Correlating the plant height of wheat with aboveground biomass and crop yield using drone imagery and crop surface model, a case study from Nepal
Panday, Uma Shankar ; Shrestha, Nawaraj ; Maharjan, Shashish ; Pratihast, Arun Kumar ; Shahnawaz, ; Shrestha, Kundan Lal ; Aryal, Jagannath - \ 2020
Drones 4 (2020)3. - ISSN 2504-446X - p. 1 - 15.
AGB - Consumer drone - Crop monitoring - Crop yield - Digital camera - Estimation - Remote sensing - Wheat
Food security is one of the burning issues in the 21st century, as a tremendous population growth over recent decades has increased demand for food production systems. However, agricultural production is constrained by the limited availability of arable land resources, whereas a significant part of these is already degraded due to overexploitation. In order to get optimum output from the available land resources, it is of prime importance that crops are monitored, analyzed, and mapped at various stages of growth so that the areas having underdeveloped/unhealthy plants can be treated appropriately as and when required. This type of monitoring can be performed using ultra-high-resolution earth observation data like the images captured through unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)/drones. The objective of this research is to estimate and analyze the above-ground biomass (AGB) of the wheat crop using a consumer-grade red-green-blue (RGB) camera mounted on a drone. AGB and yield of wheat were estimated from linear regression models involving plant height obtained from crop surface models (CSMs) derived from the images captured by the drone-mounted camera. This study estimated plant height in an integrated setting of UAV-derived images with a Mid-Western Terai topographic setting (67 to 300 m amsl) of Nepal. Plant height estimated from the drone images had an error of 5% to 11.9% with respect to direct field measurement. While R2 of 0.66 was found for AGB, that of 0.73 and 0.70 were found for spike and grain weights respectively. This statistical quality assurance contributes to crop yield estimation, and hence to develop efficient food security strategies using earth observation and geo-information.
A review on drone-based data solutions for cereal crops
Panday, Uma Shankar ; Pratihast, Arun Kumar ; Aryal, Jagannath ; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta - \ 2020
Drones 4 (2020)3. - ISSN 2504-446X - 29 p.
Cereals - Citizen science - COVID-19 - Drones - Food security - IoT - Low-cost sensors - Machine learning methods - Precision agriculture - Scaling up
Food security is a longstanding global issue over the last few centuries. Eradicating hunger and all forms of malnutrition by 2030 is still a key challenge. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed additional stress on food production, demand, and supply chain systems; majorly impacting cereal crop producer and importer countries. Short food supply chain based on the production from local farms is less susceptible to travel and export bans and works as a smooth system in the face of these stresses. Local drone-based data solutions can provide an opportunity to address these challenges. This review aims to present a deeper understanding of how the drone-based data solutions can help to combat food insecurity caused due to the pandemic, zoonotic diseases, and other food shocks by enhancing cereal crop productivity of small-scale farming systems in low-income countries. More specifically, the review covers sensing capabilities, promising algorithms, and methods, and added-value of novel machine learning algorithms for local-scale monitoring, biomass and yield estimation, and mapping of them. Finally, we present the opportunities for linking information from citizen science, internet of things (IoT) based on low-cost sensors and drone-based information to satellite data for upscaling crop yield estimation to a larger geographical extent within the Earth Observation umbrella.
Antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation: call to action for change in recommendation
Bourassa, Megan W. ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Adu‐Afarwuah, Seth ; Ahmed, Saima ; Ajello, Clayton ; Bergeron, Gilles ; Black, Robert ; Christian, Parul ; Cousens, Simon ; Pee, Saskia de; Dewey, Kathryn G. ; Arifeen, Shams El ; Engle‐Stone, Reina ; Fleet, Alison ; Gernand, Alison D. ; Hoddinott, John ; Klemm, Rolf ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Kupka, Roland ; McLean, Erin ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Persson, L. ; Rasmussen, Kathleen M. ; Shankar, Anuraj H. ; Smith, Emily ; Sudfeld, Christopher R. ; Udomkesmalee, Emorn ; Vosti, Stephen A. - \ 2020
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1465 (2020)1. - ISSN 0077-8923 - p. 5 - 7.
Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria
Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.
Long-term physiological and growth responses of Himalayan fir to environmental change are mediated by mean climate
Panthi, Shankar ; Fan, Ze Xin ; Sleen, Peter van der; Zuidema, Pieter A. - \ 2020
Global Change Biology 26 (2020)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1778 - 1794.
central Himalaya - climate change - elevation gradients - high-elevation forests - Himalayan fir (Abies spectabilis) - intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) - long-term growth trends - tree rings
High-elevation forests are experiencing high rates of warming, in combination with CO2 rise and (sometimes) drying trends. In these montane systems, the effects of environmental changes on tree growth are also modified by elevation itself, thus complicating our ability to predict effects of future climate change. Tree-ring analysis along an elevation gradient allows quantifying effects of gradual and annual environmental changes. Here, we study long-term physiological (ratio of internal to ambient CO2, i.e., Ci/Ca and intrinsic water-use efficiency, iWUE) and growth responses (tree-ring width) of Himalayan fir (Abies spectabilis) trees in response to warming, drying, and CO2 rise. Our study was conducted along elevational gradients in a dry and a wet region in the central Himalaya. We combined dendrochronology and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) to quantify long-term trends in Ci/Ca ratio and iWUE (δ13C-derived), growth (mixed-effects models), and evaluate climate sensitivity (correlations). We found that iWUE increased over time at all elevations, with stronger increase in the dry region. Climate–growth relations showed growth-limiting effects of spring moisture (dry region) and summer temperature (wet region), and negative effects of temperature (dry region). We found negative growth trends at lower elevations (dry and wet regions), suggesting that continental-scale warming and regional drying reduced tree growth. This interpretation is supported by δ13C-derived long-term physiological responses, which are consistent with responses to reduced moisture and increased vapor pressure deficit. At high elevations (wet region), we found positive growth trends, suggesting that warming has favored tree growth in regions where temperature most strongly limits growth. At lower elevations (dry and wet regions), the positive effects of CO2 rise did not mitigate the negative effects of warming and drying on tree growth. Our results raise concerns on the productivity of Himalayan fir forests at low and middle (<3,300 m) elevations as climate change progresses.
Review of the evidence regarding the use of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation in low- and middle-income countries
Bourassa, Megan W. ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth ; Ahmed, Saima ; Ajello, Clayton ; Bergeron, Gilles ; Black, Robert ; Christian, Parul ; Cousens, Simon ; Pee, Saskia de; Dewey, Kathryn G. ; Arifeen, Shams El ; Engle-Stone, Reina ; Fleet, Alison ; Gernand, Alison D. ; Hoddinott, John ; Klemm, Rolf ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Kupka, Roland ; McLean, Erin ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Persson, Lars Åke ; Rasmussen, Kathleen M. ; Shankar, Anuraj H. ; Smith, Emily ; Sudfeld, Christopher R. ; Udomkesmalee, Emorn ; Vosti, Stephen A. - \ 2019
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1444 (2019)1. - ISSN 0077-8923 - p. 6 - 21.
LMICs - micronutrient - pregnancy - supplements
Inadequate micronutrient intakes are relatively common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially among pregnant women, who have increased micronutrient requirements. This can lead to an increase in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. This review presents the conclusions of a task force that set out to assess the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes and adverse birth outcomes in LMICs; the data from trials comparing multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) that contain iron and folic acid (IFA) with IFA supplements alone; the risks of reaching the upper intake levels with MMS; and the cost-effectiveness of MMS compared with IFA. Recent meta-analyses demonstrate that MMS can reduce the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in comparison with IFA alone. An individual-participant data meta-analysis also revealed even greater benefits for anemic and underweight women and female infants. Importantly, there was no increased risk of harm for the pregnant women or their infants with MMS. These data suggest that countries with inadequate micronutrient intakes should consider supplementing pregnant women with MMS as a cost-effective method to reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes.
