Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Can timber provision from Amazonian production forests be sustainable?
    Piponiot, Camille ; Rödig, Edna ; Putz, Francis E. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Sist, Plinio ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Blanc, Lilian ; Derroire, Géraldine ; Descroix, Laurent ; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro ; Coronado, Euridice Honorio ; Huth, Andreas ; Kanashiro, Milton ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Oliveira, Marcus Vinicio Neves D'; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Rodney, Ken ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Souza, Cintia Rodrigues De; Vidal, Edson ; West, Thales A.P. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Hérault, Bruno - \ 2019
    Environmental Research Letters 14 (2019)6. - ISSN 1748-9318
    Amazonia - disturbance - ecosystem recovery - macroecology - Selective logging - tropical forestry

    Around 30 Mm3 of sawlogs are extracted annually by selective logging of natural production forests in Amazonia, Earth's most extensive tropical forest. Decisions concerning the management of these production forests will be of major importance for Amazonian forests' fate. To date, no regional assessment of selective logging sustainability supports decision-making. Based on data from 3500 ha of forest inventory plots, our modelling results show that the average periodic harvests of 20 m3 ha-1 will not recover by the end of a standard 30 year cutting cycle. Timber recovery within a cutting cycle is enhanced by commercial acceptance of more species and with the adoption of longer cutting cycles and lower logging intensities. Recovery rates are faster in Western Amazonia than on the Guiana Shield. Our simulations suggest that regardless of cutting cycle duration and logging intensities, selectively logged forests are unlikely to meet timber demands over the long term as timber stocks are predicted to steadily decline. There is thus an urgent need to develop an integrated forest resource management policy that combines active management of production forests with the restoration of degraded and secondary forests for timber production. Without better management, reduced timber harvests and continued timber production declines are unavoidable.

    An architectural understanding of natural sway frequencies in trees
    Jackson, T. ; Shenkin, A. ; Moore, J. ; Bunce, A. ; Emmerik, T. Van; Kane, B. ; Burcham, D. ; James, K. ; Selker, J. ; Calders, K. ; Origo, N. ; Disney, M. ; Burt, A. ; Wilkes, P. ; Raumonen, P. ; Gonzalez De Tanago Menaca, J. ; Lau, A. ; Herold, M. ; Goodman, R.C. ; Fourcaud, T. ; Malhi, Y. - \ 2019
    Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 16 (2019)155. - ISSN 1742-5689 - 9 p.
    The relationship between form and function in trees is the subject of a longstanding debate in forest ecology and provides the basis for theories concerning forest ecosystem structure and metabolism. Trees interact with the wind in a dynamic manner and exhibit natural sway frequencies and damping processes that are important in understanding wind damage. Tree-wind dynamics are related to tree architecture, but this relationship is not well understood. We present a comprehensive view of natural sway frequencies in trees by compiling a dataset of field measurement spanning conifers and broadleaves, tropical and temperate forests. The field data show that a cantilever beam approximation adequately predicts the fundamental frequency of conifers, but not that of broadleaf trees. We also use structurally detailed tree dynamics simulations to test fundamental assumptions underpinning models of natural frequencies in trees. We model the dynamic properties of greater than 1000 trees using a finite-element approach based on accurate three-dimensional model trees derived from terrestrial laser scanning data. We show that (1) residual variation, the variation not explained by the cantilever beam approximation, in fundamental frequencies of broadleaf trees is driven by their architecture; (2) slender trees behave like a simple pendulum, with a single natural frequency dominating their motion, which makes them vulnerable to wind damage and (3) the presence of leaves decreases both the fundamental frequency and the damping ratio. These findings demonstrate the value of new three-dimensional measurements for understanding wind impacts on trees and suggest new directions for improving our understanding of tree dynamics from conifer plantations to natural forests.
    Estimating architecture-based metabolic scaling exponents of tropical trees using terrestrial LiDAR and 3D modelling
    Lau, Alvaro ; Martius, Christopher ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Jackson, Tobias ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Herold, Martin ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick - \ 2019
    Forest Ecology and Management 439 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 132 - 145.
    The geometric structure of tree branches has been hypothesized to relate to the mechanical safety and efficiency of resource transport within a tree. As such, the topology of tree architecture links physical properties within a tree and influences the interaction of the tree with its environment. Prior work suggests the existence of general principles which govern tree architectural patterns across of species and bio-geographical regions. In particular, West, Brown and Enquist (WBE, 1997) and Savage et al. (2010) derive scaling exponents (branch radius scaling ratio α and branch length scaling ratio β) from symmetrical branch parameters and from these, an architecture-based metabolic scaling rate (θ) for the whole tree. With this key scaling exponent, the metabolism (e.g., number of leaves, respiration, etc.) of a whole tree, or potentially a group of trees, can be estimated allometrically. Until now, branch parameter values have been measured manually; either from standing live trees or from harvested trees. Such measurements are time consuming, labour intensive and susceptible to subjective errors. Remote sensing, and specifically terrestrial LiDAR (TLS), is a promising alternative, being objective, scalable, and able to collect large quantities of data without destructive sampling. In this paper, we calculated branch length, branch radius, and architecture-based metabolic rate scaling exponents by first using TLS to scan standing trees and then fitting quantitative structure models (TreeQSM) models to 3D point clouds from nine trees in a tropical forest in Guyana. To validate these TLS-derived scaling exponents, we compared them with exponents calculated from direct field measurements of all branches >10 cm at four scales: branch-level, cumulative branch order, tree-level and plot-level. We found a bias on the estimations of α and β exponents due to a bias on the reconstruction of the branching architecture. Although TreeQSM scaling exponents predicted similar θ as the manually measured exponents, this was due to the combination of α and β scaling exponents which were both biased. Also, the manually measured α and β scaling exponents diverged from the WBE's theoretical exponents suggesting that trees in tropical environments might not follow the predictions for the symmetrical branching geometry proposed by WBE. Our study provides an alternative method to estimate scaling exponents at both the branch- and tree-level in tropical forest trees without the need for destructive sampling. Although this approach is based on a limited sample of nine trees in Guyana, it can be implemented for large-scale plant scaling assessments. These new data might improve our current understanding of metabolic scaling without harvesting trees
    Finite element analysis of trees in the wind based on terrestrial laser scanning data
    Jackson, T. ; Shenkin, A. ; Wellpott, A. ; Calders, K. ; Origo, N. ; Disney, M. ; Burt, A. ; Raumonen, P. ; Gardiner, B. ; Herold, M. ; Fourcaud, T. ; Malhi, Y. - \ 2019
    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 265 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 137 - 144.
    Critical wind speed - Finite element analysis - Resonant frequency - Terrestrial laser scanning - TLS - Wind damage

