Gender and the Politics of Chinese Banquets
Schneider, Mindi - \ 2020
Podcast interview on recent publication
Mindi Schneider was interviewed for the podcast, China Eats, about her work on the practices and politics of Chinese banquets, which are an integral part of business, government, and many research relationships in China. She discusses the meaning of guanxi, a Chinese concept for the cultivation of relationships and networks of mutual dependence that are central in forming and maintaining relationships and trust, and the role of banquets in guanxi-building. The podcast discussion builds on her recent co-authored article in Gender, Place & Culture entitled, “We, too: contending with the sexual politics of fieldwork in China” to discuss how banquets and guanxi-building are different for men and women, especially those engaged in fieldwork. The podcast and the article are useful for students, mentors, and supervisors who work in China Studies in particular, as it outlines norms and expectations around banquets and guanxi, which are crucial for those navigating institutional and other relations in China. Field researchers more generally who wish to engage further with gendered aspects of their work can also find insights and literature in the article, and mentors and supervisors can benefit from better understanding some of the gendered risks and tradeoffs that often come with field-based research.
Link to the podcast: https://directory.libsyn.com/episode/index/show/chinaeats/id/15255821
Link to the open-access article: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0966369X.2020.1781793
Food System Vision 2050 by Imke de Boer
Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
Professor Imke de Boer explains the Food System Vision 2050 'Re-rooting the Dutch food system: from more to better' she made with other researchers, farmers and Dutch organisations.
Goose parents lead migration V
Kölzsch, A. ; Flack, A. ; Müskens, G.J.D.M. ; Kruckenberg, H. ; Glazov, P. ; Wikelski, M. - \ 2020
Journal of Avian Biology 51 (2020)3. - ISSN 0908-8857
flight mechanics - goose family behaviour - group migration - leadership - V-formation flight
Many migratory animals travel in large social groups. Large, avian migrants that fly in V-formations were proposed do so for energy saving by the use of up-wash by following individuals and regularly change leadership. As groups have been rather homogeneous in previous work, we aimed to explore leadership and its flight mechanics consequences in an extremely heterogeneous case of social migration, namely in spring migration of goose families. In families the experience of group members differs strongly and inclusive fitness may be important. We successfully collected overlapping spring migration tracking data of a complete family of greater white-fronted geese Anser a. albifrons and extracted leadership, flapping frequency and wind conditions in flight. Our data revealed V-formations where one parent was flying in front at all times. Although the father led the family group most of the time, he did not flap at higher frequency while doing so. In contrast, the mother flapped faster when leading, possibly because she experienced less supportive wind conditions than when the father led. We argue that in heterogeneous, social groups leadership might be fixed and not costly if supportive environmental conditions like wind can be used.
Behavioural factors of Dutch pig producers related to control of Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs
Wagenberg, Coen P.A. Van; Asseldonk, Marcel A.P.M. Van; Bouwknegt, Martijn ; Wisselink, Henk J. - \ 2020
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 176 (2020). - ISSN 0167-5877
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden. Infected pig meat is a common risk source of toxoplasmosis. Therefore, it is important to control T. gondii infections in pigs. Improving farm management to control the introduction risk likely contributes to that aim. A pig producer only implements control measures when he or she is aware of the underlying problem, wants to solve it, and is able to solve it. If a pig producer is not implementing appropriate control measures, behavioural change interventions can be introduced to overcome constraining behavioural factors. To aid in designing behaviour change interventions, this study analysed behavioural factors of Dutch pig producers in terms of capability, opportunity and motivation to control T. gondii infections in pigs. Key risk sources analysed focused on the life cycle of T. gondii, with cats as primary host, rodents as intermediate host, and uncovered feed as an important risk source. A survey was conducted among Dutch pig producers. Responses were analysed using descriptive and cluster analysis. Results showed that around 80% of the 67 responding pig producers was aware of key risk sources of T. gondii infections in pigs. Respondents also rated risk sources that are not known to increase the risk of T. gondii infections in pigs as somewhat important. Many respondents did not know about potential consequences of a T. gondii infection in pigs on human health. Two third expected some impact on pig performance, which is incorrect because T. gondii generally does not make pigs ill. Most respondents indicated to have the motivation and opportunity to control the risk sources cats, rodents and uncovered feed. Three pig producer clusters were identified: one with higher capability to control rodents, one with lower motivation to control rodents and cats and to cover feed storages, and one with lower scores on the importance of rodent control for pigs, human health and farm profit. We conclude that, although many pig producers have knowledge about risk sources for and consequences of T. gondii infections in pigs, the public health impact and risks of T. gondii infections in pigs are not yet common knowledge among all Dutch pig producers. Furthermore, Dutch pig producers differ in opportunity and motivation to control T. gondii infections. Targeted interventions to address these specific constraining behavioural factors can help to improve the control of T. gondii infections in pigs.
