Ten essentials for action-oriented and second order energy transitions, transformations and climate change research
Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Patterson, James ; Hultman, Johan ; Mierlo, Barbara Van; Säwe, Filippa ; Wiek, Arnim ; Wittmayer, Julia ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Waer, Husam Al; Battacharya, Nandini ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Carmen, Esther ; Colvin, John ; Cvitanovic, Christopher ; D’Souza, Marcella ; Gopel, Maja ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Hämäläinen, Timo ; Harper, Gavin ; Henfry, Tom ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Howden, Mark S. ; Kerr, Andy ; Klaes, Matthias ; Lyon, Christopher ; Midgley, Gerald ; Moser, Susanne ; Mukherjee, Nandan ; Müller, Karl ; O’brien, Karen ; O’Connell, Deborah A. ; Olsson, Per ; Page, Glenn ; Reed, Mark S. ; Searle, Beverley ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Spaiser, Viktoria ; Strasser, Tim ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Rao-Williams, Jennifer ; Wise, Russel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Woods, Mel ; Wyborn, Carina - \ 2018
Energy Research & Social Science 40 (2018). - ISSN 2214-6296 - p. 54 - 70.
The most critical question for climate research is no longer about the problem, but about how to facilitate the transformative changes necessary to avoid catastrophic climate-induced change. Addressing this question, however, will require massive upscaling of research that can rapidly enhance learning about transformations. Ten essentials for guiding action-oriented transformation and energy research are therefore presented, framed in relation to second-order science. They include: (1) Focus on transformations to low-carbon, resilient living; (2) Focus on solution processes; (3) Focus on ‘how to’ practical knowledge; (4) Approach research as occurring from within the system being intervened; (5) Work with normative aspects; (6) Seek to transcend current thinking; (7) Take a multi-faceted approach to understand and shape change; (8) Acknowledge the value of alternative roles of researchers; (9) Encourage second-order experimentation; and (10) Be reflexive. Joint application of the essentials would create highly adaptive, reflexive, collaborative and impact-oriented research able to enhance capacity to respond to the climate challenge. At present, however, the practice of such approaches is limited and constrained by dominance of other approaches. For wider transformations to low carbon living and energy systems to occur, transformations will therefore also be needed in the way in which knowledge is produced and used.
Corrigendum to "Targeting, out-scaling and prioritising climate-smart interventions in agricultural systems : Lessons from applying a generic framework to the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa" [Agric. Syst. 2017 Feb; 151: 153-162]
Notenbaert, An ; Pfeifer, Catherine ; Silvestri, Silvia ; Herrero, Mario - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 161 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 124 - 124.
Livelihoods and food security in an urban linked, high potential region of Tanzania : Changes over a three year period
Fraval, Simon ; Hammond, James ; Lannerstad, Mats ; Oosting, Simon J. ; Sayula, George ; Teufel, Nils ; Silvestri, Silvia ; Poole, E.J. ; Herrero, Mario - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 160 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 87 - 95.
Ongoing and projected changes to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are unprecedented in scale and pace. This paper investigates to what extent significant changes in livelihoods, poverty and food security performance are already taking place. The study focuses on households in Lushoto district (n = 147), a remote but urban linked area of Tanzania. Within the short time period between 2012 and 2015, 77% of households made changes in farm resources or farm characteristics. Households in the study site can be broadly classified as 'Rising high value crop', 'Rising livestock', 'Subsisting mixed' and 'Subsisting crops'. Some of the most substantial changes we observed in the three year period of study were most likely not related to any of the agricultural orientated interventions that are being promoted in the region, but are likely endogenous changes. The land expansion seen in the 'Rising' households (n = 58) provides a counterpoint to the trend established in the literature of decreasing farm sizes across lower income countries more broadly, and specifically in Africa. The strategy of land expansion is risky, potentially representing a future of winners and losers, ultimately with some land-holders falling further into poverty rather than leveraging their agricultural enterprises to improve their well-being. Our results show that in sites like Lushoto with a good rural to urban connection (increasingly common in SSA), households can be agile and diverse and agency interventions are aiming for a moving target. In order to achieve income and food security outcomes, targeted and rapid monitoring tools will be needed.
