Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The global abundance of tree palms
    Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography (2020). - ISSN 1466-822X
    above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density

    Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.

    Volatilome-Genome-Wide Association Study on Wholemeal Maize Flour
    Alves, Mara Lisa ; Bento-Silva, Andreia ; Gaspar, Daniel ; Paulo, Manuel ; Brites, Cláudia ; Mendes-Moreira, Pedro ; Rosário Bronze, Maria do; Malosetti, Marcos ; Eeuwijk, Fred van; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)29. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7809 - 7818.
    aldehydes - candidate genes - Portuguese maize germplasm - volatiles - Zea mays L.

    Odor and aroma, resulting from the perception of volatiles by the olfactory receptors, are important in consumer food acceptance. To develop more efficient molecular breeding tools to improve the odor/aroma on maize (Zea mays L.), a staple food crop, increasing the knowledge on the genetic basis of maize volatilome is needed. In this work, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a unique germplasm collection to identify genomic regions controlling maize wholemeal flour's volatilome. We identified 64 regions on the maize genome and candidate genes controlling the levels of 15 volatiles, mainly aldehydes. As an example, the Zm00001d033623 gene was within a region associated with 2-octenal (E) and 2-nonenal (E), two byproducts of linoleic acid oxidation. This gene codes for linoleate 9S-lipoxygenase, an enzyme responsible for oxidizing linoleic acid. This knowledge can now support the development of molecular tools to increase the selection efficacy/efficiency of these volatiles within maize breeding programs.

    Role of biochar in promoting circular economy in the agriculture sector. Part 1 : A review of the biochar roles in soil N, P and K cycles
    Jindo, Keiji ; Audette, Yuki ; Higashikawa, Fábio Satoshi ; Silva, Carlos Alberto ; Akashi, Kinya ; Mastrolonardo, Giovanni ; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Angel ; Mondini, Claudio - \ 2020
    Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 7 (2020). - ISSN 2196-5641
    Macro-nutrients - Nutrient cycle - Pyrogenic material

    Recently, biochar has been widely used for versatile applications in agriculture and environment sectors as an effective tool to minimise waste and to increase the efficiency of circular economy. In the present work, we review the current knowledge about biochar role in N, P and K cycles. Ammonia volatilisation and N2O emission can be reduced by biochar addition. The content of available P can be improved by biochar through enhancement of solubilisation and reduction in P fixation on soil mineral, whilst high extractable K in biochar contributes to K cycle in soil. Liming effect and high CEC are important properties of biochars improving beneficial interactions with N, P and K soil cycle processes. The effectiveness of biochar on N, P and K cycles is associated with biochar properties which are mainly affected by feedstock type and pyrolysis condition.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

    Pesticide lifecycle management in agriculture and public health : Where are the gaps?
    Berg, Henk van den; Gu, Baogen ; Grenier, Beatrice ; Kohlschmid, Eva ; Al-Eryani, Samira ; Silva Bezerra, Haroldo Sergio da; Nagpal, Bhupender N. ; Chanda, Emmanuel ; Gasimov, Elkhan ; Velayudhan, Raman ; Yadav, Rajpal S. - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 742 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Insecticide resistance - Lifecycle management - Pest control - Pesticide management - Risk reduction - Vector control

    Pesticide lifecycle management encompasses a range of elements from legislation, regulation, manufacturing, application, risk reduction, monitoring, and enforcement to disposal of pesticide waste. A survey was conducted in 2017–2018 to describe the contemporary global status of pesticide lifecycle management, to identify where the gaps are found. A three-tiered questionnaire was distributed to government entities in 194 countries. The response rate was 29%, 27% and 48% to the first, second and third part of the questionnaire, respectively. The results showed gaps for most of the selected indicators of pesticide management, suggesting that pesticide efficacy and safety to human health and the environment are likely being compromised at various stages of the pesticide lifecycle, and at varying degrees across the globe. Low-income countries generally had the highest incidence of gaps. Particular shortcomings were deficiencies in pesticide legislation, inadequate capacity for pesticide registration, protection against occupational exposure to pesticides, consumer protection against residues in food, and environmental protection against pesticide contamination. Policy support for, and implementation of, pesticide use-reduction strategies such as integrated pest management and integrated vector management has been inadequate across regions. Priority actions for structural improvement in pesticide lifecycle management are proposed, including pesticide use-reduction strategies, targeted interventions, and resource mobilization.

