Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A global horizon scan of the future impacts of robotics and autonomous systems on urban ecosystems
    Goddard, Mark A. ; Davies, Zoe G. ; Guenat, Solène ; Ferguson, Mark J. ; Fisher, Jessica C. ; Akanni, Adeniran ; Ahjokoski, Teija ; Anderson, Pippin M.L. ; Angeoletto, Fabio ; Antoniou, Constantinos ; Bates, Adam J. ; Barkwith, Andrew ; Berland, Adam ; Bouch, Christopher J. ; Rega-Brodsky, Christine C. ; Byrne, Loren B. ; Cameron, David ; Canavan, Rory ; Chapman, Tim ; Connop, Stuart ; Crossland, Steve ; Dade, Marie C. ; Dawson, David A. ; Dobbs, Cynnamon ; Downs, Colleen T. ; Ellis, Erle C. ; Escobedo, Francisco J. ; Gobster, Paul ; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie ; Guneralp, Burak ; Hahs, Amy K. ; Hale, James D. ; Hassall, Christopher ; Hedblom, Marcus ; Hochuli, Dieter F. ; Inkinen, Tommi ; Ioja, Ioan Cristian ; Kendal, Dave ; Knowland, Tom ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Langdale, Simon J. ; Lerman, Susannah B. ; MacGregor-Fors, Ian ; Manning, Peter ; Massini, Peter ; McLean, Stacey ; Mkwambisi, David D. ; Ossola, Alessandro ; Luque, Gabriel Pérez ; Pérez-Urrestarazu, Luis ; Perini, Katia ; Perry, Gad ; Pett, Tristan J. ; Plummer, Kate E. ; Radji, Raoufou A. ; Roll, Uri ; Potts, Simon G. ; Rumble, Heather ; Sadler, Jon P. ; Saille, Stevienna de; Sautter, Sebastian ; Scott, Catherine E. ; Shwartz, Assaf ; Smith, Tracy ; Snep, Robbert P.H. ; Soulsbury, Carl D. ; Stanley, Margaret C. ; Voorde, Tim Van de; Venn, Stephen J. ; Warren, Philip H. ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Whitling, Mark ; Williams, Nicholas S.G. ; Yang, Jun ; Yeshitela, Kumelachew ; Yocom, Ken P. ; Dallimer, Martin - \ 2021
    Nature Ecology & Evolution (2021). - ISSN 2397-334X

    Technology is transforming societies worldwide. A major innovation is the emergence of robotics and autonomous systems (RAS), which have the potential to revolutionize cities for both people and nature. Nonetheless, the opportunities and challenges associated with RAS for urban ecosystems have yet to be considered systematically. Here, we report the findings of an online horizon scan involving 170 expert participants from 35 countries. We conclude that RAS are likely to transform land use, transport systems and human–nature interactions. The prioritized opportunities were primarily centred on the deployment of RAS for the monitoring and management of biodiversity and ecosystems. Fewer challenges were prioritized. Those that were emphasized concerns surrounding waste from unrecovered RAS, and the quality and interpretation of RAS-collected data. Although the future impacts of RAS for urban ecosystems are difficult to predict, examining potentially important developments early is essential if we are to avoid detrimental consequences but fully realize the benefits.

    Reaction Stages of Feather Hydrolysis : Factors That Influence Availability for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Cystine Conservation during Thermal Pressure Hydrolysis
    Goerner-Hu, Xinhua ; Scott, Elinor L. ; Seeger, Thorsten ; Schneider, Oliver ; Bitter, Johannes H. - \ 2020
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 25 (2020)5. - ISSN 1226-8372 - p. 749 - 757.
    availability for enzymatic hydrolysis - feather - reaction stage - temperature - time

    The vast amount of feathers generated (>1 Mtons/a in Europe) in the poultry industry is an opportunity of upcycling by-product materials and improving sustainable practices. Feathers are potentially interesting materials as feed protein ingredients due to their high protein (>85 wt%) and cystine content (>7 wt%). However, due to their challenging recalcitrant nature, they have to be processed to make feather protein suitably digestible. The objective was to investigate the effects of temperature (120oC–160oC) and time (10, 30, and 60 min) in thermal pressure hydrolysis of feathers on availability for enzymatic hydrolysis (AEH) and cystine conservation. AEH is defined as degree of degradation of processed feather protein by two digestive enzymes pepsin and pancreatin (Boisen). The present study identified and assessed four temperature stages that take place during feather processing. The four temperature stages are 120oC–135oC, 140oC–155oC, > 160oC, and the cooling-down phase. The second stage has the greatest influence on AEH. As well as temperature, hydrolysis time is also an essential parameter that had a major impact in the second stage (140oC–155oC). Both temperature and time influence negatively cystine content and stability. The present study demonstrates for the first time the importance of four reaction stages during feather hydrolysis and the impact of four stages on AEH of the obtained products.