    Wind damage is an important driver of forest structure and dynamics, but it is poorly understood in natural broadleaf forests. This paper presents a new approach in the study of wind damage: combining terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data and finite element analysis. Recent advances in tree reconstruction from TLS data allowed us to accurately represent the 3D geometry of a tree in a mechanical simulation, without the need for arduous manual mapping or simplifying assumptions about tree shape. We used this simulation to predict the mechanical strains produced on the trunks of 21 trees in Wytham Woods, UK, and validated it using strain data measured on these same trees. For a subset of five trees near the anemometer, the model predicted a five-minute time-series of strain with a mean cross-correlation coefficient of 0.71, when forced by the locally measured wind speed data. Additionally, the maximum strain associated with a 5 ms−1 or 15 ms-1 wind speed was well predicted by the model (N = 17, R2 = 0.81 and R2 = 0.79, respectively). We also predicted the critical wind speed at which the trees will break from both the field data and models and find a good overall agreement (N = 17, R2 = 0.40). Finally, the model predicted the correct trend in the fundamental frequencies of the trees (N = 20, R2 = 0.38) although there was a systematic underprediction, possibly due to the simplified treatment of material properties in the model. The current approach relies on local wind data, so must be combined with wind flow modelling to be applicable at the landscape-scale or over complex terrain. This approach is applicable at the plot level and could also be applied to open-grown trees, such as in cities or parks.

    Supplementary material from "Interactive effects of tree size, crown exposure and logging on drought-induced mortality"
    Shenkin, Alexander ; Bolker, Benjamin ; Pena Claros, Marielos ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Putz, Francis E. - \ 2018
    University of Florida
    drought - tree mortality - climate change - tropical forest - logging - forest structure - resilience - climate adaptation
    Large trees in the tropics are reportedly more vulnerable to droughts than their smaller neighbours. This pattern is of interest due to what it portends for forest structure, timber production, carbon sequestration and multiple other values given that intensified El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Amazon region. What remains unclear is what characteristics of large trees renders them especially vulnerable to drought-induced mortality and how this vulnerability changes with forest degradation. Using a large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiment in a transitional Amazonian forest in Bolivia, we disentangle the effects of stem diameter, tree height, crown exposure and logging-induced degradation on risks of drought-induced mortality during the 2004/2005 ENSO event. Overall, tree mortality increased in response to drought in both logged and unlogged plots. Tree height was a much stronger predictor of mortality than stem diameter. In unlogged plots, tree height but not crown exposure was positively associated with drought-induced mortality, whereas in logged plots, neither tree height nor crown exposure was associated with drought-induced mortality. Our results suggest that at the scale of a site, hydraulic factors related to tree height, not air humidity, are a cause of elevated drought-induced mortality of large trees in unlogged plots.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘The impact of the 2015/2016 El Nino on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.
    Interactive effects of tree size, crown exposure and logging on drought-induced mortality
    Shenkin, Alexander ; Bolker, Benjamin ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Putz, Francis E. - \ 2018
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 10 p.
    climate change - drought - logging - resilience - tree mortality - tropical forest

