Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Mobilizing farmers to stop land degradation: A different discourse from Burundi
    Kessler, Aad ; Reemst, Laurie Van; Beun, Micael ; Slingerland, Erik ; Pol, Laura ; Winne, Ruben De - \ 2020
    Land Degradation and Development (2020). - ISSN 1085-3278
    Stopping land degradation is one of the biggest challenges worldwide and particularly in Burundi, with its unprecedented rates of soil loss and growing food insecurity. This article proposes a different discourse on how to engage people in stopping land degradation, and presents results and lessons learned from a bottom‐up inclusive approach implemented since 2014 in Burundi: the integrated farm planning (PIP) approach. The PIP approach aims to build a solid foundation for sustainable change toward enhanced food production and good land stewardship, based on three foundation principles (motivation, stewardship, and resilience) and three guiding principles (empowerment, integration, and collaboration). This article is based on two studies undertaken in 2018: an impact study among 202 households and a qualitative study using the most significant change methodology with 30 households. Findings from both studies provide initial support that the PIP approach generates considerable changes at household, farm, and village level. Based on a vision and a plan for their farm, motivated PIP households are currently investing in the resilience of their farms and applying a diversity of conservation practices, while in all PIP villages concrete collective action is undertaken for sustainable land stewardship. Given its rapid upscaling in Burundi and the potential of the PIP approach to mobilize farmers for motivated action, the article concludes with a reflection on the core elements of a different discourse to stop land degradation.
    Oil Palm Agroforestry Can Achieve Economic and Environmental Gains as Indicated by Multifunctional Land Equivalent Ratios
    Khasanah, Nikmatul ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Slingerland, Maja ; Sofiyudin, Mohammad ; Stomph, Dienke ; Migeon, Adrien F. ; Hairiah, Kurniatun - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2020). - ISSN 2571-581X
    carbon footprint - cocoa - ecosystem services - intercropping - land equivalent ratio (LER) - oil palm - pepper - WaNuLCAS model

    Driven by increased global demand for vegetable oil in the food and biofuel sectors, oil palm plantations based on monoculture technology have expanded into lowland tropical forests. Interest in diversified, mixed oil palm systems is increasing as these might increase efficiency of the use of land and other resources, reduce farmer risk, and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit product. Land Equivalent Ratio for provisioning services (LERP) values above 1.0 show that at least some diversified systems use land more efficiently than monocultures and are thus “land sparing,” where monoculture LERP cannot exceed 1.0. Diversification also modifies climate and water regulating functions (“land sharing”) relative to a forest reference, as indicated in the LERR index. A “multifunctional” LERM indicator combines both; land sparing plus land sharing effects jointly determine expected regulating services. Empirical assessment of multiple ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes is assisted by models that synthesise process-based knowledge, especially for perennial systems where well-designed experiments require a full production cycle, and are costly and scarce. Agroforestry models explore spacing, intercropping and soil management options, predicting harvestable yields, impacts on water flows, nutrient leaching, and greenhouse gas emissions. We used the process-based Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry System (WaNuLCAS) model to explore mixed oil palm + cocoa and oil palm + pepper intercrop systems with modified (“double row”) planting patterns for Indonesian contexts and estimated consequences for the carbon footprint. The oil palm + cocoa intercrop provided a high LERP (1.4), while also replenishing more ground water and having a lower C footprint. This combination also has a return to labour equal to that in oil palm monocultures and a higher benefit cost ratio than the oil palm + pepper combination that maximizes Net Present Value. Oil palm + cocoa systems are also less sensitive to price uncertainty for oil palm, and buffer for oil palm and cocoa production risks, assumed to be independent of each other. Considerable economic and environmental system improvements appear to be feasible through mixed oil palm systems and diversification as a pathway to intensification deserves full attention of research and policy development.

    The Missing Middle: Connected action on agriculture and nutrition across global, national and local levels to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2
    Veldhuizen, L.J.L. ; Giller, K.E. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. ; Janssen, S.J.C. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2020
    Global Food Security 24 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124 - 6 p.
    SDG2 - Food systems - Sustainable agriculture - Food security - Pathways - Stakeholders
    Sustainable development goal 2 (SDG 2) challenges the world to connect food production and consumption in a way that matches local contexts and enables everyone to enjoy a healthy diet that is produced sustainably and contributes to the other SDGs. We identify a Missing Middle between food production and consumption, and between globally defined goals and local implementation practices that may hinder progress towards SDG 2. Examples of this Missing Middle and how it can be bridged demonstrate that key challenges should be addressed in a more integrated manner for more effective action on SDG 2. We encourage actors in food provisioning to start addressing the Missing Middle by collaborating with relevant stakeholders in specified cases.
    Quality Improvement in African Food Supply Chains: Determinants of Farmer Performance
    Tefera, Delelegne Abera ; Bijman, Jos ; Slingerland, Maja ; Velde, Gerben van der; Omta, Onno - \ 2020
    European Journal of Development Research 32 (2020)1. - ISSN 0957-8811 - p. 152 - 175.
    Economics of quality - Ethiopia - Institutional arrangement - Malt barley - Quality-upgrading - Smallholders

    The integration of smallholders in modern value chains in sub-Saharan Africa is an important pathway for improving income and farmer livelihoods. Connected to demographic shifts, rapid urbanization, and the emergence of a middle class, there is a demand for higher product quality. In order to access these modern markets, smallholders need to enhance the quality of their products. However, factors that determine smallholders’ decision to invest in quality upgrading are not well understood. Using cross-sectional data from the Ethiopian barley sector, we analyse the factors that explain smallholders’ decision to improve quality. We find that socioeconomic, institutional and market factors affect the decision to improve quality. Our study contributes to the understanding of the determinants of quality upgrading at the micro-level of the economics of quality production, and thus of rural development.

    Multinationals and Modernisation of Domestic Value Chains in Africa: Case Studies from Ethiopia
    Tefera, Delelegne A. ; Bijman, Jos ; Slingerland, Maja A. - \ 2020
    Journal of Development Studies 56 (2020)3. - ISSN 0022-0388 - p. 596 - 612.

    Multinationals can facilitate modernisation in food value chains in developing countries. While most studies focus on export chains, insight on domestic food chains is scant. Our study aims to provide detailed insights into the process of upgrading domestic value chains. A rapidly growing beer market has attracted foreign brewery companies to invest in Ethiopia. These foreign brewers have introduced new sourcing structures in order to increase the supply of high quality raw material. We have used a case study design to explore upgrading processes in malt barley chains, where malt barley is both a food and a cash crop. By introducing strong vertical coordination between farmers and buyers, facilitated by producer organisations and NGOs, foreign brewers have been able to upgrade malt barley chains. We found that both farmers and brewers have benefitted from this upgrading process.

    Klimaatschadeschatter Rapportage 2019
    Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Budding-Polo Ballinas, Monserrat ; Spijker, J.H. ; Kok, Sien ; Bel, Mark de; Jong, Dick de; Kluck, Jeroen ; Harten, Floris ; Stoop, Bianca ; Noome, Wilmer ; Slingerland, Erwin ; Bosch, Peter ; Leuken, Jeroen P.G. van; Goosen, H. ; Koekoek, Arjen ; Bijsterveldt, M.A.J.C. van; Hofland, Sandy - \ 2019
    Bussum : Stichting Climate Adaptation Services (CAS) - 52 p.
    De warme en droge zomers van 2018 en 2019 braken allerlei records, en we zullen er nog veel vaker mee te maken krijgen. Ook korte hevige regen- en hagelbuien komen steeds vaker voor. De effecten van klimaatverandering hebben verschillende gevolgen. Zo moeten er meer mensen naar het ziekenhuis in hete zomers, kan er vaker water het gebouw in stromen en verzakken wegen en panden door droogte. De Klimaatschadeschatter (KSS) helpt om inzicht te krijgen in de schade door klimaatverandering met de focus op de stedelijke omgeving.
    A study on outcomes of RSPO certification for independent smallholders in Central Kalimantan : Technical report by the SEnSOR programme
    Vos, R.E. de; Suwarno, A. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Lucey, J. - \ 2019
    A study into outcomes of RSPO certification for independent smallholders : A science-for-policy brief by the SEnSOR programme
    Suwarno, A. ; Vos, R.E. de; Brouwer, Rens ; Gunnewijk, Ben ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Lucey, Jennifer M. - \ 2019
    SENSOR - 4 p.
    Why do oil palm farmers choose for intensification or expansion? Does certification make a difference?
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Maghfirah Khairuddin, Annisa - \ 2019
    In: Land governance in transition: How to support transformations that work for people and nature?. - LANDac - p. 48 - 48.
    Intercropping in oil palm plantations in Central Kalimantan: an interdisciplinary study on smallholder livelihood strategies
    Vos, R.E. de; Suwarno, A. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2019
    In: Land governance in transition: How to support transformations that work for people and nature?. - LANDac - p. 47 - 47.
    Impacts of RSPO certification on land-use planning by smallholders
    Slingerland, Maja ; Maghfirah Khairuddin, Annisa ; Roth, Dik - \ 2019
    Improving smallholder inclusivity through integrating oil palm with crops
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Khasanah, N. ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Susanti, Ari ; Meilantina, Mayang - \ 2019
    In: Exploring inclusive palm oil production / Jezeer, Rosalien, Pasiecznik, Nick, ETFRN and Tropenbos International, Wageningen (ETFRN News 59) - p. 147 - 154.
    A living income for smallholder commodity farmers and protected forests and biodiversity: how can the private and public sectors contribute? : White Paper on sustainable commodity production
    Waarts, Y.R. ; Janssen, Valerie ; Ingram, V.J. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Rijn, F.C. van; Beekman, G. ; Dengerink, Just ; Vliet, J.A. van; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Sassen, M. ; Guijt, W.J. van; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research 2019-122) - 26 p.
    Interventions and policies in the cocoa, tea and coffee sectors have failed to ensure that all smallholder commodity farmers earn more than the $1.90 World Bank poverty line or a living income, and they have not halted deforestation. Commodity farming is strongly associated with deforestation, in spite of interventions. For more than 50% of the cocoa and tea farmers in our datasets, household income would need to double in order for them to earn a living income. For those farmers, farming will never be a primary pathway out of poverty.
    A sustainability assessment of bioethanol (EtOH) production: The case of cassava in Colombia
    Pabon-Pereira, Claudia ; Slingerland, Maja ; Hogervorst, Sanna ; Lier, Jules van; Rabbinge, Rudy - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)14. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Bioenergy production - Bioethanol - Biofuels - Cassava - Energy crops - Sustainability analysis