    Bayesian tracer mixing models and isotope data elephant diet
    Vogel, Susanne Marieke ; Blumenthal, Scott A. ; Boer, Willem Frederik de; Masake, Moses ; Songhurst, Anna Catherine ; McCulloch, Graham ; Stronza, Amanda ; Henley, Michelle Deborah ; Coulson, Tim - \ 2020
    University of Oxford
    Elephant crop consumption - Human-wildlife co-existence - Stable isotope analysis
    In the supplementary information we explain why we did not use Bayesian tracer mixing models in the final paper. Isotope data: We air-dried the faecal and vegetation samples in an air-drying cabinet. After transportation, we dried samples for a further 24 h at 70 °C and ground to pass through a 1 mm mesh at the Okavango Research Institute laboratory. Samples were then shipped to the stable isotope laboratory housed in the archaeology department at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. There they were weighed in to tin cups to an accuracy of 1 mg on a Sartorius M2P microbalance.Sample weights were 2.5 mg for samples with potentially low nitrogen content, 2.1–2.2 mg for legumes and agricultural samples and 2.3 mg for other sample types. Samples were combusted in a Flash 2000 elemental analyser interfaced to a Delta V Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) via a Conflo IV gas control unit (Thermo Scientific,Bremen, Germany). The in-house standards used were: Sucrose(“Australian National University (ANU)”sucrose), MG (Merck Gel), Acacia (Acacia saligna, Glencairn). All the in-house standards were calibrated against IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) standards,either at UCT or by other labs. Nitrogen was expressed in terms of its value relative to atmospheric nitrogen, while carbon was expressed in terms of its value relative to Pee-Dee Belemnite (VPDB).In our analyses we use stable isotopic values from faeces and their association to isotopic values of most likely consumed browse and grass species as proxies for elephant diet. In reality, diet content can vary from isotopic content due to issues as fractionation of isotopes during digestion, this is why we correct the results with fractionation values (Codron and Codron, 2009).
    Context matters: Contrasting behavioral and residential risk factors for Lyme disease between high-incidence states in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States
    Bron, Gebbiena M. ; Fernandez, Maria ; Larson, Scott R. ; Maus, Adam ; Gustafson, Dave ; Tsao, Jean I. ; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A. ; Bartholomay, Lyric C. ; Paskewitz, Susan M. - \ 2020
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 11 (2020)6. - ISSN 1877-959X
    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato - Lyme disease - Prevention - Self-efficacy - Ticks

    The dynamics of zoonotic vector-borne diseases are determined by a complex set of parameters including human behavior that may vary with socio-ecological contexts. Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The Northeast and upper Midwest are the regions most affected - two areas with differing levels of urbanization and differing sociocultural settings. The probability of being infected with Lyme disease is related to the risk of encounters with Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which reflects both the environmental tick hazard and human behaviors. Herein, we compare behavioral and peridomestic risk factors perceived to influence the risk for human-tick encounters between two high-incidence states in the Northeast (New York and New Jersey) and one high-incidence state in the Midwest (Wisconsin). We used a smartphone application, The Tick App, as a novel survey tool, during spring and summer of 2018. Adaptive human behavior was identified in the relationship between outdoor activities and the use of methods to prevent tick bites. More frequent recreational outdoor activities and gardening (a peridomestic activity) were associated with a 1.4–2.3 times increased likelihood of using personal protective measures to prevent tick bites, when accounting for demographics and previous Lyme diagnosis. Most outdoor activities were more frequently reported by participants from the Midwest (n = 697), representing an older demographic, than the Northeast (n = 396). Participants from the Northeast were less likely to report use of personal protective measures to prevent tick bites, but a larger proportion of participants from the Northeast reported application of environmental pesticides targeting ticks or mosquitoes or other insects on their property (34 % of 279 versus 22 % of 616 participants) and interventions to reduce the presence of peridomestic deer compared to participants from the Midwest (e.g. 20 % of 278 versus 7% of 615 participants reported having a deer proof fence). Participants from the Midwest were more likely to kill rodents on their property (28 % versus 13 %). These differences illustrate the need for further assessment of personal behavior and tick exposure in these two Lyme disease-endemic regions to aid in targeted public health messaging to reduce tick-borne diseases.

    Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic
    Davidson, Sarah C. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Gurarie, Eliezer ; LaPoint, Scott ; Mahoney, Peter J. ; Boelman, Natalie T. ; Eitel, Jan U.H. ; Prugh, Laura R. ; Vierling, Lee A. ; Jennewein, Jyoti ; Grier, Emma ; Couriot, Ophélie ; Kelly, Allicia P. ; Meddens, Arjan J.H. ; Oliver, Ruth Y. ; Kays, Roland ; Wikelski, Martin ; Aarvak, Tomas ; Ackerman, Joshua T. ; Alves, José A. ; Bayne, Erin ; Bedrosian, Bryan ; Belant, Jerrold L. ; Berdahl, Andrew M. ; Berlin, Alicia M. ; Berteaux, Dominique ; Bêty, Joël ; Boiko, Dmitrijs ; Booms, Travis L. ; Borg, Bridget L. ; Boutin, Stan ; Boyd, Sean ; Brides, Kane ; Brown, Stephen ; Bulyuk, Victor N. ; Burnham, Kurt K. ; Cabot, David ; Casazza, Michael ; Christie, Katherine ; Craig, Erica H. ; Davis, Shanti E. ; Davison, Tracy ; Demma, Dominic ; DeSorbo, Christopher R. ; Dixon, Andrew ; Domenech, Robert ; Eichhorn, Götz ; Elliott, Kyle ; Evenson, Joseph R. ; Exo, Klaus Michael ; Ferguson, Steven H. ; Fiedler, Wolfgang ; Fisk, Aaron ; Fort, Jérôme ; Franke, Alastair ; Fuller, Mark R. ; Garthe, Stefan ; Gauthier, Gilles ; Gilchrist, Grant ; Glazov, Petr ; Gray, Carrie E. ; Grémillet, David ; Griffin, Larry ; Hallworth, Michael T. ; Harrison, Autumn Lynn ; Hennin, Holly L. ; Hipfner, Mark ; Hodson, James ; Johnson, James A. ; Joly, Kyle ; Jones, Kimberly ; Katzner, Todd E. ; Kidd, Jeff W. ; Knight, Elly C. ; Kochert, Michael N. ; Kölzsch, Andrea ; Kruckenberg, Helmut ; Lagassé, Benjamin J. ; Lai, Sandra ; Lamarre, Jean François ; Lanctot, Richard B. ; Larter, Nicholas C. ; Latham, A.D.M. ; Latty, Christopher J. ; Lawler, James P. ; Léandri-Breton, Don Jean ; Lee, Hansoo ; Lewis, Stephen B. ; Love, Oliver P. ; Madsen, Jesper ; Maftei, Mark ; Mallory, Mark L. ; Mangipane, Buck ; Markovets, Mikhail Y. ; Marra, Peter P. ; McGuire, Rebecca ; McIntyre, Carol L. ; McKinnon, Emily A. ; Miller, Tricia A. ; Moonen, Sander ; Mu, Tong ; Müskens, Gerhard J.D.M. ; Ng, Janet ; Nicholson, Kerry L. ; Øien, Ingar Jostein ; Overton, Cory ; Owen, Patricia A. ; Patterson, Allison ; Petersen, Aevar ; Pokrovsky, Ivan ; Powell, Luke L. ; Prieto, Rui ; Quillfeldt, Petra ; Rausch, Jennie ; Russell, Kelsey ; Saalfeld, Sarah T. ; Schekkerman, Hans ; Schmutz, Joel A. ; Schwemmer, Philipp ; Seip, Dale R. ; Shreading, Adam ; Silva, Mónica A. ; Smith, Brian W. ; Smith, Fletcher ; Smith, Jeff P. ; Snell, Katherine R.S. ; Sokolov, Aleksandr ; Sokolov, Vasiliy ; Solovyeva, Diana V. ; Sorum, Mathew S. ; Tertitski, Grigori ; Therrien, J.F. ; Thorup, Kasper ; Tibbitts, Lee ; Tulp, Ingrid ; Uher-Koch, Brian D. ; Bemmelen, Rob S.A. van; Wilgenburg, Steven Van; Duyke, Andrew L. Von; Watson, Jesse L. ; Watts, Bryan D. ; Williams, Judy A. ; Wilson, Matthew T. ; Wright, James R. ; Yates, Michael A. ; Yurkowski, David J. ; Žydelis, Ramūnas ; Hebblewhite, Mark - \ 2020
    Science 370 (2020)6517. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 712 - 715.

    The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection of more than 200 standardized terrestrial and marine animal tracking studies from 1991 to the present. The AAMA supports public data discovery, preserves fundamental baseline data for the future, and facilitates efficient, collaborative data analysis. With AAMA-based case studies, we document climatic influences on the migration phenology of eagles, geographic differences in the adaptive response of caribou reproductive phenology to climate change, and species-specific changes in terrestrial mammal movement rates in response to increasing temperature.

    Ecosystem transpiration and evaporation: Insights from three water flux partitioning methods across FLUXNET sites
    Nelson, Jacob A. ; Pérez-Priego, Oscar ; Zhou, Sha ; Poyatos, Rafael ; Zhang, Yao ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Gimeno, Teresa E. ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Bonal, Damien ; Paul-Limoges, Eugénie ; Scott, Russell L. ; Varlagin, Andrej ; Fuchs, Kathrin ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Gharun, Mana ; Belelli Marchesini, Luca ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Black, T.B. ; Knohl, Alexander ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Besnard, Simon ; Weber, Ulrich ; Carvalhais, Nuno ; Migliavacca, Mirco ; Reichstein, Markus ; Jung, Martin - \ 2020
    Global Change Biology 26 (2020)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 6916 - 6930.
    ecohydrology - eddy covariance - evaporation - evapotranspiration - FLUXNET - transpiration