Selected peer-reviewed articles from the 1st annual international conference and exhibition Indonesian medical education and research institute (ICE on IMERI), Central Jakarta, Indonesia, 14–16 november, 2016
Wiweko, Budi ; Hestiantoro, Andon ; Agustina, Rina ; Hamid, Agus Rizal A.H. ; Kok, Frans J. ; Yamamoto, Tokunori ; Teo, Y.Y. ; Shankar, Anuraj H. - \ 2017
Advanced Science Letters 23 (2017)7. - ISSN 1936-6612 - p. 6641 - 6643.
Payyappallimana, U. ; Subramanian, M. ; Timoshyna, A. ; Graz, B. ; Leaman, D. ; Bussmann, R.W. ; Hariramamurthi, G. ; Shankar, D. ; Klooster, C.I.E.A. van 't; Bodeker, G. ; Sekagya, Y. ; Hemstra, W. ; Gomez, F. ; Verschuuren, B. ; Ravin, E. de; Ligare, J. ; Reid, A.M. ; Petersen, L.M. - \ 2015
In: Connecting Global Priorities: Biodiversity and Human Health World Health Organization - ISBN 9789241508537 - p. 180 - 199.
Evaluation as a multi-stakeholder process : the Programme for Capacity and Theory Building for Universities and Research Centres in Endogenous Development (CAPTURED) in Bolivia, Ghana and India
Brouwers, J.H.A.M. ; Millar, D. ; Orellana Halkyer, R. ; Delgado Burgoa, F. ; Nair, B. ; Shankar, D. - \ 2013
Knowledge Management for Development Journal 9 (2013)3. - ISSN 1871-6342 - p. 47 - 62.
An evaluation is a particular multi-stakeholder event during which different actors share and analyse results after several years. If the evaluation has a strong formative purpose the evaluation team is requested to facilitate a learning process involving all key actors. Especially evaluations that emphasise deeper learning have to be designed in such a way that different perspectives emerge and are appreciated in an interactive way. The present article reviews the results and methodological design of the evaluation of the Programme for Capacity and Theory Building for Universities and Research Centres in Endogenous Development (CAPTURED) in Universities and higher education centres in Bolivia, Ghana and India. The ambition of CAPTURED was to validate and integrate endogenous knowledge and values into education and research programmes. The three cases show how different stakeholders in three different context situations have interacted in higher education and research change processes. The evaluation provided an example of a mixed methods design that allowed for inclusion and appreciation of perspectives of different stakeholders. The evaluation facilitated a learning process engaging the various actors in joint analysis and formulation of shared conclusions and recommendations. Each evaluation team has to consider which set of methods is responding to the required domain and project context, and how the methods complement each other or can be adapted to the case. The design should deliver both quantitative as well as qualitative data that provide evidence about results as well as the stories and background what these results mean for different stakeholders. In this way the evaluation provided both summative evaluation (providing an assessment of results) as well as formative understanding (learning) what these results meant for different stakeholders. The case shows how an evaluation can be conducted as a facilitated process with different project stakeholders by applying mixed methods design to allow actors to learn from project results.
|Agricultural science and potato research in the Netherlands
Haverkort, A.J. - \ 2012
In: Towards co-creation of sciences / Haverkort, B., Delgado, F., Shankar, D., Miller, D., New Delhi : Nimby Science - ISBN 9788190657044 - p. 130 - 185.
|Waterbird numbers at high altitude lakes in eastern Ladakh, India
Namgail, T. ; Mudappa, D. ; Shankar Raman, T.R. - \ 2009
Wildfowl 59 (2009). - ISSN 0954-6324 - p. 137 - 144.