    This paper shows how system design determines sustainability outcomes of cassava bioethanol production in Colombia. The recovery of the energy contained in by-products is recommended as compared to single product production. In particular, this study assesses the energy, greenhouse gases, water, and land use performance of alternative cassava cascades working at different scales, highlighting the implications of including anaerobic digestion technology in the chain. The centralized systems showed a poorer energy and greenhouse gases performance as compared to decentralized ones in part due to the artificial drying of cassava chips in the centralized facility. Under solar drying of cassava chips, systems with anaerobic digestion produced three to five times more energy than demanded and produced greenhouse gas savings of 0.3 kgCO2eq L EtOH-1. The water balance output depends upon the water reuse within the ethanol industry, which demands 21-23 L EtOH-1. In the anaerobic digestion scenarios, assuming liquid flows are treated separately, complete water recovery is feasible. Land use for cassava cultivation was calculated to be 0.27-0.35 ha tEtOH-1. The energy and water content of the material to digest, the options for digestate reuse, and the recovery of the methane produced are major considerations substantially influencing the role of anaerobic digestion within cassava cascade configurations.

    Good agricultural practices in oil palm and smallholder inclusion in Indonesia
    Maat, H. ; Lisnawati, L. ; Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2019
    In: Exploring inclusive palm oil production / Jezeer, R., Pasiecznik, N., ETFRN News 2019 (2019)59. - ISSN 1876-5866European Tropical Forest Research Network (ETFRN News 59) - ISBN 9789051131413 - p. 72 - 77.
    The Role of the Integrated Maize-Soybean-Chicken Value Chains in Sustaining Diverse Diets in Tanzania
    Wilson, Wilson ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Baijukya, Frederick ; Oosting, S.J. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2019
    In: Book of abstracts Tropentag 2019: Tropentag 2019International Research on Food Security, NaturalResource Management and Rural Development. - Göttingen : Cuvillier Verlag - ISBN 9783736970830 - p. 459 - 459.
    Explaining the “Certification Gap” for Different Types of Oil Palm Smallholders in Riau Province, Indonesia
    Hutabarat, Sakti ; Slingerland, Maja ; Dries, Liesbeth - \ 2019
    The Journal of Environment & Development 28 (2019)3. - ISSN 1070-4965 - p. 253 - 281.
    certification - independent smallholders - oil palm - RSPO - scheme smallholders

    Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of palm oil, and its smallholder oil palm plantations involve more than 2.3 million farmers. The rapid expansion of the oil palm area, and resulting negative environmental and social impacts, has increased the demand for sustainability certification for palm oil products. This study investigates whether different types of smallholders face different barriers in complying with certification standards. The study uses survey data from 829 smallholders in Riau, Sumatra. First, an assessment is made of the gap between current management practices and practices required by Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil standards for different types of smallholders. Second, the article explores explanations for the gap between current and required practices. Finally, an investigation is made of the different starting points of different types of smallholders. Results indicate that the diversity between smallholders affects their prospects for certification. To date, this diversity in smallholders has not been taken into account in the application of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil standards. This can help to explain the limited success of smallholder certifications in Indonesia.

    Improving smallholder inclusiveness in palm oil production — a global review
    Jezeer, Rosalien ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Laan, Carina van der; Pasiecznik, Nick - \ 2019
    Tropenbos International (ETFRN News 59) - 15 p.
    Summary review from the ETFRN news 59 'Exploring inclusive palm oil production' where the experiences perceptions and perspectives of individuals, companies, institutions and NGOs on what has been done and is being done on the ground to increase the involvement of and benefits to smallholder oil palm farmers are discussed and compared.
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) production in Indonesia: carbon footprint and diversification options
    Khasanah, N. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. van Noordwijk, co-promotor(en): M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435697 - 205

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a uniquely valuable palm as source of low-cost vegetable oil. However, the success and method of its expansion (monoculture plantation) especially in biodiversity-rich Indonesia and Malaysia have made it one of the most controversial crops of the world. One of the policy consequences of the boycotts and debate is the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of European countries that sets binding targets for the emission savings to be achieved when oils are used as feedstock of biofuel. Exporting countries such as Indonesia need to have reliable data on the carbon footprint of their product across production systems and the products’ lifecycle. Diversification of oil palm plantations starts to gain attention as a strategy to increase farmer resilience. The objectives of this thesis were (1) to estimate the carbon footprint of palm oil production in Indonesia when it is used as biofuel and express it as CO2 equivalent and emissions saving, and (2) to explore mixed oil palm systems as diversification strategy to increase farmer benefit and to reduce the carbon footprint. Through a survey and sample collection in more than 20 plantations distributed over Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi we analysed the palm oil life cycle. Using the Biofuel Emission Reduction Estimator Scheme (BERES) emissions savings were differentiated by carbon debt (land use change) and current practices. Process-based modelling using WaNuLCAS (Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry System) helped explore intercropping systems beyond current practice. Results show that it is possible to achieve the high emission savings target with palm oil to comply with the RED requirement. Of companies with ‘good agricultural practice’ 40% and 25% of production can meet the 35% (2015) and 60% (2018) emissions savings standards, respectively. The larger the areas that were converted from high-C stock forest, the larger the fraction of peat, the larger the emissions from fertilizers, transportation and processing (incl. methane) and the lower the yield of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB), in a mix of production situations that is accounted for jointly (as is the case for ‘company’ level assessments), the harder it is to achieve emission savings. While fertilizer application increases FFB yield, it also increases N2O emissions. Selected mixed oil palm systems can provide considerable economic and environmental system improvements. The Land Equivalent Ratio of mixed oil palm – cacao systems can be 1.4, showing a superior way to achieve land sparing as a goal of efficient use of land, relative to monocultures for each commodity separately. Diversification should be a valid counterpart of current intensification research and policies to help make palm oil more sustainable from both social and environmental perspectives.

    On yield gaps and better management practices in Indonesian smallholder oil palm plantations
    Woittiez, Lotte S. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K.E. Giller, co-promotor(en): M.A. Slingerland; M. van Noordwijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435918 - 287

    Palm oil is currently the most important vegetable oil in the world, and Indonesia is the world’s largest producer. Oil palm plantations are an important source of revenue, but rapid expansion has led to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Forty per cent of the plantation area in Indonesia is owned by smallholders, whose yields are relatively poor. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the yield gaps and agronomic practices in Indonesian smallholder oil palm plantations, with a focus on fertiliser application, and to propose and test better management practices that can contribute to sustainable intensification. The research consisted of an in-depth literature review, several surveys, the collection of samples in smallholder plantations, and a three-year experiment with 14 smallholder farmers.

    In yield gap analysis, three yield levels are recognised: potential, limited, and actual yield. The potential yield in a plantation is determined by radiation, CO2 concentration, temperature, planting material, culling, planting density, pruning, pollination, and crop recovery (harvesting). The yield-limiting factors are rainfall, irrigation, soil, waterlogging, topography, slope, and nutrition. The yield-reducing factors are weeds, pests, and diseases. In smallholder plantations, the yield gap is mostly explained by poor planting material, poor drainage, sub-optimal planting density, poor culling (leading to large variability and the presence of unproductive palms), infrequent harvesting, soil erosion, poor nutrient management, and rat damage, but the effects of these factors on yield vary depending on local conditions.