Recreational sea fishing in Europe in a global context-Participation rates, fishing effort, expenditure, and implications for monitoring and assessment
Hyder, Kieran ; Weltersbach, Marc Simon ; Armstrong, Mike ; Ferter, Keno ; Townhill, Bryony ; Ahvonen, Anssi ; Arlinghaus, Robert ; Baikov, Andrei ; Bellanger, Manuel ; Birzaks, Janis ; Borch, Trude ; Cambie, Giulia ; Graaf, Martin De; Diogo, Hugo M.C. ; Dziemian, Łukasz ; Gordoa, Ana ; Grzebielec, Ryszard ; Hartill, Bruce ; Kagervall, Anders ; Kapiris, Kostas ; Karlsson, Martin ; Kleiven, Alf Ring ; Lejk, Adam M. ; Levrel, Harold ; Lovell, Sabrina ; Lyle, Jeremy ; Moilanen, Pentti ; Monkman, Graham ; Morales-Nin, Beatriz ; Mugerza, Estanis ; Martinez, Roi ; O'Reilly, Paul ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Papadopoulos, Anastasios ; Pita, Pablo ; Radford, Zachary ; Radtke, Krzysztof ; Roche, William ; Rocklin, Delphine ; Ruiz, Jon ; Scougal, Callum ; Silvestri, Roberto ; Skov, Christian ; Steinback, Scott ; Sundelöf, Andreas ; Svagzdys, Arvydas ; Turnbull, David ; Hammen, Tessa van der; Voorhees, David Van; Winsen, Frankwin Van; Verleye, Thomas ; Veiga, Pedro ; Vølstad, Jon-Helge ; Zarauz, Lucia ; Zolubas, Tomas ; Strehlow, Harry V. - \ 2018
Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)2. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 225 - 243.
European marine recreational fisheries - fisheries assessment and management - fishing effort and expenditure - participation - surveys and monitoring of marine recreational fisheries
Marine recreational fishing (MRF) is a high-participation activity with large economic value and social benefits globally, and it impacts on some fish stocks. Although reporting MRF catches is a European Union legislative requirement, estimates are only available for some countries. Here, data on numbers of fishers, participation rates, days fished, expenditures, and catches of two widely targeted species were synthesized to provide European estimates of MRF and placed in the global context. Uncertainty assessment was not possible due to incomplete knowledge of error distributions; instead, a semi-quantitative bias assessment was made. There were an estimated 8.7 million European recreational sea fishers corresponding to a participation rate of 1.6%. An estimated 77.6 million days were fished, and expenditure was €5.9 billion annually. There were higher participation, numbers of fishers, days fished and expenditure in the Atlantic than the Mediterranean, but the Mediterranean estimates were generally less robust. Comparisons with other regions showed that European MRF participation rates and expenditure were in the mid-range, with higher participation in Oceania and the United States, higher expenditure in the United States, and lower participation and expenditure in South America and Africa. For both northern European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Moronidae) and western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua, Gadidae) stocks, MRF represented 27% of the total removals. This study highlights the importance of MRF and the need for bespoke, regular and statistically sound data collection to underpin European fisheries management. Solutions are proposed for future MRF data collection in Europe and other regions to support sustainable fisheries management.
Targeting, out-scaling and prioritising climate-smart interventions in agricultural systems: Lessons from applying a generic framework to the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa
Notenbaert, An ; Pfeifer, Catherine ; Silvestri, Silvia ; Herrero, Mario - \ 2017
Agricultural Systems 151 (2017). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 153 - 162.
Climate smart agriculture - Livestock - Priority setting - Targeting
As a result of population growth, urbanization and climate change, agricultural systems around the world face enormous pressure on the use of resources. There is a pressing need for wide-scale innovation leading to development that improves the livelihoods and food security of the world's population while at the same time addressing climate change adaptation and mitigation. A variety of promising climate-smart interventions have been identified. However, what remains is the prioritization of interventions for investment and broad dissemination. The suitability and adoption of interventions depends on a variety of bio-physical and socio-economic factors. Also their impacts, when adopted and out-scaled, are likely to be highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity expresses itself not only spatially and temporally but also in terms of the stakeholders affected, some might win and some might lose. A mechanism that can facilitate a systematic, holistic assessment of the likely spread and consequential impact of potential interventions is one way of improving the selection and targeting of such options. In this paper we provide climate smart agriculture (CSA) planners and implementers at all levels with a generic framework for evaluating and prioritising potential interventions. This entails an iterative process of mapping out recommendation domains, assessing adoption potential and estimating impacts. Through examples, related to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, we demonstrate each of the steps and how they are interlinked. The framework is applicable in many different forms, scales and settings. It has a wide applicability beyond the examples presented and we hope to stimulate readers to integrate the concepts in the planning process for climate-smart agriculture, which invariably involves multi-stakeholder, multi-scale and multi-objective decision-making.