    We apply and compare three widely applicable methods for estimating ecosystem transpiration (T) from eddy covariance (EC) data across 251 FLUXNET sites globally. All three methods are based on the coupled water and carbon relationship, but they differ in assumptions and parameterizations. Intercomparison of the three daily T estimates shows high correlation among methods (R between.89 and.94), but a spread in magnitudes of T/ET (evapotranspiration) from 45% to 77%. When compared at six sites with concurrent EC and sap flow measurements, all three EC-based T estimates show higher correlation to sap flow-based T than EC-based ET. The partitioning methods show expected tendencies of T/ET increasing with dryness (vapor pressure deficit and days since rain) and with leaf area index (LAI). Analysis of 140 sites with high-quality estimates for at least two continuous years shows that T/ET variability was 1.6 times higher across sites than across years. Spatial variability of T/ET was primarily driven by vegetation and soil characteristics (e.g., crop or grass designation, minimum annual LAI, soil coarse fragment volume) rather than climatic variables such as mean/standard deviation of temperature or precipitation. Overall, T and T/ET patterns are plausible and qualitatively consistent among the different water flux partitioning methods implying a significant advance made for estimating and understanding T globally, while the magnitudes remain uncertain. Our results represent the first extensive EC data-based estimates of ecosystem T permitting a data-driven perspective on the role of plants’ water use for global water and carbon cycling in a changing climate.

    Risk management framework for nano-biomaterials used in medical devices and advanced therapy medicinal products
    Giubilato, Elisa ; Cazzagon, Virginia ; Amorim, Mónica J.B. ; Blosi, Magda ; Bouillard, Jacques ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Costa, Anna Luisa ; Fadeel, Bengt ; Fernandes, Teresa F. ; Fito, Carlos ; Hauser, Marina ; Marcomini, Antonio ; Nowack, Bernd ; Pizzol, Lisa ; Powell, Leagh ; Prina-Mello, Adriele ; Sarimveis, Haralambos ; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James ; Semenzin, Elena ; Stahlmecke, Burkhard ; Stone, Vicki ; Vignes, Alexis ; Wilkins, Terry ; Zabeo, Alex ; Tran, Lang ; Hristozov, Danail - \ 2020
    BMC Materials 13 (2020)20. - ISSN 2524-8138 - 29 p.
    Life cycle - Medical device - Nano-biomaterials - Nanomedicine - Risk management - Safe-by-design

    The convergence of nanotechnology and biotechnology has led to substantial advancements in nano-biomaterials (NBMs) used in medical devices (MD) and advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). However, there are concerns that applications of NBMs for medical diagnostics, therapeutics and regenerative medicine could also pose health and/or environmental risks since the current understanding of their safety is incomplete. A scientific strategy is therefore needed to assess all risks emerging along the life cycles of these products. To address this need, an overarching risk management framework (RMF) for NBMs used in MD and ATMP is presented in this paper, as a result of a collaborative effort of a team of experts within the EU Project BIORIMA and with relevant inputs from external stakeholders. The framework, in line with current regulatory requirements, is designed according to state-of-the-art approaches to risk assessment and management of both nanomaterials and biomaterials. The collection/generation of data for NBMs safety assessment is based on innovative integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA). The framework can support stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, regulators, consultants) in systematically assessing not only patient safety but also occupational (including healthcare workers) and environmental risks along the life cycle of MD and ATMP. The outputs of the framework enable the user to identify suitable safe(r)-by-design alternatives and/or risk management measures and to compare the risks of NBMs to their (clinical) benefits, based on efficacy, quality and cost criteria, in order to inform robust risk management decision-making.

    A scale-based framework to understand the promises, pitfalls and paradoxes of irrigation efficiency to meet major water challenges
    Lankford, Bruce ; Closas, Alvar ; Dalton, James ; López Gunn, Elena ; Hess, Tim ; Knox, Jerry W. ; Kooij, Saskia van der; Lautze, Jonathan ; Molden, David ; Orr, Stuart ; Pittock, Jamie ; Richter, Brian ; Riddell, Philip J. ; Scott, Christopher A. ; Venot, Jean Philippe ; Vos, Jeroen ; Zwarteveen, Margreet - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 65 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Irrigation - Irrigation efficiency - River basins - Scale - SDGs - Water allocation

    An effective placement of irrigation efficiency in water management will contribute towards meeting the pre-eminent global water challenges of our time such as addressing water scarcity, boosting crop water productivity and reconciling competing water needs between sectors. However, although irrigation efficiency may appear to be a simple measure of performance and imply dramatic positive benefits, it is not straightforward to understand, measure or apply. For example, hydrological understanding that irrigation losses recycle back to surface and groundwater in river basins attempts to account for scale, but this generalisation cannot be readily translated from one location to another or be considered neutral for farmers sharing local irrigation networks. Because irrigation efficiency (IE) motives, measures, effects and technologies play out at different scales for different people, organisations and purposes, and losses differ from place to place and over time, IE is a contested term, highly changeable and subjective. This makes generalisations for science, management and policy difficult. Accordingly, we propose new definitions for IE and irrigation hydrology and introduce a framework, termed an ‘irrigation efficiency matrix’, comprising five spatial scales and ten dimensions to understand and critique the promises, pitfalls and paradoxes of IE and to unlock its utility for addressing contemporary water challenges.