    The survey data showed clear evidence of insufficient and unbalanced fertiliser applications, and visual nutrient deficiency symptoms were observed in many plantations. Leaf sample results showed that 57, 61 and 80% of the plantations in Jambi and Sintang were deficient in N, P and K, respectively. In Riau, 95, 67 and 75% of the plantations were deficient in N, P and K. The implementation of better management practices (including harvesting, weeding, pruning, and nutrient application) in 14 smallholder fields for three years resulted in palms with significantly larger leaves and heavier bunches compared with palms under farmer management, but improvements in yield were small and not statistically significant, and financial returns on better practices were negative. Possible causes of the small yield response were good starting yields, increased inter-palm competition for sunlight, and environmental constraints (particularly the 2015 El Niño event and waterlogging in Jambi).

    On the basis of our findings on yield gaps, nutrient limitations and better practices, we discuss how Indonesian smallholders may be supported to achieve sustainable intensification at a larger scale, and we reflect on the broader implications of our findings for a future supply of truly sustainable palm oil.

    Fertiliser application practices and nutrient deficiencies in smallholder oil palm plantations in Indonesia
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Turhina, Sri ; Deccy, D. ; Slingerland, Maja ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2019
    Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)4. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 543 - 559.
    Oil palm has become an important source of revenue for smallholders in Indonesia, but productivity of smallholder plantations is generally poor. Nutrient limitations have been suggested as an important agronomic constraint to yield. Our research aimed to quantify fertiliser use, soil and tissue nutrient status, and palm growth and yield in a sample of independent smallholder plantations. We selected 49 plantations in Indonesia in two provinces with contrasting soils. For all plantations, we obtained self-reported fertiliser use and yield data, collected soil and tissue samples, and analysed vegetative growth. More than 170 kg N ha−1 year−1 was applied in one site, and P was applied in excess of recommended quantities in both sites, but on average farmers applied less than 100 kg K ha−1 year−1. Soils in the palm circle were poor in N, P and K in 29, 40 and 82% of the plantations, and deficiencies were measured in 57, 61 and 80% of the leaflet samples, respectively. We found statistically significant correlations between tissue nutrient concentrations and vegetative growth, but a large part of the variation in the data remained unaccounted for. Single leaf area was reduced in >80% of the plantations. Average yields were estimated to be 50‒70% of the water-limited potential. Our results demonstrate that widespread nutrient imbalances and deficiencies, especially potassium and phosphorus, occur in smallholder oil palm plantations, due to inadequate and unbalanced fertiliser application practices. These deficiencies may be an important underlying cause of the overall poor productivity, which threatens the economic and environmental sustainability of the smallholder sector.
    Agricultural land use change and associated driving forces over the past 180 years in two municipalities of the Brazilian Cerrado
    Arruda, Murilo Rodrigues de; Slingerland, Maja ; Santos, José Zilton Lopes ; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2019
    GeoJournal 84 (2019)3. - ISSN 0343-2521 - p. 555 - 570.
    Agriculture - Case study - Cattle - Cerrado - Crops - Sugarcane
    This paper aims to test the hypothesis that a single driving force from the local, national, or global level is capable of triggering land use changes, including large scale deforestation, within a historical context. To reach this goal we describe and explain the driving forces from the global to farm level that have shaped agricultural land uses, as a case study, over 180 years in the municipalities of Quirinópolis and Gouvelândia in the Brazilian Cerrado. Through secondary data, field surveys, and interviews with farmers and other stakeholders involved with agricultural production, we identified four distinct periods in which drastic or little land use occurred. The evidence found supports our hypothesis. Two drastic land use changes occurred in Quirinópolis and Gouvelândia. The first one was the replacement of about 400,000 ha of original vegetation by pastures and crops between 1965 and 1985 triggered by the availability of abundant subsidized rural credits for farmers; the second one was initiated in 2005 with the replacement of 100,000 ha of pastures and cropping area by sugarcane, which was driven by the sudden domestic and world demand for sugar and ethanol.
    Is RSPO certification having an impact on smallholders decisions to expand or intensify production? : Science-for-policy brief for RSPO by the Sensor Programme
    Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research - 3 p.
    Aquaponics, an inclusive business to save land and water and to provide nutritious diets to vulnerable groups
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Kappers, B. ; Abebe, T. ; Getahun, A. - \ 2018
    Aquaponics, an inclusive business to save land and water and to provide nutritious diets to vulnerable groups
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2018
    From oil palm monoculture to integration with crops and livestock to enhance resilience of oil palm farming systems
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2018
    From oil palm monoculture to integration with crops and livestock to enhance resilience of oil palm farming systems
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Migeon, A. ; Khasanah, N. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Koekkoek, Solveigh - \ 2018
    Developing an atlas of yield potential and yield gaps for current oil palm plantation area in Indonesia
    Grassini, Patricio ; Rattalino Edreira, Juan I. ; Andrade, Jose ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Hekman, Willem ; Beuken, Rob van den; Ittersum, M.K. van; Rahutomo, Suroso ; Sutarta, Edy Sigit ; Agus, F. ; Oberthür, Thomas ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2018
    Estimating yield gaps in oilpalm in Indonesia using PALMSIM to inform policy on the scope of intensification
    Hekman, Willem ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Beuken, Rob van den; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Grassini, Patricio ; Andrade, Jose ; Rattalino Edreira, Juan I. ; Rahutomo, Suroso ; Sutarta, Edy Sigit ; Agus, F. - \ 2018
    Partnerships in research for sustainable palm oil
    Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2018
    The Missing Middle in SDG 2: The dual disconnect between global goals and local contexts, and between food production and consumption
    Veldhuizen, L.J.L. ; Giller, K.E. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. ; Janssen, S.J.C. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2018
    Session S6
    Brechas de rendimeinto en el cultivo de palma de aceite: una revision cuantitativa de factores determinantes
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Wijk, Mark T. van; Slingerland, M.A. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Giller, K.E. - \ 2018
    Revista Palmas 39 (2018)1. - p. 16 - 68.
    Costs and benefits of certification of independent oil palm smallholders in Indonesia
    Hutabarat, S. ; Slingerland, Maja ; Rietberg, P.I. ; Dries, L.K.E. - \ 2018
    International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 21 (2018)6. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 681 - 700.
    RSPO - certification - smallholders - Indonesia - oil palm - costs and benefits
    Sustainable certification schemes have surged in years. The introduction of these schemes poses serious challenges to smallholders. One such certification scheme is the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), which uses certification to increase equitable and sustainable production of palm oil. This study calculates upfront and recurrent costs and monetary benefits of RSPO certification of the Amanah Independent Oil Palm Smallholders Association in Ukui District, Indonesia. Survey and interview data was collected between 2013 and 2015. Results show that upfront costs of certification were 86 euro per hectare. Furthermore, despite generating up to 21% higher revenues from sales, certification created up to an 8%loss of net income per hectare on average per smallholder in the first year after certification, compared to the situation prior to certification. To motivate smallholders for RSPO certification, the economic performance of certified oil palm smallholders should be improved. This can result from further yield increases, a guaranteed premium price or the sales of GreenPalm certificates to provide additional income.
    Nutritional imbalance in smallholder oil palm plantations in Indonesia
    Woittiez, Lotte S. ; Slingerland, Maja ; Rafik, Rukaiyah ; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2018
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 111 (2018)1. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 73 - 86.
    Fertiliser - Good agricultural practices - Nutrient management - Soil fertility - Training - Yield
    In Indonesia more than 40% of the area under oil palm is owned by smallholders. The productivity in smallholder plantations is usually less than in large plantations, and limited fertiliser applications may be one of the key reasons. We investigated the use of fertilisers by > 300 smallholder farmers in Sumatra and Kalimantan, some of whom were involved in training programmes aimed at yield improvement. In our sample, the total applications of N were largest (166 kg ha−1 year−1), followed by K (122 kg) and P (56 kg). The applications of K were insufficient to compensate for the off-take with a production of 20 tonne fruit bunches ha−1 year−1, while N applications were excessive. On average, farmers applied 1130 kg fertiliser ha−1 year−1, and relied strongly on subsidised fertilisers, especially NPK Ponska (66%) and urea (39%). The average costs for fertiliser application were USD 225 ha−1 year−1. Trained farmers applied significantly more P in one research area, but for the other nutrients and research areas, there was no significant difference between trained and untrained farmers. Plantation size and nutrient application were weakly correlated in some areas, but not in the sample as a whole. Previously reported nutrient application rates were mostly less than our findings indicated, suggesting that actual nutrient limitations may be more severe. To overcome nutrient limitations and enhance nutrient use efficiency, we recommend that fertilisers are used in the correct balance; a ground cover vegetation is maintained to protect against erosion; and the application of empty fruit bunches is encouraged.
    Can good Agricultural practices sustain oil palm yields for bioenergy production in northeast Thailand?
    Somnuek, Siriluk ; Slingerland, Maja - \ 2018
    Experimental Agriculture 54 (2018)6. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 915 - 930.