Is production intensification likely to make farm households food-adequate? A simple food availability analysis across smallholder farming systems from East and West Africa
Ritzema, R.S. ; Frelat, R. ; Douxchamps, S. ; Silvestri, S. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Herrero, M. ; Giller, K.E. ; López-ridaura, S. ; Teufel, N. ; Paul, B.K. ; Wijk, M.T. Van - \ 2017
Food Security 9 (2017)1. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 115 - 131.
Despite considerable development investment, food insecurity remains prevalent throughout East and West Africa. The concept of ‘sustainable intensification’ of agricultural production has been promoted as a means to meet growing food needs in these regions. However, inadequate attention has been given to assessing whether benefits from intensification would be realized by farm households considering highly diverse resource endowments, household and farm characteristics, and agroecological contexts. In this study, we apply a simple energy-based index of food availability to 1800 households from research sites in 7 countries in East and West Africa to assess the food availability status of each of these households and to quantify the contribution of different on- and off-farm activities to food availability. We estimate the effects of two production intensification strategies on food availability: increased cereal crop production from crop-based options, and increased production of key livestock products from livestock-based options. These two options are contrasted with a third strategy: increased off-farm income for each household from broader socioeconomic-based options. Using sensitivity analysis, each strategy is tested against baseline values via incremental production increases. Baseline results exhibit considerable diversity within and across sites in household food availability status and livelihood strategies. Interventions represented in the crop and livestock options may primarily benefit food-adequate and marginally food-inadequate households, and have little impact on the most food-inadequate households. The analysis questions what production intensification can realistically achieve for East and West African smallholders, and how intensification strategies must be augmented with transformational strategies to reach the poorest households.
Prioritizing climate-smart livestock technologies in rural Tanzania : A minimum data approach
Shikuku, Kelvin M. ; Valdivia, Roberto O. ; Paul, Birthe K. ; Mwongera, Caroline ; Winowiecki, Leigh ; Läderach, Peter ; Herrero, Mario ; Silvestri, Silvia - \ 2017
Agricultural Systems 151 (2017). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 204 - 216.
Climate-smart agriculture - Crop-livestock systems - Food security - Ruminant model - Tanzania - Trade-off analysis
Crop-livestock production systems play an important role in the livelihoods of many rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) but are vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. Understanding which farming options will give the highest return on investment in light of climate change is critical information for decision-making. While there is continued investment in testing adaptation options using on-farm experiments, simulation models remain important tools for ‘ex-ante’ assessments of the impacts of proposed climate-smart agricultural technologies (CSA). This study used the Ruminant model and the Trade-offs Analysis model for Multi-Dimensional Impact Assessment (TOA-MD) to assess how improved livestock management options affect the three pillars of CSA: increased productivity, improved food security, and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Our sample was stratified into: 1) households with local cow breeds (n = 28); 2) households with improved dairy cow breeds (n = 70); and 3) households without dairy cows (n = 66). Results showed that the predicted adoption rates for improved livestock feeding among households with improved dairy cows (stratum 2) were likely to be higher compared to households with only local cows (stratum 1). Both households with local cows and those with improved cows had increased income and food security. However, overall poverty reduction was only modest for households with local cows. Expected methane emissions intensity declined with adoption of improved livestock feeding strategies both in stratum 1 and stratum 2, and greater impacts were observed when households in stratum 2 received an additional improved cow breed. Providing a cow to households that were not keeping cows showed substantial economic gains. Additional research is, however, needed to understand why those farms currently do not have cows, which may determine if the predicted adoption rates are feasible.