Operationalising transformative sustainability science through place-based research: the role of researchers
Horlings, Lummina G. ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Pisters, Siri ; Soini, Katriina - \ 2020
Sustainability Science 15 (2020). - ISSN 1862-4065 - p. 467 - 484.
Engagement - Place-based research - Place-shaping - Roles of researchers - Sustainability - Transformation
Among scholars in sustainability science, there is an increasing recognition of the potential of place-based research in the context of transformative change towards sustainability. In this research, researchers may have a variety of roles; these are determined by the researcher’s engagement with the subject, the inherent theoretical, normative and methodological choices he or she makes, the researcher’s ambitions in contributing to change, and ethical issues. This article explores the varied roles of research fellows within the European Marie Curie ITN research program on sustainable place-shaping (SUSPLACE). By analysing 15 SUSPLACE projects and reflecting on the roles of researchers identified by Wittmayer and Schäpke (Sustain Sci 9(4):483–496, 2014) we describe how the fellows’ theoretical positionality, methods applied, and engagement in places led to different research roles. The methodology used for the paper is based on an interactive process, co-producing knowledge with Early Stage Researchers (fellows) of the SUSPLACE consortium. The results show a range of place meanings applied by the fellows. Varied methods are used to give voice to participants in research and to bring them together for joint reflection on values, networks and understandings, co-creating knowledge. Multiple conceptualisations of ‘sustainability’ were used, reflecting different normative viewpoints. These choices and viewpoints resulted in fellows each engaging in multiple roles, exploring various routes of sustainable place-shaping, and influencing place-relations. Based on our findings we introduce a framework for the ‘embodied researcher’: a researcher who is engaged in research with their ‘brain, heart, hands and feet’ and who integrates different roles during the research process.
Youngest versus oldest child: why does mothers’ snack choice differ?
Damen, Femke W.M. ; Steenbekkers, Bea L.P.A. ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2020
Appetite 144 (2020). - ISSN 0195-6663
Birth order - Child dietary behavior - Family structure - Food choice - Sibling - Snack foods
Young children frequently consume energy dense snacks, which is one of the factors contributing to childhood overweight. The consumption of more healthy snacks could help in meeting the dietary intake requirements of children. Previous research suggested that mothers of first children showed more health-conscious food behavior compared to mothers of not-first children. However, what is missing from earlier research is an in-depth exploration of differences in considerations to choose a snack and the reasons connected. Therefore, this study aims to characterize differences in mothers' snack choice for their youngest child at 2–3 years and their oldest child when he/she was of the same age. Moreover, this study aims to identify reasons for these differences. A grounded theory approach was used for data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 Dutch mothers with two or three children. All mothers indicated differences between snacks provided to their youngest child (2–3 years) and their oldest child when it was of the same age. Most frequently mentioned differences were youngest children receive unhealthy snacks at a younger age, the structure regarding snack providing is more fixed, and that youngest children receive less age-specific snacks. Most frequently mentioned reasons for these differences were role-modelling, novelty of the first-born, availability of other types of snacks at home, and school hours of the oldest child. The study provided insights into the possible role of siblings in shaping snack consumption. Results might be relevant for the development of intervention strategies to increase mothers' awareness and to help to meet children's dietary requirements.