    The government of Thailand aims for sustainability of palm oil production in the Northeast for bioenergy and farmers’ income. This study investigated whether producers in Northeast Thailand managed their oil palm according to good agricultural practices (GAP) and if not, what effects this has on yield. A survey was conducted amongst 108 randomly selected farmers. For 25 selected plots, management and yields were monitored twice a month for two full years. Compliance to GAP was high for weeding, harvesting, pruning and pest and disease control but not for irrigation (40%) and fertiliser application (20–40%). GAP adoption scores per households positively correlated with income from other crops, tree age and degree of training. We showed that rainfall was insufficient for good oil palm growth between October and April. In the monitored group, use of irrigation and amounts of N, P, K and Mg applied were strongly correlated. The yield was significantly greater with irrigation and fertiliser, reaching similar levels as in the South of Thailand (up to 25–30 Mg Fresh Fruit Bunches: FFB ha−1), but did not differ with soil texture. This allows us to conclude that better application of GAP, especially including a combination of irrigation and fertilisers overcame the unsuitable soil and rainfall conditions in the Northeast of Thailand. However, the costs of fertilisers compared to the price of FFB affected the profitability of FFB production, which may affect farmers’ motivation to apply GAP, especially on unsuitable soils. When the government aims for sustainable palm oil production in the Northeast it needs to invest in frequent technical support, irrigation infrastructure and affordable fertilisers. Otherwise, farmers may not apply GAP because of low returns on investments and yields will remain very modest.

    Palm oil expansion in tropical forest margins or sustainability of production? : Focal issues of regulations and private standards
    Noordwijk, M. van; Pacheco, Pablo ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Dewi, S. ; Khasanah, N. - \ 2017
    Bogor : World Agroforestry Centre (Working Paper 274) - 72
    Indonesia, Malaysia, Elaeis guineensis, certification, RSPO, ISPO
    Palm oil expansion captures headlines, primarily out of concern that encroachment to tropical forest causes environmental problem and ignites social issues. Cascading ecological and social issues cause loss of trust, (threats of) consumer boycotts and multiple standards and certification responses. However, diverse sustainability issues should be taken into account within the issue-attention cycle. Most of current production (89%) occurs in SE Asia, with Indonesia in the lead. Peru and Cameroon are examples of current expansion elsewhere. In Indonesia two phases of new establishment of palm oil coexist within a forest transition gradient: (i) (industry-led) expansion into new forest margins with many social and ecological consequences; and (ii) (often farmer-led) conversion of existing agroforestry and tree crop (often rubber-based) or pasture economies in mosaic landscapes. External consumer concerns refer to the expansion phase, rather than to production sustainability or issues of smallholder concern. However, certification standards are only partially adjusted to the latter. After a ‘voluntary industry standards’ phase of differentiation with and shifting blame to non-certified others, government involvement in Malaysia and Indonesia suggests that standards and certification can trickle down to enforceable good practice standards for all. This leads to ineffective policies that does not address the real issues in local context. On the other hand, subnational jurisdictional entities are the scale at which oil palm production can be balanced with other goals, such as forest conservation and smallholder welfare.
    Open Science Meeting 2017 Towards resilient society
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2017
    Food, water and energy: smart and local solutions (2) : From trade-offs to synergies
    Stakeholder workshop oil palm cooperation Netherlands-Malaysia
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2017
    Malaysia – Netherlands Oil Palm Collaboration with MPOB 2017 – 2020
    The Missing Middle in Sustainable Development Goal 2
    Veldhuizen, L.J.L. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Brouwer, I.D. ; Giller, K.E. ; Janssen, S.J.C. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2017
    Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector
    Tefera, Delelegne Abera - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta, co-promotor(en): W.J.J. Bijman; M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437165 - 217
    foreign investment - organizations - innovations - management science - food supply - supply chain management - farmers - barley - economic sectors - ethiopia - east africa - buitenlandse investering - organisaties - innovaties - bedrijfswetenschap - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - boeren - gerst - economische sectoren - ethiopië - oost-afrika

    Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern distribution channels (e.g. supermarkets), consolidation of retail markets, and an increase in export orientation. The rapid growth in demand of modern food with higher quality and safety attracts multinational enterprises to invest in agriculture and food processing in emerging economies. The appearance of multinationals in the food systems of developing countries has been claimed to have a positive impact on economic development and reduction of poverty. The multinationals have adopted modern supply chain management practices for securing a large volume and consistent supply of high quality products. They introduce new technologies that boost productivity and post-harvest management for product upgrading.

    While so far most research on the modernization of food systems has focused on export chains, there is growing interest in the transformation of domestic and staple food chains. Upgrading domestic food chains is needed for a more efficient supply to fast growing urban markets and to sustain access to affordable food for the rapidly growing urban consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. As domestic food value chains are more inclusive than high-value export chains, upgrading these food chains can contribute more to poverty reduction and food security. However, much remains to be understood about the process of modernization in domestic food chains and its implications for rural development. The overarching aim of this dissertation was to deepen our understanding on how organizational innovations facilitate modernization of domestic food chains using case studies from the Ethiopian barley sector. In particular, the thesis examines the effectiveness and impacts of foreign direct investments (FDI), contract farming arrangements (CFAs), producer organizations (POs), and partnerships on the upgrading of malt barley value chains and welfare of local suppliers. To address this objective, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric econometric models.

    The findings from the empirical chapters show that: First, our analysis reveals that the appearance of foreign companies in the malt barley chain has brought important changes in the structure and economics of the barley value chain, resulting in the development of a modern chain next to the conventional chain. It is also shown that participation in modern supply chains is determined by a range of factors that include farmer and farm characteristics. Second, the results show that participation in modern supply chains has a positive and significant impact on commercialization, intensification, quality improvement and farm gate prices, ultimately resulting in increased farmer income and spillovers towards productivity of other food crops. Third, we found that POs perform diverse economic functions to enhance rural development , but tighter coordination in food value chains demands alignment of chain activities among actors which leads to changes in the strategies and functions of POs. Fourth, we showed that POs have a positive impact on farm productivity and smallholder income. However, this positive impact of POs come at the expense of inclusiveness, i.e. POs are less inclusive. Thus, there is a tension between business performance and inclusiveness of POs. Moreover, the results show that the motivation to participate in a PO is determined by demographic and economic factors. Lastly, we found that the determinants of quality improvement at farm level are socioeconomic, technological and institutional factors. Specifically, the identified factors are farmers’ level of education, age (as a proxy for farming experience), entrepreneurial attitude, PO membership, CFA participation, and type of improved seed varieties. The thesis concludes that enhancing the modernization of food value chains involving smallholders requires organizational innovation that facilitate coordination and collaborative activities among chain actors.

    Welfare Impact Of Contracting In Value Chains: The Case Of Malt Barley Producers In Ethiopia : The Case Of Malt Barley Producers In Ethiopia
    Tefera, Delelegne ; Bijman, J. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; VanderVelde, Gerben ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2017
    Food chains in Africa are undergoing major changes because of rapid urbanization and rising income. Contract farming arrangement (CFA) has been central in the modernization of food supply chains and receives increased attention in the development strategies of many African countries. Several studies investigated the welfare impacts of CFA; however, most of these focused on export supply chains of horticultural products. We examined the welfare impacts of CFA within a domestic grain supply chain using propensity score-matching. The study utilized cross-sectional survey data from Ethiopia. Consistent with literature, we found CFA has robust positive impacts on farmers’ income and livelihood.
    Nutrient status and vegetative growth in mature smallholder oil palm plantations
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2017
    In: Proceedings book XVIII International Plant Nutrition Colloquium & Boron and Manganese Satellite Meetings. - Copenhagen : University of Copenhagen - ISBN 9788799627400 - p. 783 - 784.
    Panel discussion 5: Rural development agenda for sustainable advanced biomass economy: A critical supporting enabler
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2017
    Panel discussion 5:
    Policy Recommendations: Training Smallholder Oil Palm Farmers in Good Agricultural Practices
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Jacobs, E. ; Meppelink, Carien ; Zondag, C. ; Rietberg, P.I. - \ 2017
    Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH) - 41 p.
    Where is sugarcane cropping expanding in the brazilian cerrado, and why? A case study
    Arruda, M.R. de; Giller, K.E. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2017
    Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 89 (2017)suppl. 3. - ISSN 0001-3765 - p. 2485 - 2493.
    Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this
    assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás. Within the studied period, sugarcane cropping expansion was related to large farms, lower risk perceived by farmers, and higher profitability compared with soybean and beef cattle-raising. For smallholders, particularly dairy farmers, the need to comply with the set-aside rules under Brazilian Forest Code (Código Florestal Brasileiro) made a shift to sugarcane less attractive, as it would have forced them to reduce farm cultivable area, with loss of incomes. From 30,408 ha under sugarcane surveyed, 45.7% had used to be pastures, 31% had previously been pastures rotated with soybean and maize, and 23.3% had been cropped exclusively with soybean or maize.
    With the right institutional set up, smallholder palm oil can outperform estate plantations
    Jelsma, I. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2017

    Article in the SHARP Newsletter referring to article "Collective action in a smallholder oil palm production system in Indonesia: The key to sustainable and inclusive smallholder palm oil?" by Jelsma, Slingerland, Giller.