    Disentangling drivers of soil microbial potential enzyme activity across rain regimes : An approach based on the functional trait framework
    Piton, Gabin ; Foulquier, Arnaud ; Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Legay, Nicolas ; Hedlund, Katarina ; Martins da Silva, Pedro ; Nascimento, Eduardo ; Reis, Filipa ; Sousa, José Paulo ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Clement, Jean Christophe - \ 2020
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 148 (2020). - ISSN 0038-0717
    Bacteria - Climate change - Enzymatic stoichiometry - Fungi - PLFA - Structural equation model

    The functional trait framework provides a powerful corpus of integrated concepts and theories to assess how environmental factors influence ecosystem functioning through community assembly. While common in plant ecology, this approach is under-used in microbial ecology. After an introduction of this framework in the context of microbial ecology and enzymology, we propose an approach 1) to elucidate new links between soil microbial community composition and microbial traits; and 2) to disentangle mechanisms underlying “total” potential enzyme activity in soil (sum of 7 hydrolase potential activities). We address these objectives using a terrestrial grassland ecosystem model experiment with intact soil monoliths from three European countries (Switzerland, France and Portugal) and two management types (Conventional-intensive and Ecological-intensive), subjected to 4 rain regimes (Dry, Wet, Intermittent and Normal) under controlled conditions in a common climate chamber. We found tight associations between proxies of microbial ecoenzymatic community-weighted mean traits (enzymatic stoichiometry and biomass-specific activity) and community composition, bringing new information on resource acquisition strategy associated with fungi, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. We demonstrate that microbial biomass explained most of the total enzyme activity before altered rain regimes, whereas adjustments in biomass-specific activity (enzyme activity per unit of microbial biomass) explained most variation under altered rain regime scenarios. Furthermore, structural equation models revealed that the variation of community composition was the main driver of the variation in biomass-specific enzyme activity prior to rain perturbation, whereas physiological acclimation or evolutionary adaptation became an important driver only under altered rain regimes. This study presents a promising trait-based approach to investigate soil microbial community response to environmental changes and potential consequences for ecosystem functioning. We argue that the functional trait framework should be further implemented in microbial ecology to guide experimental and analytical design.

    The gut barrier and the fate of engineered nanomaterials : a view from comparative physiology
    Zande, Meike Van Der; Jemec Kokalj, Anita ; Spurgeon, David J. ; Loureiro, Susana ; Silva, Patrícia V. ; Khodaparast, Zahra ; Drobne, Damjana ; Clark, Nathaniel J. ; Brink, Nico W. Van Den; Baccaro, Marta ; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. Van; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Handy, Richard D. - \ 2020
    Environmental Science: Nano covers the benefits... (2020)7. - ISSN 2051-8153 - p. 1874 - 1898.
    The structure of the gut barrier and luminal chemistry in non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates has been given little attention with respect to the dietary uptake of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). This review compares the diversity of gut anatomy in selected species used for regulatory toxicity testing, especially in relation to gut lumen chemistry and the behaviour of ENMs, and the gut as a barrier to ENMs. High ionic strength, the presence of divalent ions and organic matter promote particle aggregation in the lumen. The redox chemistry of the gut offers reducing conditions for ENM transformation, and corona formation will depend on the gut contents. Areas of low pH in the gut lumen in several species will promote the dissolution of metallic ENMs. There is a protective unstirred layer over the surface of the epithelium that may concentrate ENMs. Some organisms, especially vertebrates, can slough mucus to remove this adsorbed nanomaterial and lower bioavailability. Invertebrates also have protective layers of cuticle or peritrophic membranes that will modulate ENM uptake. Paracellular uptake of ENMs is unlikely. Transcellular uptake via vesicular-dependent pathways remains the most likely route across the gut epithelium. Most species have receptor-mediated endocytosis pathways and/or macropinocytosis in the gut epithelium. Crucially, many invertebrates have another potential pathway via ‘intracellular digestion’ uptake routes leading into the gut epithelium, and with gut associated immune cells being a potential route for ENM translocation across the epithelium. The basal lamina provides another barrier prior to the internal compartments of many animals. The features of the gut lumen and epithelium can limit the uptake of ENMs across the gut barrier in vivo, although some ENMs are detected in the tissues. Invertebrates also have the ability for biogenic mineral formation at the nano scale inside tissues. In conclusion, despite the diverse structural anatomies of the gut barrier of animals, some common features in the gut lumen chemistry tend to promote particle aggregation and settling onto the gut surface. The functional anatomy ensures the gut remains a formidable barrier to ENMs, and with some potential novel uptake processes in invertebrates that are not present in vertebrate animals
    Can big data explain yield variability and water productivity in intensive cropping systems?
    Silva, João Vasco ; Tenreiro, Tomás R. ; Spätjens, Léon ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Ittersum, Martin K. van; Reidsma, Pytrik - \ 2020
    Field Crops Research 255 (2020). - ISSN 0378-4290
    Arable crops - Crop coefficients (kc) - Crop ecology - The Netherlands - Yield gaps

