Exceptional Water Desalination Performance with Anion-Selective Electrodes
Arulrajan, Antony C. ; Ramasamy, Deepika L. ; Sillanpää, Mika ; Wal, Albert van der; Biesheuvel, P.M. ; Porada, Slawomir ; Dykstra, Jouke E. - \ 2019
Advanced Materials 31 (2019)10. - ISSN 0935-9648
anion-selective electrodes - capacitive deionization - water desalination
Capacitive deionization (CDI) typically uses one porous carbon electrode that is cation adsorbing and one that is anion adsorbing. In 2016, Smith and Dmello proposed an innovative CDI cell design based on two cation-selective electrodes and a single anion-selective membrane, and thereafter this design was experimentally validated by various authors. In this design, anions pass through the membrane once, and desalinated water is continuously produced. In the present work, this idea is extended, and it is experimentally shown that also a choice for anion-selective electrodes, in combination with a cation-selective membrane, leads to a functional cell design that continuously desalinates water. Anion-selective electrodes are obtained by chemical modification of the carbon electrode with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. After chemical modification, the activated carbon electrode shows a substantial reduction of the total pore volume and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, but nevertheless maintains excellent CDI performance, which is for the first time that a low-porosity carbon electrode is demonstrated as a promising material for CDI.
Electrokinetic copper and iron migration in anaerobic granular sludge
Virkutyte, J. ; Sillanpää, M.J. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2006
Water Air and Soil Pollution 177 (2006)1-4. - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 147 - 168.
treated wood waste - heavy-metals - electrodialytic remediation - sewage-sludge - pilot-scale - removal - soils - extraction - water - chromium
The application of low-level direct electric current (0.15 mA cm¿2) as an electrokinetic technique to treat copper-contaminated mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The sludge was obtained from a full scale UASB reactor treating paper-mill wastewater and was artificially contaminated by Cu(NO3)2 or CuEDTA2¿ with initial copper concentrations of 1000 mg . kg¿1 wet sludge. The effect of different electrokinetic cell layouts, pH and EDTA concentrations on the migration of copper and iron during electrokinetic treatment were evaluated. Both, the pH of the sludge cake or the copper complexation with EDTA significantly affected the migration direction of copper. In an `open¿ cell (sludge cake in direct contact with air), the highest copper mobility was observed at pH 2.5 in both Cu(NO3)2 or CuEDTA2¿ amended sludge. The highest copper accumulation was at the cathode (22 ± 2)% with CuEDTA2¿ as contaminant. In a `closed¿ cell (sludge cake not in contact with air), the highest accumulation was obtained for CuEDTA2¿ at the anode and amounted to 4(± 0.5)% and 2(± 0.05)%, respectively, at a final pH of 4.2 and 7.7 in the sludge cake
Copper and trace element fractionation in electrokinetically treated methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge
Virkutyte, J. ; Hullebusch, E.D. van; Sillanpaa, M. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2005
Environmental Pollution 138 (2005)3. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 517 - 529.
metal-contaminated soils - heavy-metals - sewage-sludge - sequential extraction - pilot-scale - removal - remediation - speciation - zinc - sediments
The effect of electrokinetic treatment (0.15 mA cm(-2)) on the metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludge artificially contaminated with copper (initial copper concentration 1000 mg kg(-1) wet sludge) was studied. Acidification of the sludge (final pH 4.2 in the sludge bed) with the intention to desorb the copper species bound to the organic/sulfides and residual fractions did not result in an increased mobility, despite the fact that a higher quantity of copper was measured in the more mobile (i.e. exchangeable/carbonate) fractions at final pH 4.2 compared to circum-neutral pH conditions. Also addition of the chelating agent EDTA (Cu2+:EDTA4- ratio 1.2:1) did not enhance the mobility of copper from the organic/sulfides and residual fractions, despite the fact that it induced a reduction of the total copper content of the sludge. The presence of sulfide precipitates likely influences the copper mobilisation from these less mobile fractions, and thus makes EDTA addition ineffective to solubilise copper from the granules
Multiple QTL mapping in related plant populations via a pedigree-analysis approach
Bink, M.C.A.M. ; Uimari, P. ; Sillanpää, M.J. ; Janss, L.L.G. ; Jansen, R.C. - \ 2002
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104 (2002)5. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 751 - 762.
quantitative trait loci - chain-monte-carlo - phytophthora-infestans - oligogenic models - bayesian-approach - resistance - prediction - inference - genotypes
QTL mapping experiments in plant breeding may involve multiple populations or pedigrees that are related through their ancestors. These known relationships have often been ignored for the sake of statistical analysis, despite their potential increase in power of mapping. We describe here a Bayesian method for QTL mapping in complex plant populations and reported the results from its application to a (previously analysed) potato data set. This Bayesian method was originally developed for human genetics data, and we have proved that it is useful for complex plant populations as well, based on a sensitivity analysis that was performed here. The method accommodates robustness to complex structures in pedigree data, full flexibility in the estimation of the number of QTL across multiple chromosomes, thereby accounting for uncertainties in the transmission of QTL and marker alleles due to incomplete marker information, and the simultaneous inclusion of non-genetic factors affecting the quantitative trait.
Bayesian versus frequentist analysis of multiple quantitative trait loci with an application to an outbred apple cross
Maliepaard, C.A. ; Sillanpää, M.J. ; Ooijen, J.W. van; Jansen, R.C. ; Arjas, E. - \ 2001
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 103 (2001). - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 1243 - 1253.
|Application of multiple QTL mapping in complex plant crosses to partial resistance to late blight (Phytophthora Infestans) in potato: Better insight by using a design-independent method
Bink, M.C.A.M. ; Uimari, P. ; Sillanpää, M.J. ; Janss, L.L.G. ; Jansen, R.C. - \ 2000
In: Biometrics in plant breeding, quantitative genetics and breeding methods: the way ahead / Gallais, A., Dillmann, C., Goldringer, I., - p. 73 - 80.