Climate change mitigation and productivity gains in livestock supply chains : insights from regional case studies
Mottet, Anne ; Henderson, Benjamin ; Opio, Carolyn ; Falcucci, Alessandra ; Tempio, Giuseppe ; Silvestri, Silvia ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Gerber, Pierre J. - \ 2016
Regional Environmental Change (2016). - ISSN 1436-3798 - 13 p.
Climate change - Livestock systems - Mitigation - Packages of options - Productivity
Livestock can contribute to climate change mitigation by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions and by increasing soil carbon sequestration. Packages of mitigation techniques can bring large environmental benefits as illustrated in six case studies modeled in the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model developed by FAO. With feasible technical interventions in livestock production systems, the mitigation potential of each of the selected species, systems and regions ranges from 14 to 41 %. While comparably high mitigation potentials were estimated for ruminant and pig production systems in Asia, Latin America and Africa, large emission reductions can also be attained in dairy systems with already high levels of productivity, in OECD countries. Mitigation interventions can lead to a concomitant reduction in emissions and increase in production, contributing to food security. This is particularly the case for improved feeding practices and better health and herd management practices. Livestock systems also have a significant potential for sequestrating carbon in pasturelands and rangelands through improved management, as illustrated in two of the six case studies in this paper.
Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.
Silvestri, Silvia ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Kristjanson, Patti ; Förch, Wiebke ; Radeny, Maren ; Mutie, Lanetta ; Quiros, F.C. ; Herrero, M. ; Ndungu, Anthony ; Claessens, L.F.G. - \ 2015
Agriculture & Food Security 4 (2015). - ISSN 2048-7010 - 15 p.
What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions using a unique dataset of 600 households that allows us to explore a wide range of indicators capturing different aspects of performance and well-being for different types of households—female-headed, male-headed, food secure, food insecure—and assess livelihoods options and strategies and how they influence food security. The analysis is based on a detailed farm household survey carried out in three sites in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
Our results suggest that food insecurity may not be more severe for female-headed households than male-headed households. We found that food secure farming households have a wider variety of crops on their farms and are more market oriented than are the food insecure. More domestic assets do not make female-headed households more food secure. For the other categories of assets (livestock, transport, and productive), we did not find evidence of a correlation with food security. Different livelihood portfolios are being pursued by male versus female-headed households, with female-headed households less likely to grow high-value crops and more likely to have a less diversified crop portfolio.
These findings help identify local, national and regional policies and actions for enhancing food security of female-headed as well as male-headed households. These include interventions that improve households’ access to information, e.g., though innovative communication and knowledge-sharing efforts and support aimed at enhancing women’s and men’s agricultural market opportunities.
|Household and food security: what lessons can we learn from food secure households?
Silvestri, S. ; Douxchamps, S. ; Kristjianson, P. ; Foerch, W. ; Radeny, M. ; Mutie, I. ; Quiros, C. ; Herrero, M. ; Claessens, L.F.G. ; Ndungu, A. - \ 2015
Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting
Gildemacher, P.R. ; Heijne, B. ; Silvestri, M. ; Houbraken, J. ; Hoekstra, E. ; Theelen, B. ; Boekhout, T. - \ 2006
FEMS Yeast Research 6 (2006)8. - ISSN 1567-1356 - p. 1149 - 1156.
golden delicious apple - rhodotorula-glutinis - venturia-inaequalis - aureobasidium-pullulans - botrytis-cinerea - scab fungicides - ribosomal dna - microflora - sprays - mold
The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium pullulans, and the development of russet. All yeast inoculations aggravated russet, but Rhodotorula glutinis, Sporidiobolus pararoseus and A. pullulans did so to a greater extent than the other species. Both captan and dithianon significantly reduced russeting. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that inoculations with R. glutinis and S. pararoseus seemed to suppress other yeast species present on the apple surface.
|Fungal biodiversity in a regeneration series in Colombia Amazonia
Boekhout, T. ; Franco Molano, A.E. ; López Quintero, C. ; Silvestri, M. ; Cleef, A.M. ; Summerbell, R.C. - \ 2002
The Hague, : Unknown Publisher
|The identity of Paulianaphelinus mariscusae Risbee (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).
Polaszek, A. ; Hayat, M. - \ 1989
Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri 46 (1989). - p. 21 - 24.