    Large trees in the tropics are reportedly more vulnerable to droughts than their smaller neighbours. This pattern is of interest due to what it portends for forest structure, timber production, carbon sequestration and multiple other values given that intensified El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Amazon region. What remains unclear is what characteristics of large trees render them especially vulnerable to drought-induced mortality and how this vulnerability changes with forest degradation. Using a large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiment in a transitional Amazonian forest in Bolivia, we disentangle the effects of stem diameter, tree height, crown exposure and logging-induced degradation on risks of drought-induced mortality during the 2004/2005 ENSO event. Overall, tree mortality increased in response to drought in both logged and unlogged plots. Tree height was a much stronger predictor of mortality than stem diameter. In unlogged plots, tree height but not crown exposure was positively associated with drought-induced mortality, whereas in logged plots, neither tree height nor crown exposure was associated with drought-induced mortality. Our results suggest that, at the scale of a site, hydraulic factors related to tree height, not air humidity, are a cause of elevated drought-induced mortality of large trees in unlogged plots.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

    Plant Structure-Function Relationships and Woody Tissue Respiration: Upscaling to Forests from Laser-Derived Measurements
    Meir, Patrick ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Disney, Mathias ; Rowland, Lucy ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Herold, Martin ; Costa, Antonio C.L. da - \ 2018
    In: Plant Respiration: Metabolic Fluxes and Carbon Balance / Tcherkez, G., Ghashghaie, J., Cham : Springer (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration ) - ISBN 9783319687018 - p. 89 - 105.
    Land surface processes dominate the observed global signal of large inter-annual variability in the global carbon cycle , and this signal is itself dominated by responses of tropical forests to climatic variation and extremes. However, our understanding of the functioning of these forests is poorly constrained, not least in terms of the size and climate-sensitivity of gross ecosystem respiratory CO2 emission. Woody tissue CO2 effluxes contribute substantially to gross ecosystem CO2 emissions, thereby influencing the net ecosystem exchange of carbon. Our ability to estimate this component of the forest respiration budget has been limited by our technical capacity to measure vegetation size and structure in sufficient detail and at sufficient scale. The outcome has been to leave large uncertainties in land-surface model performance and prediction. A key challenge in estimating woody tissue CO2 efflux for the ecosystem has been the scaling of measurements made with chambers from the level of an organ to the stand. Appropriate scalars such as woody tissue mass, surface area and volume all require accurate structural information on both size and pattern. For individual trees, pattern is dominated by branching structure and this fundamentally determines how trees partition resources to address the trade-offs inherent in the simultaneous maintenance of structural integrity and metabolism. The detailed structural information needed to address this challenge has until recently been extremely scarce because of the difficulty of acquiring it, even for a single large tree. Recent developments in terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology have made possible a step change in our ability to quantify and describe tree form for continuous forest, for example describing hundreds of adjacent trees at the hectare scale. Connecting this new capability with tree physiology and fundamental theories of plant structure and metabolism offers to change the way we understand plant functional biology and its variation with environment, biogeography and phylogeny.
    Quantifying branch architecture of tropical trees using terrestrial LiDAR and 3D modelling
    Lau, Alvaro ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick ; Martius, Christopher ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Raumonen, Pasi ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Jackson, Tobias ; Herold, Martin - \ 2018
    Trees-Structure and Function 32 (2018)5. - ISSN 0931-1890 - p. 1219 - 1231.
    Tree architecture is the three-dimensional arrangement of above ground parts of a tree. Ecologists hypothesize that the topology of tree branches represents optimized adaptations to tree’s environment. Thus, an accurate description of tree architecture leads to a better understanding of how form is driven by function. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has demonstrated its potential to characterize woody tree structure. However, most current TLS methods do not describe tree architecture. Here, we examined nine trees from a Guyanese tropical rainforest to evaluate the utility of TLS for measuring tree architecture. First, we scanned the trees and extracted individual tree point clouds. TreeQSM was used to reconstruct woody structure through 3D quantitative structure models (QSMs). From these QSMs, we calculated: (1) length and diameter of branches > 10 cm diameter, (2) branching order and (3) tree volume. To validate our method, we destructively harvested the trees and manually measured all branches over 10 cm (279). TreeQSM found and reconstructed 95% of the branches thicker than 30 cm. Comparing field and QSM data, QSM overestimated branch lengths thicker than 50 cm by 1% and underestimated diameter of branches between 20 and 60 cm by 8%. TreeQSM assigned the correct branching order in 99% of all cases and reconstructed 87% of branch lengths and 97% of tree volume. Although these results are based on nine trees, they validate a method that is an important step forward towards using tree architectural traits based on TLS and open up new possibilities to use QSMs for tree architecture.