Malaria mosquitoes use leg push-off forces to control body pitch during take-off
Veen, Wouter G. van; Leeuwen, Johan L. van; Muijres, Florian T. - \ 2020
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology 333 (2020)1. - ISSN 2471-5638 - p. 38 - 49.
aerodynamics - Anopheles coluzzii - computational fluid dynamics
Escaping from a blood host with freshly acquired nutrition for her eggs is one of the most critical actions in the life of a female malaria mosquito. During this take-off, she has to carry a large payload, up to three times her body weight, while avoiding tactile detection by the host. What separates the malaria mosquito from most other insects is that the mosquito pushes off gently with its legs while producing aerodynamic forces with its wings. Apart from generating the required forces, the malaria mosquito has to produce the correct torques to pitch-up during take-off. Furthermore, the fed mosquito has to alter the direction of its aerodynamic force vector to compensate for the higher body pitch angle due to its heavier abdomen. Whether the mosquito generates these torques and redirection of the forces with its wings or legs remains unknown. By combining rigid-body inverse dynamics analyses with computational fluid dynamics simulations, we show that mosquitoes use leg push-off to control pitch torques and that the adaption of the aerodynamic force direction is synchronized with modulations in force magnitude. These results suggest that during the push-off phase of a take-off, mosquitoes use their flight apparatus primarily as a motor system and they use leg push-off forces for control.
Wagemakers, Annemarie - \ 2019
Proposed contribution to WASS
Jane South is Professor of Healthy Communities working in the field of volunteering, active citizenship and community health. She will meet with WASS PhD students on 7 November 2019. And she will be key-note speaker at the International Conference Nutrition Disparity and Equity: From Differences to Potential on 8 November 2019.
|When animals speak : Toward an interspecies democracy
Meijer, Eva - \ 2019
New York : New York University Press - ISBN 9781479815661 - 228 p.
A groundbreaking argument for the political rights of animals In When Animals Speak, Eva Meijer develops a new, ground-breaking theory of language and politics, arguing that non-human animals speak--and, most importantly, act--politically. From geese and squid to worms and dogs, she highlights the importance of listening to animal voices, introducing ways to help us bridge the divide between the human and non-human world. Drawing on insights from science, philosophy, and politics, Meijer provides fascinating, real-world examples of animal communities who use their voices to speak, and act, in political ways. When Animals Speak encourages us to rethink our relations with other animals, showing that their voices should be taken into account as the starting point for a new interspecies democracy.
Rethinking resource allocation in science
Bollen, Johan ; Carpenter, Stephen R. ; Lubchenco, Jane ; Scheffer, Marten - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)3. - ISSN 1708-3087
Computational science - Peer review - Science funding - Science policy - Self-organization
Many funding agencies rely on grant proposal peer review to allocate scientific funding, i.e., researchers compete for funding by submitting proposals that are reviewed and ranked by committees of their peers. Only a fraction of applicants are awarded the requested funds. This system has a long and venerable tradition, but it is increasingly struggling to handle the larger number of applications, suffers from high levels of administrative overhead, may be unreliable in separating successful from unsuccessful projects, and may suffer from bias against innovative ideas, young researchers, and female scientists. We have proposed redesigning funding systems according to a few simple principles, namely, focusing on funding people instead of projects and involving as many scientists in funding decisions as possible. This underpins a proposal for a novel funding system in which every scientist periodically receives an equal, unconditional amount of funding but must anonymously donate a given fraction of everything he or she receives to other scientists of his or her choice. Over time, this simple process will lead to a funding distribution that reflects the entire scientific community, fosters young scientists, and reduces overhead. However, in spite of its simplicity, we must address certain challenges in its implementation such as deciding who participates in the funding system, how to control for conflicts of interest and bias, and how to manage its application. Funding agencies will play a pivotal role in the development and management of this system.
Risk assessment of exotic disease incursion and spread
Cabral, M. ; Taylor, R. ; Vos, C.J. de - \ 2019
EFSA Journal 17 (2019)S2. - ISSN 1831-4732
generic model - Import risk assessment - introduction risk - livestock disease - validation
This Technical Report describes the activities developed in the scope of the EU-FORA Fellowship, within the work programme of risk assessment (RA) of exotic disease incursion and spread, developed at Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR). The programme focused on the work carried out in the Generic risk assessment for introduction of animal diseases (G-RAID) project, which brings together a number of different generic RA tools from multiple European partners. The aim of the fellowship was to gain understanding of veterinary import risk assessment by using different RA tools and to learn how different algorithms can be used to calculate disease incursion risks. G-RAID's tools cover a wide range of RA methodologies; from purely qualitative, to semi-quantitative and fully stochastic quantitative methods, which allowed the fellow to understand a variety of algorithms used to produce the final risk estimate. The fellowship programme provided the fellow with the chance to learn in detail about how generic RAs are performed across Europe, understanding how to deal with the uncertainty and variability involved in RAs and the potential problems of data availability and reliability. The fellow made an inventory of publicly available databases on disease occurrence and international trade that could be used for import RA and assessed their quality and usefulness for the different generic RA tools. The programme also provided the fellow the opportunity to perform several import risk assessments using the RA tools of G-RAID. She completed a RA on African swine fever using the MINTRISK model developed by WBVR. Furthermore, she assessed the risk of foot and mouth disease introduction using the Rapid Risk Assessment Tool (RRAT) model developed by WBVR and the COMPARE model developed by the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). To this end, the fellow completed a short-term visit to APHA, enabling her to have additional training in quantitative RA and to expand her professional network in this area.