    Collective action in a smallholder oil palm production system in Indonesia: The key to sustainable and inclusive smallholder palm oil?
    Jelsma, Idsert ; Slingerland, Maja ; Giller, Ken E. ; Bijman, Jos - \ 2017
    Journal of Rural Studies 54 (2017). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 198 - 210.
    Collective action - Indonesia - Intensive agriculture - Oil palm - Smallholders - West-Sumatra
    Indonesian smallholder oil palm generally yield much less than corporate plantations. We analysed a smallholder oil palm production system in West Sumatra which outperformed its nucleus estate plantation, consistently producing yields far above the national average for over 25 years. Its institutional setup allowed farmers to combine the advantages of smallholder and plantation agriculture by capitalizing on collective action. Collective action design principles (Ostrom, 1990; Cox, 2010) are used to assess the institutional setup of a smallholder production system. This case study demonstrates that with a strong institutional arrangement, smallholder oil palm farmers can participate in supply chains on advantageous conditions and substantially increase productivity, thereby contributing to both rural development and land sparing.
    Opening and introduction
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2017
    Is there life after hype for Jatropha? Exploring growth and yield in Indonesia
    Tjeuw, Juliana - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K.E. Giller; M. van Noordwijk, co-promotor(en): M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431927 - 223
    fuel crops - jatropha curcas - crop yield - new crops - feasibility studies - indonesia - cultural methods - cultivation - disincentives - biobased economy - cropping systems - intercropping - brandstofgewassen - jatropha curcas - gewasopbrengst - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - haalbaarheidsstudies - indonesië - cultuurmethoden - teelt - belemmeringen - biobased economy - teeltsystemen - tussenteelt

    Jatropha curcas L. is a biofuel crop that has not lived up to expectations due to a combination of hype and disappointment and biophysical factors. This PhD thesis is based on the plant production component of the JARAK programme which aimed to bridge the gap between truth and fiction. This study reviewed the jatropha hype and disappointment and further investigated the hypothesis that jatropha growth and yield are limited by biophysical factors of plant characteristics, cropping systems, and management. My review of the hype and disappointment shows that despite the high expectations fuelled by market pull and technology push, and numerous actors, the commercial potential for jatropha is limited by policy and governance, economics, social, technology, logistical, and environmental. A study of the biophysical components confirms that no current varieties suited to different cropping systems and locations are available. Jatropha aboveground biomass is partitioned predominantly into a structure of stem, branches, and twigs. The below to aboveground biomass ratio was 0.5 and fruit which was found only on productive twigs accounted for the smallest portion of biomass measured. Seed yields were disappointingly small (109 kg ha-1) and were largest in monoculture, followed by intercropping and hedgerows in that order, although yields were influenced by age and management of pruning and fertiliser. Seed yield across the three cropping systems can be predicted using plant height and the number of productive twig/branch, although the number of inflorescence clusters per productive twig may be important. Intercropping between jatropha and maize (Zea mays L.) resulted in competition for resources both belowground and aboveground that reduced maize yields. Shoot pruning was effective in managing aboveground competition, while root pruning and root barriers effectively managed competition belowground. Leaf prunings provided a limited, but positive fertility effect on maize yield comparable to 21 kg N ha-1. Jatropha - maize intercropping has potential for long-term productivity provided management practices such as fertiliser, pruning, and planting density can be developed to minimise competition and enhance complementarity. Based on my review of the jatropha hype and disappointment and my biophysical research results, the planting of jatropha by smallholders, or as a plantation crop cannot be recommended. Once the issues I highlight have been resolved and market confidence restored, jatropha may finally become a commercial source of biodiesel able to provide improved socio-economic and environmental benefits.

    Aid under contestation : Public works, labour and community based food security programming in post-conflict northern Uganda
    Wairimu, Winnie ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Hilhorst, D.J.M. - \ 2017
    In: People, Aid and Institutions in Socio-Economic Recovery / Hilhorst, Dorothea, Weijs, Bart, van der Haar, Gemma, London/NewYork : Routledge / Earthscan (Routledge Humanitarian Studies ) - ISBN 9781138914506 - p. 156 - 172.
    New generation of knowledge: Towards an inter- and transdisciplinary framework for sustainable pathways of palm oil production
    Hospes, O. ; Kroeze, C. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Schouten, A.M. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2017
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 80 (2017). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 75 - 84.
    palm oil sector - sustainability - interdisciplinary framework - transdisciplinary approach - sustainable pathways
    The production and expansion of palm oil have emerged as a major and controversial issue in political and public debates in the North and the South on sustainable food and agriculture. Scientific research has played a marginal role in these debates that are characterized by black and white views on palm oil as a good, bad or even ugly crop, and by solutions that are limited in scope. Our first argument is that new conceptualization of the complexity and dynamics of the palm oil sector can revitalize debate on sustainable palm oil and be used to identify sustainable pathways for palm oil production. For this purpose, we develop an interdisciplinary framework, conceptualizing the palm oil sector as consisting of systems, flows and networks. Our second argument is that a transdisciplinary approach is need to identify and develop sustainable pathways. We present six ideas on how to do so. Given the controversy in debates on the production and expansion of palm oil, we consider switchers as critical actors for shaping sustainable pathways, both in the palm oil sector and at the science-policy interface.
    Yield gaps in oil palm : A quantitative review of contributing factors
    Woittiez, Lotte S. ; Wijk, Mark T. van; Slingerland, Maja ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2017
    European Journal of Agronomy 83 (2017). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 57 - 77.
    Intensification - Management - Palm oil - Perennial - Physiology - Yield
    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1, yet average productivity worldwide has stagnated around 3 t oil ha−1 yr−1. Considering the threat of expansion into valuable rainforests, it is important that the factors underlying these existing yield gaps are understood and, where feasible, addressed. In this review, we present an overview of the available data on yield-determining, yield-limiting, and yield-reducing factors in oil palm; the effects of these factors on yield, as measured in case studies or calculated using computer models; and the underlying plant-physiological mechanisms. We distinguish four production levels: the potential, water-limited, nutrient-limited, and the actual yield. The potential yield over a plantation lifetime is determined by incoming photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration and planting material, assuming optimum plantation establishment, planting density (120–150 palms per hectares), canopy management (30–60 leaves depending on palm age), pollination, and harvesting. Water-limited yields in environments with water deficits >400 mm year−1 can be less than one-third of the potential yield, depending on additional factors such as temperature, wind speed, soil texture, and soil depth. Nutrient-limited yields of less than 50% of the potential yield have been recorded when nitrogen or potassium were not applied. Actual yields are influenced by yield-reducing factors such as unsuitable ground vegetation, pests, and diseases, and may be close to zero in case of severe infestations. Smallholders face particular constraints such as the use of counterfeit seed and insufficient fertiliser application. Closing yield gaps in existing plantations could increase global production by 15–20 Mt oil yr−1, which would limit the drive for further area expansion at a global scale. To increase yields in existing and future plantations in a sustainable way, all production factors mentioned need to be understood and addressed.
    Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia : Evolution, Functions and Impact
    Tefera, Delelegne A. ; Bijman, Jos ; Slingerland, Maja A. - \ 2017
    Journal of International Development 29 (2017)4. - ISSN 0954-1748 - p. 431 - 453.
    Agricultural co-operatives - Ethiopia - Market access - Productivity - Public investment - Transaction costs
    To what extent can co-operatives strengthen rural development in sub-Saharan Africa? This paper explores the development of agricultural co-operatives in Ethiopia, particularly the changes in economic functions. Co-operative development in Ethiopia has been strongly influenced by various political regimes. Based on expert interviews and a literature review, we explore the factors that influence a shift in economic functions from provision of inputs to commercialization of farm products. Our review shows that the impact of commercialization on farmer welfare is still inconclusive. Both the institutional environment and the internal governance structure have a hard time adjusting to changing economic conditions.
    Os desafios de transferência de tecnologia no setor produtivo do leite : O estudo de caso do Projeto Balde Cheio
    Monteiro Novo, A.L. ; Jansen, C.E.P. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Ismail, Ramalho Haddade ; Chinelato de Camargo, Artur - \ 2016
    In: Pecuária de leite no Brasil / Vilela, Duarte, de Paula Ferreira, Reinaldo, Nogueira Fernandes, Ellizabeth, Vieiera Juntolli, Fabrício, Embrapa - ISBN 9788570356444 - p. 285 - 304.
    Round table for sustainable oilpalm (RT14) congres
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2016
    Has oil palm a future in NE Thailand
    Barriers to smallholder RSPO certification : A science-for-policy-paper for the RSPO
    Rietberg, P.I. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - 26
    Implementation of FPIC: does this reduce conflict? : A science-for-policy-paper for the RSPO
    Rietberg, P.I. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - 26
    Cost and benefits of RSPO certification for independent smallholders : A science for policy paper for the RSPO
    Rietberg, P.I. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - 38 p.
    Transformation of Agricultural Co-operatives in Ethiopia: Recent developments and impact
    Bijman, J. ; Tefera, Delelegne ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2016
    Presentation
    'Hidden hunger': Poorly balanced plant nutrition in Indonesian oil palm farming
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2016
    How to improve oil palm smallholders’ life
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2016
    Heparin as a Bundler in a Self-Assembled Fibrous Network of Functionalized Protein-Based Polymers
    Wlodarczyk-Biegun, Gosia ; Slingerland, Cornelis J. ; Werten, Marc W.T. ; Hees, Ilse A. van; Wolf, Frits A. de; Vries, Renko de; Cohen Stuart, Martien ; Kamperman, Marleen - \ 2016
    Biomacromolecules 17 (2016)6. - ISSN 1525-7797 - p. 2063 - 2072.