    Yield gaps and water productivity are key indicators to monitor the progress towards more sustainable and productive cropping systems. Individual farmers are collecting increasing amounts of data (‘big data’), which can help monitor the process of sustainable intensification at local level. In this study, we build upon such data to quantify the magnitude and identify the biophysical and management determinants of on-farm yield gaps and water productivity for the main arable crops cultivated in the Netherlands. The analysis focused on ware, seed and starch potatoes, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley and covered the period 2015–2017. A crop modelling approach based on crop coefficients (kc) and daily weather data was used to estimate the potential yield (Yp), radiation intercepted and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) for each crop. Yield gaps were estimated to be ca. 10% of Yp for sugar beet, 25–30% of Yp for ware, seed and starch potato and spring barley, and 35–40% of Yp for spring onion and winter wheat. Variation in actual yields was associated with water availability in key periods of the growing season as well as with sowing and harvest dates. However, the R2 of the fitted regressions was rather low (20–49%). Current levels of crop water productivity ranged between 13 kg DM ha−1 mm−1 for spring barley, ca. 15 kg DM ha−1 mm−1 for seed potato, spring onion and winter wheat, 23 kg DM ha−1 mm−1 for ware potato and ca. 25 kg DM ha−1 mm−1 for starch potato and sugar beet. These values are about half of their potential, but increasing actual water productivity further is restricted by rainfall amount and distribution. However, doing so should not be prioritized over reducing environmental impacts of these intensive cropping systems in the short-term and may require large investments from farm to regional levels in the long-term. Although these findings are most relevant to similar cropping systems in NW Europe, the underlying methods are generic and can be used to benchmark crop performance in other cropping systems. Based on this work, we argue that ‘big data’ are currently most useful to describe cropping systems at regional scale and derive benchmarks of farm performance but not as much to predict and explain crop yield variability in time and space.

    Biased-corrected richness estimates for the Amazonian tree flora
    Steege, Hans ter; Prado, Paulo I. ; Lima, Renato A.F. de; Pos, Edwin ; Souza Coelho, Luiz de; Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes de; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia de; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo de; Cárdenas López, Dairon ; Magnusson, William E. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Silva Guimarães, José Renan da; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Ramos, José Ferreira ; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia Moraes de; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Terborgh, John ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Duque, Alvaro ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Castaño Arboleda, Nicolás ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Engel, Julien ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Baraloto, Chris ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Quaresma, Adriano ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Rincón, Lorena M. ; Andrade, Ana ; Sousa, Thaiane R. ; Camargo, José Luís ; Schietti, Juliana ; Laurance, William F. ; Queiroz, Helder Lima de; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça ; Lopes, Maria Aparecida ; Sousa Farias, Emanuelle de; Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima ; Brienen, Roel ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Lozada, José Rafael ; Comiskey, James A. ; Toledo, José Julio de; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; Lopes, Aline ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Draper, Freddie ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Lloyd, Jon ; Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Neill, David ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Maas, Paul ; Baker, Tim R. ; Andel, Tinde R. van; Noronha, Janaína Costa ; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Tirado, Milton ; Wang, Ophelia ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Flores, Bernardo Monteiro - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, but the estimated species richness is very much debated. Here, we apply an ensemble of parametric estimators and a novel technique that includes conspecific spatial aggregation to an extended database of forest plots with up-to-date taxonomy. We show that the species abundance distribution of Amazonia is best approximated by a logseries with aggregated individuals, where aggregation increases with rarity. By averaging several methods to estimate total richness, we confirm that over 15,000 tree species are expected to occur in Amazonia. We also show that using ten times the number of plots would result in an increase to just ~50% of those 15,000 estimated species. To get a more complete sample of all tree species, rigorous field campaigns may be needed but the number of trees in Amazonia will remain an estimate for years to come.