    New perspectives on the ecology of tree structure and tree communities through terrestrial laser scanning
    Malhi, Yadvinder ; Jackson, Tobias ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick ; Lau, Alvaro ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Herold, Martin ; Calders, Kim ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Disney, Mathias I. - \ 2018
    Interface Focus 8 (2018)2. - ISSN 2042-8898
    Branching - Metabolic scaling theory - Terrestrial laser scanning - Tree architecture - Tree surface area - Wind speed
    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) opens up the possibility of describing the three-dimensional structures of trees in natural environments with unprecedented detail and accuracy. It is already being extensively applied to describe how ecosystem biomass and structure vary between sites, but can also facilitate major advances in developing and testing mechanistic theories of tree form and forest structure, thereby enabling us to understand why trees and forests have the biomass and three-dimensional structure they do. Here we focus on the ecological challenges and benefits of understanding tree form, and highlight some advances related to capturing and describing tree shape that are becoming possible with the advent of TLS. We present examples of ongoing work that applies, or could potentially apply, new TLS measurements to better understand the constraints on optimization of tree form. Theories of resource distribution networks, such as metabolic scaling theory, can be tested and further refined. TLS can also provide new approaches to the scaling of woody surface area and crown area, and thereby better quantify the metabolism of trees. Finally, we demonstrate how we can develop a more mechanistic understanding of the effects of avoidance of wind risk on tree form and maximum size. Over the next few years, TLS promises to deliver both major empirical and conceptual advances in the quantitative understanding of trees and tree-dominated ecosystems, leading to advances in understanding the ecology of why trees and ecosystems look and grow the way they do.
    Application of terrestrial LiDAR and modelling of tree branching structure for plant-scaling models in tropical forest trees
    Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Herold, M. ; Martius, Christopher ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Raumonen, P. - \ 2017
    Data from: Carbon recovery dynamics following disturbance by selective logging in Amazonian forests
    Piponiot, Camille ; Sist, Plinio ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Pena Claros, M. ; Putz, Francis E. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Azevedo, Celso P. de; Baraloto, Christopher - \ 2016
    Wageningen University & Research
    carbon stocks - disturbance - selective logging - REDD+
    When 2 Mha of Amazonian forests are disturbed by selective logging each year, more than 90 Tg of carbon (C) is emitted to the atmosphere. Emissions are then counterbalanced by forest regrowth. With an original modelling approach, calibrated on a network of 133 permanent forest plots (175 ha total) across Amazonia, we link regional differences in climate, soil and initial biomass with survivors' and recruits' C fluxes to provide Amazon-wide predictions of post-logging C recovery. We show that net aboveground C recovery over 10 years is higher in the Guiana Shield and in the west (21{plus minus}3 MgC ha-1) than in the south (12{plus minus}3 MgC ha-1) where environmental stress is high (low rainfall, high seasonality). We highlight the key role of survivors in the forest regrowth and elaborate a comprehensive map of post-disturbance C recovery potential in Amazonia.
    Carbon recovery dynamics following disturbance by selective logging in amazonian forests
    Piponiot, Camille ; Sist, Plinio ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Putz, Francis E. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Azevedo, Celso P. de; Baraloto, Christopher - \ 2016
    eLife 5 (2016). - ISSN 2050-084X

    When 2 Mha of Amazonian forests are disturbed by selective logging each year, more than 90 Tg of carbon (C) is emitted to the atmosphere. Emissions are then counterbalanced by forest regrowth. With an original modelling approach, calibrated on a network of 133 permanent forest plots (175 ha total) across Amazonia, we link regional differences in climate, soil and initial biomass with survivors’ and recruits’ C fluxes to provide Amazon-wide predictions of post-logging C recovery. We show that net aboveground C recovery over 10 years is higher in the Guiana Shield and in the west (21 ± 3 Mg C ha−1) than in the south (12 ± 3 Mg C ha−1) where environmental stress is high (low rainfall, high seasonality). We highlight the key role of survivors in the forest regrowth and elaborate a comprehensive map of post-disturbance C recovery potential in Amazonia.