    Nature shows excellent control over the mechanics of fibrous hydrogels by assembling protein fibers into bundles of well-defined dimensions. Yet, obtaining artificial materials displaying controlled bundling remains a challenge. Here, we developed genetically engineered protein-based polymers functionalized with heparin-binding KRSR domains and show controlled bundling using heparin as a binder. The protein polymer forms fibers upon increasing the pH to physiological values and at higher concentrations fibrous gels. We show that addition of heparin to the protein polymer with incorporated KRSR domains, induces bundling, which results in faster gel formation and stiffer gels. The interactions are expected to be primarily electrostatic and fiber bundling has an optimum when the positive charges of KRSR are approximately in balance with the negative charges of the heparin. Our study suggests that, generally, a straightforward method to control the properties of fibrous gels is to prepare a fiber former with specific binding domains and then simply adding an appropriate amount of binder.

    Competitie om natuurlijke hulpbronnen
    Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2016
    Cahiers bio-wetenschappen en maatschappij 35 (2016)1. - ISSN 0921-3457 - p. 21 - 29.
    Fibrous hydrogels for cell encapsulation : A modular and supramolecular approach
    Włodarczyk-Biegun, Małgorzata K. ; Farbod, Kambiz ; Werten, Marc W.T. ; Slingerland, Cornelis J. ; Wolf, Frits A. De; Beucken, Jeroen J.J.P. Van Den; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C.G. ; Cohen Stuart, Martien A. ; Kamperman, Marleen - \ 2016
    PLoS ONE 11 (2016)5. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Artificial 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems, which mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), hold great potential as models to study cellular processes under controlled conditions. The natural ECM is a 3D structure composed of a fibrous hydrogel that provides both mechanical and biochemical cues to instruct cell behavior. Here we present an ECM-mimicking genetically engineered protein-based hydrogel as a 3D cell culture system that combines several key features: (1) Mild and straightforward encapsulation meters (1) ease of ut I am not so sure.encapsulation of the cells, without the need of an external crosslinker. (2) Supramolecular assembly resulting in a fibrous architecture that recapitulates some of the unique mechanical characteristics of the ECM, i.e. strain-stiffening and self-healing behavior. (3) A modular approach allowing controlled incorporation of the biochemical cue density (integrin binding RGD domains). We tested the gels by encapsulating MG-63 osteoblastic cells and found that encapsulated cells not only respond to higher RGD density, but also to overall gel concentration. Cells in 1% and 2% (weight fraction) protein gels showed spreading and proliferation, provided a relative RGD density of at least 50%. In contrast, in 4% gels very little spreading and proliferation occurred, even for a relative RGD density of 100%. The independent control over both mechanical and biochemical cues obtained in this modular approach renders our hydrogels suitable to study cellular responses under highly defined conditions.