    Food system analysis of Arua district in Uganda : Working document KB project Improving food systems in less-favoured rural areas of East Africa
    Hengsdijk, Huib ; Roefs, Marlene ; Pereira da Silva, Fatima ; Hermelink, Marleen ; Lee, Jan van der; Deolu-Ajayi, Ayodeji ; Wösten, Henk ; Özkan Gülzari, Seyda ; Pittore, Katherine ; Beekman, Gonne ; Janssen, Valerie ; Alvarez Aranguiz, Adolfo ; Ndambi, Asaah ; Heesmans, Hanneke - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 50
    Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
    Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
    Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.

    The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.

    Effects of climate and land-use changes on fish catches across lakes at a global scale
    Kao, Yu Chun ; Rogers, Mark W. ; Bunnell, David B. ; Cowx, Ian G. ; Qian, Song S. ; Anneville, Orlane ; Beard, T.D. ; Brinker, Alexander ; Britton, J.R. ; Chura-Cruz, René ; Gownaris, Natasha J. ; Jackson, James R. ; Kangur, Külli ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Lukin, Anatoly A. ; Lynch, Abigail J. ; Mercado-Silva, Norman ; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo ; Njaya, Friday J. ; Ostrovsky, Ilia ; Rudstam, Lars G. ; Sandström, Alfred L.E. ; Sato, Yuichi ; Siguayro-Mamani, Humberto ; Thorpe, Andy ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van; Volta, Pietro ; Wang, Yuyu ; Weiperth, András ; Weyl, Olaf L.F. ; Young, Joelle D. - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Globally, our knowledge on lake fisheries is still limited despite their importance to food security and livelihoods. Here we show that fish catches can respond either positively or negatively to climate and land-use changes, by analyzing time-series data (1970–2014) for 31 lakes across five continents. We find that effects of a climate or land-use driver (e.g., air temperature) on lake environment could be relatively consistent in directions, but consequential changes in a lake-environmental factor (e.g., water temperature) could result in either increases or decreases in fish catch in a given lake. A subsequent correlation analysis indicates that reductions in fish catch was less likely to occur in response to potential climate and land-use changes if a lake is located in a region with greater access to clean water. This finding suggests that adequate investments for water-quality protection and water-use efficiency can provide additional benefits to lake fisheries and food security.

    Vraag en antwoord over verpakkingen in relatie tot houdbaarheid en duurzaamheid
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Pereira da Silva, F.I.D.G. ; Paillart, M.J.M. ; Immink, V.M. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. ; Hetterscheid, S. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 2045) - 39
    Alleles to Enhance Antioxidant Content in Maize-A Genome-Wide Association Approach
    Alves, Mara Lisa ; Bento-Silva, Andreia ; Carbas, Bruna ; Gaspar, Daniel ; Paulo, Manuel ; Brites, Claúdia ; Mendes-Moreira, Pedro ; Brites, Carla Moita ; Bronze, Maria Do Rosário ; Malosetti, Marcos ; Eeuwijk, Fred Van; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)13. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4051 - 4061.
    carotenoids - color - phenolic compounds - quantitative trait loci - tocopherols

    The interest in antioxidant compound breeding in maize (Zea mays L.), a major food crop, has increased in recent years. However, breeding of antioxidant compounds in maize can be hampered, given the complex genetic nature of these compounds. In this work, we followed a genome-wide association approach, using a unique germplasm collection (containing Portuguese germplasm), to study the genetic basis of several antioxidants in maize. Sixty-seven genomic regions associated with seven antioxidant compounds and two color-related traits were identified. Several significant associations were located within or near genes involved in the carotenoid (Zm00001d036345) and tocopherol biosynthetic pathways (Zm00001d017746). Some indications of a negative selection against α-tocopherol levels were detected in the Portuguese maize germplasm. The strongest single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-trait associations and the SNP alleles with larger effect sizes were pinpointed and set as priority for future validation studies; these associations detected now constitute a benchmark for developing molecular selection tools for antioxidant compound selection in maize.