    Application of Terrestrial LiDAR and Modelling of Tree Branching Structure for Plant-scaling Models in Tropical Forest Trees
    Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Herold, M. ; Martius, Christopher ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Raumonen, P. - \ 2016
    Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly
    Neyret, Margot ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick ; Oliveras Menor, Imma ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar ; Barbosa Passos, Fábio ; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa ; Santos, Josias dos; Matias Reis, Simone ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Rayme Paucar, Gloria ; Robles Cáceres, Arturo ; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi ; Yllanes Choque, Yovana ; Salinas, Norma ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Asner, Gregory P. ; Díaz, Sandra ; Enquist, Brian J. ; Malhi, Yadvinder - \ 2016
    Ecology and Evolution 6 (2016)16. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 5674 - 5689.
    Community assembly - environmental filtering - interspecific variation - intraspecific variation - leaf mass per area - limiting similarity - T-statistics - tropical forests

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of sun and shade leaves along a 3330-m elevation gradient in Peru, and in sun leaves across a forest–savanna vegetation gradient in Brazil. We also compared LMA variance ratios (T-statistics metrics) to null models to explore internal (i.e., abiotic) and environmental filtering on community structure along the gradients. Community-weighted LMA increased with decreasing forest cover in Brazil, likely due to increased light availability and water stress, and increased with elevation in Peru, consistent with the leaf economic spectrum strategy expected in colder, less productive environments. A very high species turnover was observed along both environmental gradients, and consequently, the first source of variation in LMA was species turnover. Variation in LMA at the genus or family levels was greater in Peru than in Brazil. Using dominant trees to examine possible filters on community assembly, we found that in Brazil, internal filtering was strongest in the forest, while environmental filtering was observed in the dry savanna. In Peru, internal filtering was observed along 80% of the gradient, perhaps due to variation in taxa or interspecific competition. Environmental filtering was observed at cloud zone edges and in lowlands, possibly due to water and nutrient availability, respectively. These results related to variation in LMA indicate that biodiversity in species rich tropical assemblages may be structured by differential niche-based processes. In the future, specific mechanisms generating these patterns of variation in leaf functional traits across tropical environmental gradients should be explored.

    Application of terrestrial LiDAR and modelling of tree branching structure for plant-scaling models in tropical forest trees
    Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Herold, M. ; Martius, C. ; Malhi, Y. ; Bentley, L.P. ; Shenkin, A. ; Raumonen, P. - \ 2015
    In: Proceedings of the SilviLaser 2015 conference. - - p. 3 - 3.
    Fates of trees damaged by logging in Amazonian Bolivia
    Shenkin, A. ; Bolker, B. ; Peña Claros, M. ; Licona, J.C. ; Putz, F.E. - \ 2015
    Forest Ecology and Management 357 (2015). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 50 - 59.
    Estimation of carbon losses from trees felled and incidentally-killed during selective logging of tropical forests is relatively straightforward and well-documented, but less is known about the fates of collaterally-damaged trees that initially survive. Tree response to logging damage is an important and overlooked ecological process potentially affecting 2–5% of all extant tropical trees. Here we report on the fates of damaged trees over the first 8-years after logging in a transitional Amazonian forest in Eastern Bolivia. Mortality rates of damaged trees peaked in the first year after logging, and then slowly declined to background rates by the end of the study, indicating that if a damaged tree survives 8 years, it then runs approximately the same annual mortality risk as an undamaged tree. Of all types of logging damage, crown damage reduced growth rates the most while inclined trees suffered the highest mortality rates. Neither wood density nor tree size conferred tolerance to damage, though species with bark exudates were less tolerant of damage. Surprisingly, damaged trees survived droughts better than undamaged trees, perhaps due to their proximity to felling gaps and concomitant reduced above- and below-ground competition or due to their reduced leaf areas and associated reductions in water stress. While this study only tests one interaction between an aspect of climate change and logging, we found a positive signal for forest resilience. This response should be considered amongst others in models of managed forests in climate change scenarios.
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