    Towards Climate Proof Food and Nutrition Security : Advisory Report by the Dutch Sustainability Unit, SU01-54
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Verhagen, A. ; Post, Reinoud ; Nooteboom, Sibout ; Verheem, Rob - \ 2016
    NCEA/DSU - 17 p.
    The introduction of oil palm in Northeast Thailand: a new cash crop for smallholders?
    Somnuek, Siriluk ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Grünbühel, C.M. - \ 2016
    Asia Pacific Viewpoint 57 (2016)1. - ISSN 1360-7456 - p. 76 - 90.
    Oil palm - self-sufficiency - Diversity of income - Farmer’s livelihood - Northeast Thailand
    As part of the Thai Government’s objective to increase energy security through biodiesel, oil palm was introduced to Northeast Thailand in 2005. Nong Khai Province was selected as a pilot project because of its suitable environmental conditions. This study assesses the acceptance of policy interventions and socio-economic conditions by adopters and non-adopters. We found that total farmland size was significantly higher among oil palm producers than among non-producers. Nevertheless, the area under oil palm cultivation did not increase in accordance with land size in the way rubber did. Oil palm and non-oil palm farmers had almost equal amounts of rice area thereby providing household food security. Oil palm did not replace food crops. Farmers investing in oil palm tend to base their livelihood around on-farm production, whereas non-adopters tend to diversify with off-farm income sources. Oil palm was found to be one component of a diversified farming system and an additional income source, albeit not the primary one. In conclusion, oil palm was a crop that had been tried by (wealthier) farmers with sufficient capital, and an aim to further diversify on-farm household income. Oil palm is certainly not (yet) contributing substantially to household income in Thailand’s Northeast.
    Closing the yield gap in smallholder oil palm plantations in indonesia: some preliminary results
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Fairhurst, T. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
    International Conference on Heart of Borneo
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2015
    How to improve oil palm smallholders’ life, Biophysical and socio-economic opportunities and constraints to improving smallholders oil palm yield and income
    Climate change lens on donor policies and programs for improving food and nutrition security : Study commissioned by Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR, Wageningen Universiteit
    Green circles : World Class sustainability
    Opdam, P.F.M. ; Steingröver, E.G. ; Fresco, L.O. ; Slingerland, C.T. ; Smit, A. - \ 2015
    Green Circles - 17 p.
    Yield Gaps in Indonesian Smallholder Plantations: Causes and Solutions
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
    Closing the yield gap in smallholder oil palm plantations in Indonesia : Poster submission for the Brian Chambers Award 2015
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Fairhurst, T. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
    Tree or shrub: a functional branch analysis of Jatropha curcas L.
    Tjeuw, J. ; Mulia, R. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2015
    Agroforestry Systems 89 (2015)5. - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 841 - 856.
    Jatropha curcas is an oil-bearing semi-evergreen shrub or small tree with potential as a source of sustainable biofuel, yet information regarding vegetative and fruit biomass in relation to plant architecture is lacking. Research conducted in Indonesia used the tree based functional branch analysis (FBA) model as a non-destructive method to estimate above and belowground biomass, and plant architecture. The FBA utility for shrubs was unknown and required modification. This research used destructive measurements to validate modifications to the FBA model that included sub-categorisation of the tapering coefficient for twig, branch, and wood diameter classes, and addition of a fruit load parameter in the distal link. The modified FBA model confirmed jatropha to be a shrub rather than a tree, producing variable estimates for aboveground biomass. This variation was due to morphological plasticity in the length–diameter relationship of the branches that diverged from fractal branching architecture. Fruit biomass variation between replicates was not well estimated and total proximal root diameter was a poor predictor of total root biomass, due to the proximal roots having enlarged water storage structures that do not follow fractal branching assumptions. Jatropha fruit was shown to predominate on twigs with a diameter between 0.9 and 1.4 cm. Understanding the correlation between fruit development and plant architecture will be necessary for fine-tuning the FBA model for future commercial breeding and selection. The high degree of morphological plasticity displayed by jatropha requires consideration when determining plant biomass.
    The Windmill Approach: Combining transaction cost economics and farming systems theory to analyse farmer participation in value chains
    Leonardo, W.J. ; Bijman, J. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2015
    Outlook on Agriculture 44 (2015)3. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 207 - 214.
    A common theoretical approach for understanding smallholder farmers' choice of sales arrangements is transaction cost economics (TCE), which usually focuses on a single transaction. However, farmers produce different crops and participate in several value chains simultaneously. Based on two case studies in central Mozambique, the authors propose an analytical framework that pays attention to both the production and the transaction strategies of farmers. This Windmill Approach acknowledges that farmers decide on participating in various value chains on the basis of multiple objectives and aspirations. Farmers prioritize the allocation of available resources towards the sustainability of the whole farm. Policy to support smallholder farmers' market access should not focus on single transactions, but on the combination of farming system and value chain costs and benefits.
    Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review
    Vliet, J.A. van; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462577053 - 57
    cacao - mineralenvoeding - bevruchting - kunstmeststoffen - mestbehoeftebepaling - vruchtbaarheid - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - grondanalyse - voedingsstoffentekorten - kaliummeststoffen - stikstofmeststoffen - fosformeststoffen - agrarische productiesystemen - overzichten - cocoa - mineral nutrition - fertilization - fertilizers - fertilizer requirement determination - fertility - nutrient requirements - nutrient availability - soil analysis - nutrient deficiencies - potassium fertilizers - nitrogen fertilizers - phosphorus fertilizers - agricultural production systems - reviews
    This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas for further research?
    Duurzame en Productieve Landbouw voor Voedsel en Grondstoffen
    Ittersum, M.K. van; Osseweijer, P. ; Gerbens-Leenes, W. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2015
    In: Agenda voor Nederland : Inspired by Technology / Haagsma, IJ, Gijbers, G., - p. 57 - 61.
    In tien essays hebben schrijvers van zes instellingen een doorkijkje gegeven naar de toekomst. Ze beschrijven een aantal belangrijke maatschappelijke uitdagingen voor Nederland, hoe we die uitdagingen aan kunnen gaan en economisch kunnen verzilveren door gericht in te zetten op onderzoek, technologie en innovatie, daarbij bouwend op de sterktes van onze bedrijven en kennisinstellingen. Deze slotbeschouwing gaat in op twee onderwerpen. Eerst destilleren we, samenvattend, enkele hoofdlijnen uit de essays – belangrijke rode draden die door meerdere auteurs worden gezien als kenmerkend voor de Nederlandse aanpak. Dan kijken we naar wat er nodig is om de vaak ambitieuze vernieuwingsopgaven die in de essays gepresenteerd worden ook daadwerkelijk te realiseren. Daarbij gaan we kort in op financiering en beleid van onderzoek, technologie en innovatie en de verschillende rollen van de belangrijkste stakeholders.
    Relationships among Jatropha curcas seed yield and vegetative plant components under different management and cropping systems in Indonesia
    Tjeuw, J. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
    Biomass and Bioenergy 80 (2015). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 128 - 139.
    An understanding of how Jatropha curcas seed yield relates to vegetative plant components under different management regimes is lacking. Such information is necessary to predict yields and design management strategies. This study investigated yield and vegetative plant component interactions, and the effects of management practices in monoculture, intercropping, and hedge cropping systems in Indonesia. Monoculture and intercropping experiments in Gunungkidul Regency used jatropha IP-1M material; hedge experiments in Sumbawa Regency used the Sumbawa provenance. In two-year-old monoculture, pruning significantly decreased yield from 109 kg ha-1 to 28 kg ha-1 due to a 40% decrease in canopy volume and LAI. In four-year-old jatropha intercropping, root barriers reduced yields 80% by limiting jatropha root access to soil moisture and nutrients in the maize plantings. Intercropping without root barrier and with leaf mulch produced the largest yields of 25 kg ha-1. In hedge plantings, plant height influenced yield. Single rows of one-year-old monoculture produced 0.97 g m-1 at 10 cm spacing, 1.69 g m-1 at 30 cm, and 0.14 g m-1 for 20 cm of mixed jatropha–gliricidia. Pruning significantly decreased LAI with 20 cm spacing indicating a higher proportion of above-ground biomass allocated for wood growth. Results indicate that seed yield across the three cropping systems can be determined by plant height and numbers of productive twig/branch, although number of inflorescences cluster per productive twig may be more important. Future research should focus on the transition of branches to reproductive phases, and on increasing numbers of productive twigs/branches and inflorescence clusters.
    De-mystifying family farming: Features, diversity and trends across the globe
    Vliet, J.A. van; Schut, A.G.T. ; Reidsma, P. ; Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
    Global Food Security 5 (2015)June. - ISSN 2211-9124 - p. 11 - 18.
    Family farms are defined by two criteria: the importance of family labour and the transfer of ownership, land tenure or management to the next generation. Most farms across the globe are family farms, and they vary in size from 10,000 ha. Trends in farm size (small farms getting smaller and large farms getting larger) are not directly related to farm ownership and do not necessarily impact global food security. Rather, both the causes and effects of farm size trends depend on the availability of farm resources and off-farm employment opportunities. Similarly, environmental sustainability, though impacted by agriculture, cannot be linked directly to family ownership or farm size. To address issues related to environment, social conditions and food security, focus should not be on the preservation of family farms but on transformations to strive for environmental, social and economic sustainability of farming in all its shapes and forms.
    Soil surface changes increase runoff and erosion risk after a low–moderate severity fire
    Stoof, C.R. ; Ferreira, A.J.D. ; Mol, W. ; Berg, J. van den; Kort, A. De; Drooger, S. ; Slingerland, E.C. ; Mansholt, A.U. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 2015
    Geoderma 239-240 (2015). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 58 - 67.
    critical shear-stress - random roughness - overland-flow - mediterranean ecosystem - physical-properties - water repellency - prescribed fire - burn severity - forest - wildfire
    Post-fire land degradation is to a large degree determined by what happens to soil properties and ground cover during and after the fire. To study fire impact in relation to fire intensity and post-fire soil exposure, a 9-ha Portuguese shrubland catchmentwas burned by experimental fire in the 2008/9 winter season. Previous studies reported on the significant increase in erosion after this fire, and discussed the role of reduced canopy interception and changed soil water repellency dynamics. Our objective was to assess whether fire-induced changes in soil physical properties and soil surface characteristics may have played an additional role in the increase in runoff and erosion observed after the fire. We sampled these properties before, immediately after, and up to one year after fire, and monitored soil temperatures during the fire using thermocouples. Despite the locally high fire intensity (N15.000kWm-1 in some places), soil physical changeswere not observed: topsoil bulk density, organic matter, porosity and saturated conductivity did not significantly change, likely because soil temperatures stayedlow with the 0.5 cm depth not exceeding 32.5 °C. Soil surface characteristics did change: Manning's n and randomroughness both decreased, increasing the risk and erosivity of overland flow. Results indicate that soil physical changes unlikely contributed to the increase in post-fire erosion observed in the catchment and that a highintensity winter burn does not necessarily lead to severe soil changes. Nevertheless, soil surface changes during and after fire contribute to an increase runoff and erosion risk in these areas
    The novelty of simple and known technologies and the rhythm of farmer-centred innovation in family dairy farming in Brazil
    Novo, A. ; Jansen, K. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2015
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 13 (2015)2. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 135 - 149.
    systems - biofuel - knowledge
    Family dairy farming is under threat from the expansion of the sugarcane economy in south-eastern Brazil. This paper analyses an intervention programme which aimed to intensify dairy production and make family dairy farming sustainable in this competitive context. The case study of the ‘Balde Cheio’ Programme (Full Bucket) can be seen as an alternative method of knowledge generation to that of the dominant research approach which prioritizes cutting-edge technologies. This paper characterizes this farmer-oriented innovation programme for dairy farming systems, in which research, development and extension are seen as a long-term learning process. It analyses how the programme has been adapted to fit the diversity of situations found amongst farmers and to heterogeneous production conditions. The study relates the circulation of knowledge, the search for innovation by recombining apparently simple and known technologies, the use of experiments on the farm and the adaptation of the rhythm of innovation to the specific situation of the farm as the critical issues to achieve sustainable production systems.
    Is jatropha a miracle crop?
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Tjeuw, J. ; Suharsono, S. ; Purwati, R.D. - \ 2014
    In: JARAK, the short history of Jatropha projects in Indonesia / Vel, J.A.C., Simandjuntak, D., Leiden : IIAS
    Have Jatropha investments in Mozambique experienced a similar pattern to those in Indonesia.
    Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2014
    In: JARAK, the short history of Jatropha projects in Indonesia / Vel, J.A.C, Simandjuntak, D., Leiden : IIAS
    Impact of crop-manure ratios on energy production and fertilizing characteristics of liquid and solid digestate during codigestion
    Pabon Pereira, C.P. ; Vries, J.W. de; Slingerland, M.A. ; Zeeman, G. ; Lier, J.B. van - \ 2014
    Environmental Technology 35 (2014)19. - ISSN 0959-3330 - p. 2427 - 2434.
    anaerobic co-digestion - methane production - biogas production - cattle manure - grass-silage - pig manure - maize - residues - sludge - slurry
    The influence of maize silage-manure ratios on energy output and digestate characteristics was studied using batch experiments. The methane production, nutrients availability (N and P) and heavy metals' content were followed in multiflask experiments at digestion times 7, 14, 20, 30 and 60 days. In addition, the available nutrient content in the liquid and solid parts of the digestate was evaluated. Aanaerobic digestion favoured the availability of nutrients to plants, after 61 days 20-26% increase in NH4+ and 0-36% increase in PO43- were found in relation to initial concentrations. Digestion time and maize addition increased the availability of PO43-. Inorganic nutrients were found to be mainly available in the liquid part of the digestate, i.e. 80-92% NH4+ and 65-74% PO43-. Manure had a positive effect on the methane production rate, whereas maize silage increased the total methane production per unit volatile solids in all treatments.
    Masterclass: Biofuels - the past or the future?
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2014
    Presentation
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2014
    Biofuel development and policies in Mozambique
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2014
    Can we continue feeding the world?
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2014
    Debat Duurzame Voedsel productie
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2014
    Debat Stichting Wereld podium
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2014
    Jatropha development in Mozambique
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2014
    Hoe gaan we naar een voedsel beleid? Vier specialisten over voedselbeleid en de mogelijke rol van biologisch voedsel
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2014
    Preferential flow as a potential mechanism for fire-induced increase in streamflow
    Stoof, C.R. ; Slingerland, E.C. ; Mol, W. ; Berg, J. van den; Vermeulen, P.J. ; Ferreira, A.J.D. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Parlange, J.Y. ; Steenhuis, T.S. - \ 2014
    Water Resources Research 50 (2014)2. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 1840 - 1845.
    soil-water repellency - portuguese shrubland - wildfire - persistence
    After vegetation fires, discharge of streams and rivers is often higher than before. This is usually attributed to decreased canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by vegetation removal, and to increased overland flow resulting from increased soil water repellency. In this paper we examine whether fire-induced changes in preferential flow can reinforce this postfire streamflow response. We studied five recently burned soils and adjacent unburned soils in Portugal and found that by reducing topsoil moisture and increasing soil moisture variability, fire increased the propensity for preferential flow. This was confirmed by 2-D soil moisture and repellency profiles that showed preferential paths in burned soil that were more distinct, wetter, and slightly narrower than in unburned soil. Since water infiltrating along preferential flow paths bypasses the dry soil matrix, we suggest that narrow flow paths promote deep infiltration– which effect size varies with soil depth, (effective) rainfall, and overland flow. We pose that the resulting increase in infiltration increases drainage and interflow because the excess water cannot stay in the soil, and incorporate fire-induced or -enhanced preferential flow into a conceptual model of flow routing that explains the commonly observed increase in stream flow postfire.
    Global sustainability standards and food security: exploring unintended effects of labels and certification in palm oil
    Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Adjei, B.E. ; Vellema, S. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2014
    Global Food Security 3 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 2211-9124 - p. 220 - 226.
    Voluntary labellingandcertification schemeshavebecomeincreasinglyusedinglobalagro-foodchains. They primarilyaimatenhancingthesustainabilityofagriculturalproductionprocesses.Theglobalpalm oil supply,thedifferentenvironmentalandsocialproblemsrelatedtoit,andtheRoundtablefor Sustainable PalmOil(RSPO)certification clearlyillustratethis.However,globalsustainabilitystandards may alsohaveunintendedimpactsonfoodsecurityandlocaldevelopment,whicharenotexplicitly taken intoaccount.Thisarticleexplorestheunnoticedeffectsofvoluntarypalmoilcertification in Indonesia andGhanaandidentifies theirimplicationsonlocalandnationalfoodprovision.Asvoluntary labels andcertification schemesareanemergingcategoryofglobalgovernanceinstruments,theirrolein food security,asaglobalpublicgood,shouldbetakenseriouslyandconnectedtopoliticalandscientific debates ontheirfutureinvolvementinrealizingfoodsecurity.
    Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Schut, M. - \ 2014
    Sustainability 6 (2014)11. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 7541 - 7563.
    multilevel perspective - innovation - policy - framework - biofuels - transitions - management - location - curcas
    This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources) enable or constrain interactions between niche-level Jatropha experiments and incumbent energy, agriculture and rural development regimes in Mozambique. Investors in agro-industrial Jatropha projects focused on establishing projects in areas with relatively good infrastructure, rather than in remote rural areas. Furthermore, they predominantly focused on Jatropha production instead of investing in the entire Jatropha value chain, which turned out to be a challenge in itself, as growing a productive Jatropha crop was much more complex than initially anticipated. The development of institutions that could nurture and protect Jatropha projects from the prevailing regimes lagged behind Jatropha project establishment, leading to an insecure investment climate. Strong inter-ministerial collaboration and organized civil society interaction and representation contrasted with non-organized private sector and rather isolated smallholder Jatropha projects. The global financial crisis and limited adaptive capacity reduced the time and space for experimentation and learning to overcome disappointing crop performance. Together, this hampered Jatropha’s potential to challenge the energy, agricultural and rural development regimes. Nevertheless, the Jatropha experience did initiate the development of policy and regulation and stimulated interaction and collaboration between specific groups of stakeholders, which could provide the basis to capture future biofuel momentum in Mozambique.
    Klimaatverandering vormt geen bedreiging voor voedselzekerheid
    Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2014
    Vork 1 (2014)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 16 - 21.
    voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - voedselconsumptie - klimaatverandering - voedselproductie - gewasopbrengst - food security - food supply - food consumption - climatic change - food production - crop yield
    Recente studies van onder meer IPCC1 en de Wereldbank2 voorspellen rampzalige gevolgen voor de wereldvoedselvoorziening als gevolg van klimaatverandering. Afgezien van lokaal optredende effecten, zoals permanent ondergelopen akkers of temperaturen die te hoog zijn voor bloei en zaadzetting, is het effect van klimaatverandering op de productie van gewassen vooral relatief, meent Maja Slingerland. Veel belangrijker is het om de yield gap, het gat tussen feitelijke en potentiële opbrengst per hectare, te dichten.
    Producer organizations, family farms and market connection. Lessons for emerging biodiesel supply chains in Brazil
    Belo Leite, J.G. Dal; Bijman, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2014
    Outlook on Agriculture 43 (2014)2. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 101 - 108.
    collective action - institutions - arrangements - africa - future - access - policy
    Producer organizations (POs) are often recognized as a pathway to boost rural development by enhancing farmers' access to market opportunities. Smallholder production and marketing of new crops (such as those for biodiesel feedstock) are constrained as farmers and buyers face high transaction costs. By investigating cases of POs outside the biofuel industry, the authors explore the extent to which POs could reduce transaction costs. The findings indicate that POs are capable of linking farmers effectively to markets in cases in which high value is added to farm products and/or farmers are highly specialized. However, the scope for POs in linking farmers to biodiesel markets is limited due to organization-specific characteristics, the low value added of the feedstock, plus multiple trade-offs with current farm activities.
    Transition or stagnation? : everyday life, food security and recovery in post-conflict northern Uganda
    Wairimu, W.W. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): I. Christoplos; Maja Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462570276 - 188
    conflict - middelen van bestaan - voedselzekerheid - terugwinning - uganda - minst ontwikkelde landen - oost-afrika - conflict - livelihoods - food security - recovery - uganda - least developed countries - east africa