'Soil is cool!': Gerlinde De Deijn wants to change the public's mindset
Deyn, Gerlinde de - \ 2019
Soil has got a great ambassador in Gerlinde De Deyn. Her enthusiasm never flags as she explores the wonders beneath the Earth’s surface and shares her story with others. That resulted recently in her receiving the GroundBreaker Prize in America. ‘The next generation will have to rely on what we leave behind. The soil is the basis.'
'Your diet says something about you'
Vet, Emely de - \ 2019
On 1 February 2019, Emely de Vet became head of the new Consumption and Healthy
How do you track down food risks efficiently?
Fels, H.J. van der - \ 2019
Ine van der Fels-Klerx became special professor of Food Safety Economics at WUR on 1 August. She does research on how the government and industry can detect risks in the food supply chain as thoroughly and efficiently as possible.
Dairy Cows for Data : Optimizing Resilience & Efficiency
Kamphuis, C. - \ 2019
Wageningen Livestock Research
At Dairy Campus we collect data from 500 cows. Claudia Kamphuis tells about the research she does with this data to optimize the balance between cattle resilience and efficiency
Meer, I.M. van der - \ 2019
Ingrid van der Meer, a plant biotechnologist at Wageningen Universty, opens a petri dish and fishes out some duckweed with her fingers. She slides a few of the pinhead-sized plants into her mouth and starts chewing. "it has a nutty taste, she says, then adss, smiling, "It's such a nice plant. But it sticks to everything - when you are working with it, you end up with duckweed everywhere. It's theri way to spread around". Duckweed is one of the fastes-growing plants on Earth. Its biomass can double in size in as little as 16hours - it's so fast that in 2004, the government of Venezuela declared a state of emergency due to the spreading duckweed cover on Lake Maracaibo. A NASA photo taken that year showed the large body of water resembling an enormous green glob.
Factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding and consumption of non-recommended foods among Dutch infants : The BeeBOFT study
Wang, Lu ; Grieken, Amy Van; Velde, Laura A. Van Der; Vlasblom, Eline ; Beltman, Maaike ; Hoir, Monique P. L'; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M. ; Raat, Hein - \ 2019
BMC Public Health 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2458
Introduction of complementary feeding - Risk factors - Snack foods - Sweet beverage
Background: Timing and types of complementary feeding in infancy affect nutritional status and health later in life. The present study aimed to investigate the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding (i.e., before age 4 months), and factors associated with infants consumption of non-recommended foods, including sweet beverages and snack foods. Methods: This study used cross-sectional data from the BeeBOFT study (n = 2157). Data on complementary feeding practices and potential determinants were obtained by questionnaire at infant's age of 6 months. Logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding and infants' consumption of non-recommended foods. Results: 21.4% of infants had received complementary feeding before 4 months of age. At the age of 6 months, 20.2% of all infants were consuming sweet beverages daily and 16.5% were consuming snack foods daily. Younger maternal age, lower maternal educational level, absence or shorter duration of breastfeeding, parental conviction that "my child always wants to eat when he/she sees someone eating" and not attending day-care were independently associated with both early introduction of complementary feeding and the consumption of non-recommended foods. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and infant postnatal weight gain were associated only with early introduction of complementary feeding. Conclusions: We identified several demographical, biological, behavioral, psychosocial, and social factors associated with inappropriate complementary feeding practices. These findings are relevant for designing intervention programs aimed at educating parents. Trial registration: The trail is registered at Netherlands Trial Register, trail registration number: NTR1831. Retrospectively registered on May 29, 2009.