    Curation and analysis of a saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-scale metabolic model for predicting production of sensory impact molecules under enological conditions
    Scott, William T. ; Smid, Eddy J. ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Block, David E. - \ 2020
    Processes 8 (2020)9. - ISSN 2227-9717
    Aroma - Flux balance analysis (FBA) - Genome-scalemetabolicmodels - Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Wine fermentation

    One approach for elucidating strain-to-strain metabolic differences is the use of genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs). To date GSMMs have not focused on the industrially important area of flavor production and, as such; do not cover all the pathways relevant to flavor formation in yeast. Moreover, current models for Saccharomyces cerevisiae generally focus on carbon-limited and/or aerobic systems, which is not pertinent to enological conditions. Here, we curate a GSMM (iWS902) to expand on the existing Ehrlich pathway and ester formation pathways central to aroma formation in industrial winemaking, in addition to the existing sulfur metabolism and medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) pathways that also contribute to production of sensory impact molecules. After validating the model using experimental data, we predict key differences in metabolism for a strain (EC 1118) in two distinct growth conditions, including differences for aroma impact molecules such as acetic acid, tryptophol, and hydrogen sulfide. Additionally, we propose novel targets for metabolic engineering for aroma profile modifications employing flux variability analysis with the expanded GSMM. The model provides mechanistic insights into the key metabolic pathways underlying aroma formation during alcoholic fermentation and provides a potential framework to contribute to new strategies to optimize the aroma of wines.

    Cryptochromes Go Toe to Toe with TOEs Too
    Hayes, Scott - \ 2020
    Plant Physiology 184 (2020). - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 16 - 17.
    Enduring Behavioral Effects Induced by Birth by Caesarean Section in the Mouse
    Morais, Livia H. ; Golubeva, Anna V. ; Moloney, Gerard M. ; Moya-Pérez, Angela ; Ventura-Silva, Ana Paula ; Arboleya, Silvia ; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F.S. ; O'Sullivan, Orla ; Rea, Kieran ; Borre, Yuliya ; Scott, Karen A. ; Patterson, Elaine ; Cherry, Paul ; Stilling, Roman ; Hoban, Alan E. ; Aidy, Sahar El; Sequeira, Ana M. ; Beers, Sasja ; Moloney, Rachel D. ; Renes, Ingrid B. ; Wang, Shugui ; Knol, Jan ; Ross, R.P. ; O'Toole, Paul W. ; Cotter, Paul D. ; Stanton, Catherine ; Dinan, Timothy G. ; Cryan, John F. - \ 2020
    Current Biology 30 (2020)19. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 3761 - 3774.e6.
    behavior - Caesarean section - co-housing - gut-brain axis - microbiota - microbiota gut-brain axis - prebiotics - probiotics

    Birth by Caesarean (C)-section impacts early gut microbiota colonization and is associated with an increased risk of developing immune and metabolic disorders. Moreover, alterations of the microbiome have been shown to affect neurodevelopmental trajectories. However, the long-term effects of C-section on neurobehavioral processes remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that birth by C-section results in marked but transient changes in microbiome composition in the mouse, in particular, the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. was depleted in early life. Mice born by C-section had enduring social, cognitive, and anxiety deficits in early life and adulthood. Interestingly, we found that these specific behavioral alterations induced by the mode of birth were also partially corrected by co-housing with vaginally born mice. Finally, we showed that supplementation from birth with a Bifidobacterium breve strain, or with a dietary prebiotic mixture that stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria, reverses selective behavioral alterations in C-section mice. Taken together, our data link the gut microbiota to behavioral alterations in C-section-born mice and suggest the possibility of developing adjunctive microbiota-targeted therapies that may help to avert long-term negative consequences on behavior associated with C-section birth mode.