    This thesis seeks to analyse whether and in what way institutional reconstruction meets the needs, and fits the context, of the population they are meant to serve. Often we talk about post-conflict societies as ‘being in transition’ or ‘moving out of crisis’, and this thesis basically asks the question: ‘transition to whatand movement to where’? The thesis is based predominantly on ethnographic work undertaken in Pader district, northern Uganda between 2010 and 2012 where stimulation of the agricultural sector has been pursued as a way to consolidate peace and promote recovery after years of displacement.

    The thesis finds that the processes and dynamics of transition in northern Uganda involve: (1) Messy transitions between humanitarian services and state-led market ‘modernisation’(2) an attempt to bridge policy and practice mismatches – a process through which institutional relations or new institutions evolve out of the process of recovery and reconstruction (3) that the transition and recovery in northern Uganda relates to the linking of Relief Rehabilitation and Destitution, rather than linking to Development. Assets erode to such an extent that development is not an achievable goal for many of those formerly displaced. Many people see their ‘normality’ becoming a state of ‘Destitution’ instead of ‘Development’.

    Multi-actor governance of sustainable biofuels in developing countries: The case of Mozambique
    Schut, M. ; Cunha Soares, N. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2014
    Energy Policy 65 (2014). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 631 - 643.
    innovation - policy - certification - framework
    This paper describes and analyses the multi-actor governance process that made Mozambique the first African nation-state to develop a national policy framework for sustainable biofuels. The paper draws on findings from action research conducted in Mozambique between December 2008 and July 2012. We analyse interactions between the changing governance context, the course of the multi-actor governance process, and the choices in relation to governance framework characteristics and content for four successive stages of governance framework development. This provides the basis for reflection on the competences required for effective multi-actor sustainability governance, and a discussion about the role of the nation-state in sustainability governance of global economies such as biofuels. The governance framework for sustainable biofuels has contributed to a more transparent and secure investment climate for biofuels in Mozambique. Key factors for success were (1) the presence of different types of competences during the various stages of the governance framework development, (2) closing the gap between ‘licences to sell’ and ‘licences to produce’ across different governance levels, and (3) balancing between the short- and long-term objectives for biofuel production in Mozambique and requirements of global biofuel markets. Developing-country nation-states can provide an essential contribution to these success-factors for global governance of sustainable biofuels.
    Training young diplomats with AgencyNL
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2013
    Global Food Security: an agricultural perspective
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2013
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