there was no correlation between residuals of the prediction and references. In conclusion, it is feasible to apply the 3D vision technology to measure and monitor the calf growth automatically. These growth variables can offer not only animal health indications, but also information for future breeding selections.
    Relationship of coagulation and fibrinolytic variables with arterial structure and function in Africans
    Pieters, M. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Lange, Z. de; Schutte, A.E. ; Schutte, R. ; Greeff, M. ; Ariens, R.A.S. - \ 2014
    Thrombosis Research 134 (2014)1. - ISSN 0049-3848 - p. 78 - 83.
    tissue-plasminogen-activator - individual participant metaanalysis - ischemic-heart-disease - cardiovascular-disease - myocardial-infarction - plasma-fibrinogen - edinburgh artery - risk-factors - inflammatory markers - hemostatic factors
    Introduction: Although both coagulation and fibrinolysis are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) the underlying nature and pathways of many of these associations are still unclear. Our aim was to determine which of the current or 5-year prior levels of total fibrinogen, fibrinogen gamma', plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1(act)) and global fibrinolytic potential were the stronger determinant of arterial structure and function. Materials and methods: This prospective study consisted of 2010 Africans over the age of 35 years with 5-year follow-up data available for 1288 participants. Cardiovascular measurements included arterial stiffness, blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness. Results: Fibrinogen gamma' showed stronger associations with blood pressure than total fibrinogen also in the presence of other CVD risk factors. PAI-1(act) was positively associated with blood pressure both cross-sectionally and prospectively, with the longitudinal association being the stronger determinant, also after adjustment for known CVD risk factors. Clot lysis time (CLT) was positively associated, both prospectively and crosssectionally, with intima media thickness and negatively with markers of arterial stiffness but not after adjustment for known CVD risk factors. Conclusions: Fibrinogen gamma' was more strongly associated with CVD function than total fibrinogen. PAI-1(act) was significantly associated with blood pressure with changes in PAI-1 levels preceding changes in blood pressure. Different mechanisms may be at play determining arterial wall stiffness/thickening and blood pressure as observed from the opposing associations with PAI-1act and CLT. CLT was not independently related to cardiovascular measures as its associations were weakened in the presence of other known CVD risk factors. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cell Turnover and Detritus Production in Marine Sponges from Tropical and Temperate Benthic Ecosystems
    Alexander, B.E. ; Liebrand, K. ; Osinga, R. ; Geest, H.G. van der; Admiraal, W. ; Cleutjens, J.P.M. ; Schutte, B. ; Verheyen, F. ; Ribes, M. ; Loon, E. van; Goeij, J.M. de - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 11 p.
    fresh-water sponge - stem-cells - ephydatia-fluviatilis - intestinal epithelium - tissue homeostasis - coral-reefs - in-vitro - demospongiae - cycle - population
    This study describes in vivo cell turnover (the balance between cell proliferation and cell loss) in eight marine sponge species from tropical coral reef, mangrove and temperate Mediterranean reef ecosystems. Cell proliferation was determined through the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and measuring the percentage of BrdU-positive cells after 6 h of continuous labeling (10 h for Chondrosia reniformis). Apoptosis was identified using an antibody against active caspase-3. Cell loss through shedding was studied quantitatively by collecting and weighing sponge-expelled detritus and qualitatively by light microscopy of sponge tissue and detritus. All species investigated displayed substantial cell proliferation, predominantly in the choanoderm, but also in the mesohyl. The majority of coral reef species (five) showed between 16.1±15.9% and 19.0±2.0% choanocyte proliferation (mean±SD) after 6 h and the Mediterranean species, C. reniformis, showed 16.6±3.2% after 10 h BrdU-labeling. Monanchora arbuscula showed lower choanocyte proliferation (8.1±3.7%), whereas the mangrove species Mycale microsigmatosa showed relatively higher levels of choanocyte proliferation (70.5±6.6%). Choanocyte proliferation in Haliclona vansoesti was variable (2.8–73.1%). Apoptosis was negligible and not the primary mechanism of cell loss involved in cell turnover. All species investigated produced significant amounts of detritus (2.5–18% detritus bodyweight-1·d-1) and cell shedding was observed in seven out of eight species. The amount of shed cells observed in histological sections may be related to differences in residence time of detritus within canals. Detritus production could not be directly linked to cell shedding due to the degraded nature of expelled cellular debris. We have demonstrated that under steady-state conditions, cell turnover through cell proliferation and cell shedding are common processes to maintain tissue homeostasis in a variety of sponge species from different ecosystems. Cell turnover is hypothesized to be the main underlying mechanism producing sponge-derived detritus, a major trophic resource transferred through sponges in benthic ecosystems, such as coral reefs.
    De interventiekoffer; plannen maken doe je samen!!
    Lezwijn, J. ; Schutte, B. ; Tol, M. van; Aalbers, M. ; Wagemakers, A. - \ 2013
    In: Nederlands Congres Volksgezondheid 2013, Samen investeren in gezondheid, Passie voor gezondheid, 3 en 4 april 2013, De Reehorst - Ede. - - p. 23 - 23.
    De BeweegKuur: resultaat van een interventie die zorg en sport verbindt.
    Preller, L. ; Wagemakers, A. ; Schutte, B. ; Helmink, J. ; Aalbers, M. - \ 2013
    In: Nederlands Congres Volksgezondheid 2013, Samen investeren in gezondheid, Passie voor gezondheid, 3 en 4 april 2013, De Reehorst - Ede. - - p. 31 - 31.
    Phyllosticta species on citrus: Risk estimation of resistance to QoI fungicides and identification of species with cytochrome b gene sequences
    Stammler, G. ; Schutte, G.C. ; Speakman, J. ; Miessner, S. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Crop Protection 48 (2013). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 6 - 12.
    guignardia-citricarpa - black spot - botrytis-cinerea - south-africa - mitochondrial-dna - pyrenophora-teres - valencia oranges - f129l mutation - causal agent - mangiferae
    Isolates of three fungal species associated with citrus, Phyllosticta citricarpa, Phyllosticta citriasiana and Phyllosticta capitalensis, collected from different citrus growing countries of the world, were investigated for their sensitivities to the QoI fungicides pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin. Isolates were highly sensitive in microtiter tests and EC50 values were in narrow ranges, which indicate no acquired adaptation to QoIs. The resistance risk of P. citricarpa to QoIs is considered low since an intron was found immediately after codon 143 in the cytochrome b gene. The presence of an intron is known to reduce the risk of the G143A mutation, the mutation which causes QoI resistance with high resistance factors. The other two species had no intron and therefore are considered having a higher resistance risk. Impact of these two species is rather low, since P. citriasiana is restricted in its regional and host distribution and P. capitalensis is non-pathogenic. Furthermore, the development of a rapid and reliable assay for species detection and identification was made possible based on an analysis of the cytochrome b gene.
    The Meringue Concept and Its Variations
    Wierenga, P.A. ; Hofstede, H. ; Linden, E. van der; Schutte, S. ; Boer, J. - \ 2012
    In: The kitchen as laboratory / Vega, C, Ubbink, J, van der Linden, E, New York : Columbia University Press - ISBN 9780231153447 - p. 108 - 116.
    Carry-over of coccidiostats in animal feed
    Zuidema, T. ; Oosterink, J.E. ; Schutte, W. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2011
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