    2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales
    Kuhn, Jens H. ; Adkins, Scott ; Alioto, Daniela ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Anthony, Simon J. ; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana ; Ayllón, María A. ; Bahl, Justin ; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne ; Ballinger, Matthew J. ; Bartonička, Tomáš ; Basler, Christopher ; Bavari, Sina ; Beer, Martin ; Bente, Dennis A. ; Bergeron, Éric ; Bird, Brian H. ; Blair, Carol ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Bradfute, Steven B. ; Breyta, Rachel ; Briese, Thomas ; Brown, Paul A. ; Buchholz, Ursula J. ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Burt, Felicity ; Buzkan, Nihal ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Cao, Mengji ; Casas, Inmaculada ; Chamberlain, John ; Chandran, Kartik ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Chen, Biao ; Chiumenti, Michela ; Choi, Ryong ; Clegg, J.C.S. ; Crozier, Ian ; Graça, John V. da; Bó, Elena Dal; Dávila, Alberto M.R. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Swart, Rik L. de; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Paola, Nicholas Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Drebot, Michael A. ; Drexler, Jan Felix ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dufkova, Lucie ; Dundon, William G. ; Duprex, W.P. ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Ergünay, Koray ; Fernandes, Jorlan ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Formenty, Pierre B.H. ; Forth, Leonie F. ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Gāo, George Fú ; García, María Laura ; García-Sastre, Adolfo ; Garrison, Aura R. ; Gbakima, Aiah ; Goldstein, Tracey ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Griffiths, Anthony ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Günther, Stephan ; Guterres, Alexandro ; Hall, Roy A. ; Hammond, John ; Hassan, Mohamed ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hepojoki, Satu ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hewson, Roger ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Hongo, Seiji ; Höper, Dirk ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hughes, Holly R. ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jambai, Amara ; Jardim, Rodrigo ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Gilda B. ; Junglen, Sandra ; Karadağ, Serpil ; Keller, Karen E. ; Klempa, Boris ; Klingström, Jonas ; Kobinger, Gary ; Kondō, Hideki ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kurath, Gael ; Kuzmin, Ivan V. ; Laenen, Lies ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Langevin, Stanley L. ; Lee, Benhur ; Lemos, Elba R.S. ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Dexin ; Lǐ, Jiànróng ; Liang, Mifang ; Liú, Wénwén ; Liú, Yàn ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Maes, Piet ; Marciel de Souza, William ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Marshall, Sergio H. ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Marzano, Shin Yi L. ; Massart, Sébastien ; McCauley, John W. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Minafra, Angelantonio ; Minutolo, Maria ; Mirazimi, Ali ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Naidu, Rayapati ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Navarro, José A. ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Neumann, Gabriele ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Nunes, Márcio R.T. ; Nylund, Are ; Økland, Arnfinn L. ; Oliveira, Renata C. ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pallas, Vicente ; Pályi, Bernadett ; Papa, Anna ; Parrish, Colin R. ; Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Payne, Susan ; Pérez, Daniel R. ; Pfaff, Florian ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; ul Rahman, Aziz ; Ramos-González, Pedro L. ; Resende, Renato O. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Robles Luna, Gabriel ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Runstadler, Jonathan A. ; Ruzek, Daniel ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Salát, Jiří ; Sall, Amadou Alpha ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sarpkaya, Kamil ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shabbir, Muhammad Z. ; Shí, Xiǎohóng ; Shí, Zhènglì ; Shirako, Yukio ; Simmonds, Peter ; Širmarová, Jana ; Sironi, Manuela ; Smither, Sophie ; Smura, Teemu ; Song, Jin Won ; Spann, Kirsten M. ; Spengler, Jessica R. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Straková, Petra ; Takada, Ayato ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Thornburg, Natalie J. ; Tomonaga, Keizō ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Turina, Massimo ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis ; Ulrich, Rainer G. ; Vaira, Anna Maria ; Hoogen, Bernadette van den; Varsani, Arvind ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Wahl, Victoria ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, Hui ; Wang, Jianwei ; Wang, Xifeng ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wells, Heather ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Williams, John V. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Yang, Xin ; Yáng, Xīnglóu ; Yu, Xuejie ; Yutin, Natalya ; Zerbini, Murilo ; Zhang, Tong ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Zhou, Guohui ; Zhou, Xueping - \ 2020
    Archives of Virology 165 (2020). - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 3023 - 3072.

    In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

    Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of blood DNA methylation in newborns and children identifies numerous loci related to gestational age
    Merid, Simon Kebede ; Novoloaca, Alexei ; Sharp, Gemma C. ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Kho, Alvin T. ; Roy, Ritu ; Gao, Lu ; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella ; Jain, Pooja ; Plusquin, Michelle ; Kogevinas, Manolis ; Allard, Catherine ; Vehmeijer, Florianne O. ; Kazmi, Nabila ; Salas, Lucas A. ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Zhang, Hongmei ; Sebert, Sylvain ; Czamara, Darina ; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L. ; Melton, Phillip E. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Pershagen, Göran ; Breton, Carrie V. ; Huen, Karen ; Baiz, Nour ; Gagliardi, Luigi ; Nawrot, Tim S. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Perron, Patrice ; Duijts, Liesbeth ; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Ewart, Susan L. ; Karmaus, Wilfried ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Page, Christian M. ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Lahti, Jari ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Anderson, Denise ; Kachroo, Priyadarshini ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Bergström, Anna ; Eskenazi, Brenda ; Soomro, Munawar Hussain ; Vineis, Paolo ; Snieder, Harold ; Bouchard, Luigi ; Jaddoe, Vincent W. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Vrijheid, Martine ; Arshad, S.H. ; Holloway, John W. ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Magnus, Per ; Dwyer, Terence ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Demeo, Dawn L. ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Newnham, John ; Tantisira, Kelan G. ; Kull, Inger ; Wiemels, Joseph L. ; Heude, Barbara ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Nystad, Wenche ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C. ; Raïkkönen, Katri ; Oken, Emily ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Weiss, Scott T. ; Antó, Josep Maria ; Bousquet, Jean ; Kumar, Ashish ; Söderhäll, Cilla ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Cardenas, Andres ; Gruzieva, Olena ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Kere, Juha ; Brodin, Petter ; Solomon, Olivia ; Wielscher, Matthias ; Holland, Nina ; Ghantous, Akram ; Hivert, Marie France ; Felix, Janine F. ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; London, Stephanie J. ; Melén, Erik - \ 2020
    Karolinska Institute
    Development - Epigenetics - Gestational age - Preterm birth - Transcriptomics
    Background Preterm birth and shorter duration of pregnancy are associated with increased morbidity in neonatal and later life. As the epigenome is known to have an important role during fetal development, we investigated associations between gestational age and blood DNA methylation in children. Methods We performed meta-analysis of Illumina’s HumanMethylation450-array associations between gestational age and cord blood DNA methylation in 3648 newborns from 17 cohorts without common pregnancy complications, induced delivery or caesarean section. We also explored associations of gestational age with DNA methylation measured at 4–18 years in additional pediatric cohorts. Follow-up analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression correlations were performed in cord blood. DNA methylation profiles were also explored in tissues relevant for gestational age health effects: fetal brain and lung. Results We identified 8899 CpGs in cord blood that were associated with gestational age (range 27–42 weeks), at Bonferroni significance, P
    ReDU: a framework to find and reanalyze public mass spectrometry data
    Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Wang, Mingxun ; Aceves, Christine M. ; Advani, Rohit S. ; Aguirre, Shaden ; Aksenov, Alexander A. ; Aleti, Gajender ; Aron, Allegra T. ; Bauermeister, Anelize ; Bolleddu, Sanjana ; Bouslimani, Amina ; Caraballo Rodriguez, Andres Mauricio ; Chaar, Rama ; Coras, Roxana ; Elijah, Emmanuel O. ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Gentry, Emily C. ; Husband, Makhai ; Jarmusch, Scott A. ; Jones, Kenneth L. ; Kamenik, Zdenek ; Gouellec, Audrey Le; Lu, Aileen ; McCall, Laura Isobel ; McPhail, Kerry L. ; Meehan, Michael J. ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Menezes, Riya C. ; Montoya Giraldo, Yessica Alejandra ; Nguyen, Ngoc Hung ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Nothias-Esposito, Mélissa ; Panitchpakdi, Morgan ; Petras, Daniel ; Quinn, Robert A. ; Sikora, Nicole ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Vargas, Fernando ; Vrbanac, Alison ; Weldon, Kelly C. ; Knight, Rob ; Bandeira, Nuno ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. - \ 2020
    Nature Methods : techniques for life scientists and chemists 17 (2020)9. - ISSN 1548-7091 - p. 901 - 904.

