Comparison of Small Gut and Whole Gut Microbiota of First-Degree Relatives With Adult Celiac Disease Patients and Controls
Bodkhe, Rahul ; Shetty, Sudarshan A. ; Dhotre, Dhiraj P. ; Verma, Anil K. ; Bhatia, Khushbo ; Mishra, Asha ; Kaur, Gurvinder ; Pande, Pranav ; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth K. ; Santosh, Beena P. ; Perumal, Rajadurai C. ; Ahuja, Vineet ; Shouche, Yogesh S. ; Makharia, Govind K. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X
Recent studies on celiac disease (CeD) have reported alterations in the gut microbiome. Whether this alteration in the microbial community is the cause or effect of the disease is not well understood, especially in adult onset of disease. The first-degree relatives (FDRs) of CeD patients may provide an opportunity to study gut microbiome in pre-disease state as FDRs are genetically susceptible to CeD. By using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we observed that ecosystem level diversity measures were not significantly different between the disease condition (CeD), pre-disease (FDR) and control subjects. However, differences were observed at the level of amplicon sequence variant (ASV), suggesting alterations in specific ASVs between pre-disease and diseased condition. Duodenal biopsies showed higher differences in ASVs compared to fecal samples indicating larger disruption of the microbiota at the disease site. The duodenal microbiota of FDR was characterized by significant abundance of ASVs belonging to Parvimonas, Granulicatella, Gemella, Bifidobacterium, Anaerostipes, and Actinomyces genera. The duodenal microbiota of CeD was characterized by higher abundance of ASVs from genera Megasphaera and Helicobacter compared to the FDR microbiota. The CeD and FDR fecal microbiota had reduced abundance of ASVs classified as Akkermansia and Dorea when compared to control group microbiota. In addition, predicted functional metagenome showed reduced ability of gluten degradation by CeD fecal microbiota in comparison to FDRs and controls. The findings of the present study demonstrate differences in ASVs and predicts reduced ability of CeD fecal microbiota to degrade gluten compared to the FDR fecal microbiota. Further research is required to investigate the strain level and active functional profiles of FDR and CeD microbiota to better understand the role of gut microbiome in pathophysiology of CeD.
Genomic and physiological analyses of an indigenous strain, Enterococcus faecium 17OM39
Ghattargi, Vikas C. ; Nimonkar, Yogesh S. ; Burse, Shaunak A. ; Davray, Dimple ; Kumbhare, Shreyas V. ; Shetty, Sudarshan A. ; Gaikwad, Meghana A. ; Suryavanshi, Mangesh V. ; Doijad, Swapnil P. ; Utage, Bhimashankar ; Sharma, Om Prakash ; Shouche, Yogesh S. ; Meti, Bharati S. ; Pawar, Shrikant P. - \ 2018
Functional and Integrative Genomics 18 (2018)4. - ISSN 1438-793X - p. 385 - 399.
Bile salt hydrolysis - Genome analysis - Indigenous probiotic - Probiotic genes - Serum resistance
The human gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health and efforts need to be done for cultivation and characterisation of bacteria with potential health benefits. Here, we isolated a bacterium from a healthy Indian adult faeces and investigated its potential as probiotic. The cultured bacterial strain 17OM39 was identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strain 17OM39 exhibited tolerance to acidic pH, showed antimicrobial activity and displayed strong cell surface traits such as hydrophobicity and autoaggregation capacity. The strain was able to tolerate bile salts and showed bile salt hydrolytic (BSH) activity, exopolysaccharide production and adherence to human HT-29 cell line. Importantly, partial haemolytic activity was detected and the strain was susceptible to the human serum. Genomics investigation of strain 17OM39 revealed the presence of diverse genes encoding for proteolytic enzymes, stress response systems and the ability to produce essential amino acids, vitamins and antimicrobial compound Bacteriocin-A. No virulence factors and plasmids were found in this genome of the strain 17OM39. Collectively, these physiological and genomic features of 17OM39 confirm the potential of this strain as a candidate probiotic.
Limited bacterial diversity within a treatment plant receiving antibiotic containing waste from bulk drug production
Marathe, Nachiket P. ; Shetty, Sudarshan A. ; Shouche, Yogesh S. ; Larsson, D.G.J. - \ 2016
PLoS ONE 11 (2016)11. - ISSN 1932-6203
Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS) technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL) in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20%) to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial community in PETL, which may affect not only resistance promotion but also general efficiency of the waste treatment process.
Molecular characterization and meta-analysis of gut microbial communities illustrate enrichment of prevotella and megasphaera in Indian subjects
Bhute, Shrikant ; Pande, Pranav ; Shetty, Sudarshan A. ; Shelar, Rahul ; Mane, Sachin ; Kumbhare, Shreyas V. ; Gawali, Ashwini ; Makhani, Hemal ; Navandar, Mohit ; Dhotre, Dhiraj ; Lubree, Himangi ; Agarwal, Dhiraj ; Patil, Rutuja ; Ozarkar, Shantanu ; Ghaskadbi, Saroj ; Yajnik, Chittaranjan ; Juvekar, Sanjay ; Makharia, Govind K. ; Shouche, Yogesh S. - \ 2016
Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (2016)MAY. - ISSN 1664-302X
16S rRNA amplicon - Indian subjects - Prevotella and Megasphaera - QPCR
The gut microbiome has varied impact on the wellbeing of humans. It is influenced by different factors such as age, dietary habits, socio-economic status, geographic location, and genetic makeup of individuals. For devising microbiome-based therapies, it is crucial to identify population specific features of the gut microbiome. Indian population is one of the most ethnically, culturally, and geographically diverse, but the gut microbiome features remain largely unknown. The present study describes gut microbial communities of healthy Indian subjects and compares it with the microbiota from other populations. Based on large differences in alpha diversity indices, abundance of 11 bacterial phyla and individual specific OTUs, we report inter-individual variations in gut microbial communities of these subjects. While the gut microbiome of Indians is different from that of Americans, it shared high similarity to individuals from the Indian subcontinent i.e., Bangladeshi. Distinctive feature of Indian gut microbiota is the predominance of genus Prevotella and Megasphaera. Further, when compared with other non-human primates, it appears that Indians share more OTUs with omnivorous mammals. Our metagenomic imputation indicates higher potential for glycan biosynthesis and xenobiotic metabolism in these subjects. Our study indicates urgent need of identification of population specific microbiome biomarkers of Indian subpopulations to have more holistic view of the Indian gut microbiome and its health implications.