    Frozen evolution of an RNA virus suggests accidental release as a potential cause of arbovirus re-emergence
    Pascall, David J. ; Nomikou, Kyriaki ; Bréard, Emmenuel ; Zientara, Stephan ; Silva Filipe, Ana da; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Jacquot, Maude ; Singer, Joshua B. ; Clercq, Kris De; Botner, Anette ; Sailleau, Corinne ; Viarouge, Cyril ; Batten, Carrie ; Puggioni, Giantonella ; Ligios, Ciriaco ; Savini, Giovanni ; Rijn, P.A. van; Mertens, Peter P.C. ; Biek, Roman ; Palmarini, Massimo - \ 2020
    PloS Biology (2020). - ISSN 1545-7885
    Sources and fates of perchlorate in soils in Chile : A case study of perchlorate dynamics in soil-crop systems using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) fields.
    Calderon, R. ; Rajendiran, Karthikraj ; Kim, U.J. ; Palma, P. ; Arancibia-Miranda, N. ; Silva-Moreno, E. ; Corradini, F. - \ 2020
    Environmental Pollution 264 (2020). - ISSN 0269-7491
    Fertilizers - Food safety - Perchlorate - Soil contamination

    Perchlorate occurs naturally in the environment in deposits of nitrate and can be formed in the atmosphere and precipitate into soil. However, little is known about the occurrence and levels of perchlorate in soils and fertilizers in Chile and its impacts on agricultural systems and food safety. In this study, concentrations of perchlorate were determined in 101 surface soils and 17 fertilizers [nitrogenous (n = 8), nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium (NPK; n = 3), phosphate (n = 2) and non-nitrogenous (n = 4)] collected across Chile from 2017 to 2018. Our results show that perchlorate was detected mainly in agricultural soils (mean: 0.32 ng g−1), grassland rotation sites (0.41 ngg−1) and urban locations (0.38 ng g−1). Interestingly, elevated concentrations of perchlorate (9.66 and 54.0 ng g−1) were found in agricultural soils. All fertilizers contained perchlorate: nitrogenous fertilizers (mean: 32.6 mg kg−1), NPK (mean: 12.6 mg kg−1), non-nitrogenous fertilizers (mean: 10.2 mg kg−1) and phosphates (mean: 11.5 mg kg−1). Only one type of nitrogenous fertilizer (KNO3: 95.3 mg kg−1) exceeded the international regulation limit (50 mg kg−1). For two agronomic practices, the content of perchlorate in lettuce increased as the fertilizer application rate increased, with fertigation promoting a more significant accumulation. However, the concentrations generally remained below regulatory values. Our results suggest that fertilizers constitute an important source of perchlorate in soils.

    More frequent droughts slow down litter decomposition across European agroecosystems and increase the importance of earthworm functional diversity
    Silva, Pedro Martins da; Nascimento, Eduardo ; Reis, Filipa ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Sousa, José Paulo - \ 2020
    Applied Soil Ecology 153 (2020). - ISSN 0929-1393
    Climate change - Community weighted means - Decomposition - Ecological groups - Land-use - Niche complementarity