    We present ReDU (, a system for metadata capture of public mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data, with validated controlled vocabularies. Systematic capture of knowledge enables the reanalysis of public data and/or co-analysis of one’s own data. ReDU enables multiple types of analyses, including finding chemicals and associated metadata, comparing the shared and different chemicals between groups of samples, and metadata-filtered, repository-scale molecular networking.

    Timing of dietary switching by savannah elephants in relation to crop consumption
    Vogel, Susanne Marieke ; Blumenthal, Scott A. ; Boer, Willem Frederik de; Masake, Moses ; Newton, Ian ; Songhurst, Anna Catherine ; McCulloch, Graham ; Stronza, Amanda ; Henley, Michelle Deborah ; Coulson, Tim - \ 2020
    Biological Conservation 249 (2020). - ISSN 0006-3207
    Crop raiding - Elephant crop consumption - Human elephant conflict - Human-wildlife co-existence - Human-wildlife conflict - Mixed-feeders - Stable isotope analysis

    Tree and grass quality on the African savannah shows seasonal variation, driving mixed-feeding herbivores to switch between browsing and grazing. During this switch, crop consumption could be an attractive alternative to browsing. We analysed elephant diet variability in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, using faecal stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ^13C) and frequencies of elephant crop consumption, to determine the extent to which crop consumption relates to this potential switch. Although elephants did increase their relative grass consumption in the wet season, browse dominated the annual diet. After February, the proportion of grass in the diet dropped considerably, and continued decreasing through April when farmers reported most crop consumption. Generalized Linear Models revealed that the occurrence of elephant crop consumption increased with the proportion of grass consumed and with decreasing grass quality. The proportion of grass in elephant faeces increased with increasing crop consumption intensity. As crop consumption could also be related to nutrient deficiencies in elephant diet, we calculated the total dietary input of nutrients to reveal potential deficiencies. Elephant diet contained insufficient levels of sodium year-round, and insufficient phosphorus from February to July. As the latter coincides with the timing of crop consumption, we consider our results an indication that phosphorus –and potentially sodium - deficiencies, could play a role in elephant dietary choices, including crop consuming behaviour. Further experimental research is required to show whether supplying elephants with supplementary phosphorus and sodium sources could reduce this micro-nutrient deficiency, and could play a role in reducing elephant crop consumption.

    Quantifying Individual Response to PRRSV Using Dynamic Indicators of Resilience Based on Activity
    Zande, Lisette E. van der; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Mathur, Pramod K. ; Cairns, W.J. ; Keyes, Michael C. ; Eggert, John M. ; Little, Erin A. ; Dee, Scott A. ; Knol, Egbert F. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
    accelerometer - activity - dynamic indicator of resilience - pig behavior - resilience