Johanna Westerdijk (1881–1961) – the impact of the grand lady of phytopathology in the Netherlands from 1917 to 2017
Boonekamp, Piet M. ; Pieterse, Corné M.J. ; Govers, Francine ; Cornelissen, Ben J.C. - \ 2019
European Journal of Plant Pathology 154 (2019)1. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 11 - 16.
One century ago, on February 10, 1917, Johanna Westerdijk delivered her inaugural speech at Utrecht University entitled “New directions in phytopathological research”. By doing so, she became the very first female professor in the Netherlands and set the stage for many female professors who followed her example. Besides her remarkable performance as a role model for women in science, Johanna Westerdijk was also a pioneer in the global science field of phytopathology, which rapidly emerged at the end of the 19th century and reached maturity during the course of her scientific career.
Gene editing towards hypoimmunogenic gluten proteins in wheat
Jouanin, Aurélie A. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.G.F. Visser, co-promotor(en): M.J.M. Smulders; F.J. Leigh. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435420 - 212
One to two per cent of the population has Coeliac Disease (CD), an immune reaction to gluten. Wheat grains contain gluten, a mixture of glutenin and gliadin proteins, which build a network that gives wheat bread its unique properties and quality. Most gliadins and part of the glutenins contain immunogenic epitopes, which are the actual trigger of the immune reaction. A gluten-free diet, excluding wheat, barley and rye, is currently the only remedy for coeliac patients. This diet is not easy to adhere to, partly because wheat gluten is added to many processed food products for their viscoelastic properties. In addition, gluten-free products typically require the inclusion of numerous additives to adjust their texture and taste, resulting in products that are often less healthy than gluten-based equivalents, and more expensive. Thus there is a need to develop healthier food products for coeliac patients.
One can now use CRISPR/Cas to remove all gluten genes, which would produce a gluten-free wheat which is interesting for many people who want to eat gluten-free, but it would have an inferior baking quality. In this PhD thesis, Aurélie Jouanin describes an alternative use of gene editing with CRISPR/Cas9 to precisely modify gliadin genes and strip them of immunogenic epitopes, to develop wheat with safe gluten. As a proof of principle she generated wheat plants in which some gliadin genes were modified or removed. These edited wheat plants are not yet safe for CD patients, as there is a large number of gluten genes present in wheat and not all gluten genes have been targeted. She has therefore also developed high-throughput methods to determine which genes have been modified and which remain to be edited in future steps towards a safe wheat variety.
The regulation of gene editing as Genetic Modification (GM) in Europe is currently a hot topic. She discusses the inconsistency of the European regulation of gene editing in plants by displaying the similarities of mutations in gliadin genes that are obtained using random γ-irradiation mutagenesis and those obtained by targeted mutagenesis using gene editing. The former is being exempted from GM regulation while the latter is being subjected to GM regulation, following the ruling of the European Court of Justice in July 2018. She advises the European Commission to review its position on the matter and to regulate gene editing based on scientific evidence regarding the generated products, and on the innovation principle as part of responsible research innovation initiatives.
Finally, she discusses some recently developed CRISPR approaches that may result in faster development of wheat with gluten that do not cause an immune reaction. The benefits and potential risks related to gene-edited wheat with gluten that do not cause an immune reaction are discussed. The requirement for producing and processing these varieties are touched upon. New test methods for food products need to be developed, since the current gluten-free tests will not be able to distinguish gluten stripped of immunogenic epitopes from regular gluten.
From diversity to justice – Unraveling pluralistic rationalities in urban design
Hartmann, Thomas ; Jehling, Mathias - \ 2019
Cities 91 (2019). - ISSN 0264-2751 - p. 58 - 63.
Cultural Theory - Economic goods - Grid and group - Justice - Leipzig - Urban space
For Jane Jacobs, the city is a fundamental unit of diversity; she develops her ideas in the city around this key axiom. Diversity provides an ethical orientation and thus defines what a just city should achieve. For Jacobs, justice is represented by peoples’ inherent right to ‘make cities’. According to Jacobs, cities become just places by their ability to facilitate the spontaneous dynamics among social fabrics and urban spaces to generate the beauty and value of cities. This contribution picks up this claim for diversity and develops a theoretical lens to explore how diversity is incorporated in urban design. We use a theory on pluralism—Cultural Theory—to analyse forms of managing urban space in different types of goods. This is applied to analyse four idealistic urban spaces in the city of Leipzig.