    Effects of increasing rainfall variability and weather extremes on litter decomposition are still uncertain, especially in agroecosystems, where the functional structure of soil communities is already affected. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the impacts of different rain regimes and land management on litter mass loss and earthworm ecological groups (epigeic, endogeic and anecic) across European agroecosystems. We also tested if the effects of different rainfall regimes (normal, drought, flooding, intermittent) on earthworm functional diversity (FD) or community-weighted mean (CWM) of earthworm ecological groups (particularly anecic species in the case of CWM), affected litter mass loss across land-use types. We found that drought was the main factor retarding litter mass loss across European agroecosystems irrespective of management type. The effects of the rain regime on litter mass loss were coupled with the pedoclimatic conditions that were different among the studied European land-use types. Across land-use types the importance of earthworm communities for litter decomposition was higher under water depletion. These results also suggest that FD, as a proxy of niche complementarity, is crucial for the stability of the decomposition process under environmental disturbances. The FD values under drought regimes strongly indicated that climatic changes may slow down litter decomposition as a result of FD alterations that could compromise the long-term maintenance of litter mass loss. This result may be especially relevant for the European soils that are already under hydric stress, such as in most Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    A global database of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition
    Hoogen, Johan van den; Geisen, Stefan ; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Traunspurger, Walter ; Goede, Ron G.M. de; Adams, Byron J. ; Ahmad, Wasim ; Ferris, Howard ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Bonkowski, Michael ; Campos-Herrera, Raquel ; Cares, Juvenil E. ; Caruso, Tancredi ; Brito Caixeta, Larissa de; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Costa, Sofia R. ; Creamer, Rachel ; Cunha e Castro, José Mauro da; Dam, Marie ; Djigal, Djibril ; Escuer, Miguel ; Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Gutiérrez, Carmen ; Hohberg, Karin ; Kalinkina, Daria ; Kardol, Paul ; Kergunteuil, Alan ; Korthals, Gerard ; Krashevska, Valentyna ; Kudrin, Alexey A. ; Li, Qi ; Liang, Wenju ; Magilton, Matthew ; Marais, Mariette ; Martín, José Antonio Rodríguez ; Matveeva, Elizaveta ; Mayad, El Hassan ; Mzough, E. ; Mulder, Christian ; Mullin, Peter ; Neilson, Roy ; Nguyen, Duong T.A. ; Nielsen, Uffe N. ; Okada, Hiroaki ; Rius, Juan Emilio Palomares ; Pan, Kaiwen ; Peneva, Vlada ; Pellissier, Loïc ; Silva, Julio Carlos Pereira da; Pitteloud, Camille ; Powers, Thomas O. ; Powers, Kirsten ; Quist, Casper W. ; Rasmann, Sergio ; Moreno, Sara Sánchez ; Scheu, Stefan ; Setälä, Heikki ; Sushchuk, Anna ; Tiunov, Alexei V. ; Trap, Jean ; Vestergård, Mette ; Villenave, Cecile ; Waeyenberge, Lieven ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Wright, Daniel G. ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Yang, Jiuein ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Bouharroud, R. ; Ferji, Z. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Routh, Devin ; Crowther, Thomas W. - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    As the most abundant animals on earth, nematodes are a dominant component of the soil community. They play critical roles in regulating biogeochemical cycles and vegetation dynamics within and across landscapes and are an indicator of soil biological activity. Here, we present a comprehensive global dataset of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition. This dataset includes 6,825 georeferenced soil samples from all continents and biomes. For geospatial mapping purposes these samples are aggregated into 1,933 unique 1-km pixels, each of which is linked to 73 global environmental covariate data layers. Altogether, this dataset can help to gain insight into the spatial distribution patterns of soil nematode abundance and community composition, and the environmental drivers shaping these patterns.

    In vitro toxicological characterisation of the antifungal compound soybean toxin (SBTX)
    Arantes, Mariana Reis ; Peijnenburg, Ad ; Hendriksen, Peter J.M. ; Stoopen, Geert ; Almeida, Thiago Silva ; Souza, Terezinha Maria ; Farias, Davi Felipe ; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano ; Rocha, Talita Magalhães ; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira ; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria ; Oliveira, Jose Tadeu Abreu - \ 2020
    Toxicology in Vitro 65 (2020). - ISSN 0887-2333
    Antifungal agent - Cytotoxicity - SBTX - Toxicogenomics

    Soybean toxin (SBTX) is a protein isolated from soybean seeds and composed of two polypeptide subunits (17 and 27 kDa). SBTX has in vitro activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Cercospora sojina, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium herguei, and yeasts like Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and Pichia membranifaciens. The present study aimed to analyze in vitro whether SBTX causes any side effects on non-target bacterial and mammalian cells that could impede its potential use as a novel antifungal agent. SBTX at 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL did not hinder the growth of the bacteria Salmonella enterica (subspecies enterica serovar choleraesuis), Bacillus subtilis (subspecies spizizenii) and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, SBTX at concentrations up to 500 μg/mL did not significantly affect the viability of erythrocytes, neutrophils, and human intestinal Caco-2 cells. To study whether SBTX could induce relevant alterations in gene expression, in vitro DNA microarray experiments were conducted in which differentiated Caco-2 cells were exposed for 24 h to 100 μg/mL or 200 μg/mL SBTX. SBTX up-regulated genes involved in cell cycle and immune response pathways, but down-regulated genes that play a role in cholesterol biosynthesis and platelet degranulation pathways. Thus, although SBTX did not affect bacteria, nor induced cytotoxity in mammalian cells, it affected some biological pathways in the human Caco-2 cell line that warrants further investigation.

    Fresh on Demand
    Pereira da Silva, Fatima - \ 2020
    Fresh on Demand
    Pereira da Silva, F.I.D.G. - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 4 p.
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