    Pigs are faced with various perturbations throughout their lives, some of which are induced by management practices, others by natural causes. Resilience is described as the ability to recover from or cope with a perturbation. Using these data, activity patterns of an individual, as well as deviations from these patterns, can potentially be used to quantify resilience. Dynamic indicators of resilience (DIORs) may measure resilience on a different dimension by calculating variation, autocorrelation and skewness of activity from the absolute activity data. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using DIORs of activity, such as average, root mean square error (RMSE), autocorrelation or skewness as indicators of resilience to infection with the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV). For this study, individual activity was obtained from 232 pigs equipped with ear tag accelerometers and inoculated with PRRSV between seven and 9 weeks of age. Clinical scores were assigned to each individual at 13 days post-challenge and used to distinguish between a resilient and non-resilient group. Mortality post-challenge was also recorded. Average, RMSE, autocorrelation and skewness of activity were calculated for the pre- and post-challenge phases, as well as the change in activity level pre- vs. post-challenge (i.e., delta). DIORs pre-challenge were expected to predict resilience to PRRSV in the absence of PRRSV infection, whereas DIORs post-challenge and delta were expected to reflect the effect of the PRRSV challenge. None of the pre-challenge DIORs predicted morbidity or mortality post-challenge. However, a higher RMSE in the 3 days post-challenge and larger change in level and RMSE of activity from pre- to post-challenge tended to increase the probability of clinical signs at day 13 post-infection (poor resilience). A higher skewness post-challenge (tendency) and a larger change in skewness from pre- to post-challenge increased the probability of mortality. A decrease in skewness post-challenge lowered the risk of mortality. The post-challenge DIOR autocorrelation was neither linked to morbidity nor to mortality. In conclusion, results from this study showed that post-challenge DIORs of activity can be used to quantify resilience to PRRSV challenge.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
    Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.

    Variability in the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes under dynamic conditions can be more relevant than that evidenced by isothermal treatments
    Clemente-Carazo, Marta ; Cebrián, Guillermo ; Garre, Alberto ; Palop, Alfredo - \ 2020
    Food Research International 137 (2020). - ISSN 0963-9969
    Food safety - Foodborne pathogens - Pasteurization - Predictive microbiology - Stress acclimation - Stress response

    Heterogeneity in the response of microbial cells to environmental conditions is inherent to every biological system and can be very relevant for food safety, potentially being as important as intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, previous studies analyzing variability in the microbial response to thermal treatments were limited to data obtained under isothermal conditions, whereas in the reality, environmental conditions are dynamic. In this article we analyse both empirically and through mathematical modelling the variability in the microbial response to thermal treatments under isothermal and dynamic conditions. Heat resistance was studied for four strains of Listeria monocytogenes (Scott A, CECT 4031, CECT 4032 and 12MOB052), in three different matrices (buffered peptone water, pH 7 Mcllvaine buffer and semi-skimmed milk). Under isothermal conditions, between-strain and between-media variability had no impact in the heat resistance, whereas it was very relevant for dynamic conditions. Therefore, the differences observed under dynamic conditions can be attributed to the variability in the ability for developing stress acclimation. The highest acclimation was observed in strain CECT 4031 (10-fold increase of the D-value), while the lowest acclimation was observed in strain CECT 4032 (50% increase of the D-value). Concerning the different media, acclimation was higher in buffered peptone water and semi-skimmed milk than in Mcllvaine buffer of pH 7.0. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first research work that specifically analyses the variability of microbial adaptation processes that take place under dynamic conditions. It highlights that microbial heat resistance under dynamic conditions are sometimes determined by mechanisms that cannot be observed when cells are treated in isothermal conditions (e.g. acclimation) and can also be affected by variability. Consequently, empirical evidence on variability gathered under isothermal conditions should be extrapolated with care for dynamic conditions.

    Synthesis and characterization of a supported Pd complex on carbon nanofibers for the selective decarbonylation of stearic acid to 1-heptadecene : The importance of subnanometric Pd dispersion
    Ochoa, Elba ; Henao, Wilson ; Fuertes, Sara ; Torres, Daniel ; Haasterecht, Tomas Van; Scott, Elinor ; Bitter, Harry ; Suelves, Isabel ; Pinilla, Jose Luis - \ 2020
    Catalysis Science & Technology 10 (2020)9. - ISSN 2044-4753 - p. 2970 - 2985.

    Production of linear α-olefins from renewable sources is gaining increasing attention because it allows the transition from the current petrochemical synthesis route to a more sustainable scenario. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of an innovative catalyst based on a di-μ-chloro-bis[palladium(ii) anthranilate] complex highly dispersed by incipient wetness impregnation over acyl chlorinated carbon nanofibers. The subnanometric dispersion of the metal complex allowed higher catalytic efficiency for the selective decarbonylation of stearic acid to 1-heptadecene as compared to the reference homogenous catalyst. The best catalytic performance (90 mol% selectivity, 71 mol% conversion, and TON = 484) was achieved under mild reaction conditions (atmospheric pressure, 140 °C) with a Pd loading in solution of 0.14 mol%. The post-mortem catalyst characterization and the recyclability tests evidenced the high stability of the catalyst. The highly dispersed catalyst developed in this work provides new opportunities in the rational design of more efficient catalytic systems for the sustainable transformation of fatty acids.

    Location, location, location : Phototropin 2 action at the chloroplast membrane
    Hayes, Scott - \ 2020
    Plant Physiology 183 (2020)5. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 27 - 28.
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