Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Mobilizing farmers to stop land degradation: A different discourse from Burundi
    Kessler, Aad ; Reemst, Laurie Van; Beun, Micael ; Slingerland, Erik ; Pol, Laura ; Winne, Ruben De - \ 2020
    Land Degradation and Development (2020). - ISSN 1085-3278
    Stopping land degradation is one of the biggest challenges worldwide and particularly in Burundi, with its unprecedented rates of soil loss and growing food insecurity. This article proposes a different discourse on how to engage people in stopping land degradation, and presents results and lessons learned from a bottom‐up inclusive approach implemented since 2014 in Burundi: the integrated farm planning (PIP) approach. The PIP approach aims to build a solid foundation for sustainable change toward enhanced food production and good land stewardship, based on three foundation principles (motivation, stewardship, and resilience) and three guiding principles (empowerment, integration, and collaboration). This article is based on two studies undertaken in 2018: an impact study among 202 households and a qualitative study using the most significant change methodology with 30 households. Findings from both studies provide initial support that the PIP approach generates considerable changes at household, farm, and village level. Based on a vision and a plan for their farm, motivated PIP households are currently investing in the resilience of their farms and applying a diversity of conservation practices, while in all PIP villages concrete collective action is undertaken for sustainable land stewardship. Given its rapid upscaling in Burundi and the potential of the PIP approach to mobilize farmers for motivated action, the article concludes with a reflection on the core elements of a different discourse to stop land degradation.
    Oil Palm Agroforestry Can Achieve Economic and Environmental Gains as Indicated by Multifunctional Land Equivalent Ratios
    Khasanah, Nikmatul ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Slingerland, Maja ; Sofiyudin, Mohammad ; Stomph, Dienke ; Migeon, Adrien F. ; Hairiah, Kurniatun - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2020). - ISSN 2571-581X
    carbon footprint - cocoa - ecosystem services - intercropping - land equivalent ratio (LER) - oil palm - pepper - WaNuLCAS model

    Driven by increased global demand for vegetable oil in the food and biofuel sectors, oil palm plantations based on monoculture technology have expanded into lowland tropical forests. Interest in diversified, mixed oil palm systems is increasing as these might increase efficiency of the use of land and other resources, reduce farmer risk, and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit product. Land Equivalent Ratio for provisioning services (LERP) values above 1.0 show that at least some diversified systems use land more efficiently than monocultures and are thus “land sparing,” where monoculture LERP cannot exceed 1.0. Diversification also modifies climate and water regulating functions (“land sharing”) relative to a forest reference, as indicated in the LERR index. A “multifunctional” LERM indicator combines both; land sparing plus land sharing effects jointly determine expected regulating services. Empirical assessment of multiple ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes is assisted by models that synthesise process-based knowledge, especially for perennial systems where well-designed experiments require a full production cycle, and are costly and scarce. Agroforestry models explore spacing, intercropping and soil management options, predicting harvestable yields, impacts on water flows, nutrient leaching, and greenhouse gas emissions. We used the process-based Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry System (WaNuLCAS) model to explore mixed oil palm + cocoa and oil palm + pepper intercrop systems with modified (“double row”) planting patterns for Indonesian contexts and estimated consequences for the carbon footprint. The oil palm + cocoa intercrop provided a high LERP (1.4), while also replenishing more ground water and having a lower C footprint. This combination also has a return to labour equal to that in oil palm monocultures and a higher benefit cost ratio than the oil palm + pepper combination that maximizes Net Present Value. Oil palm + cocoa systems are also less sensitive to price uncertainty for oil palm, and buffer for oil palm and cocoa production risks, assumed to be independent of each other. Considerable economic and environmental system improvements appear to be feasible through mixed oil palm systems and diversification as a pathway to intensification deserves full attention of research and policy development.

    The Missing Middle: Connected action on agriculture and nutrition across global, national and local levels to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2
    Veldhuizen, L.J.L. ; Giller, K.E. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. ; Janssen, S.J.C. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2020
    Global Food Security 24 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124 - 6 p.
    SDG2 - Food systems - Sustainable agriculture - Food security - Pathways - Stakeholders
    Sustainable development goal 2 (SDG 2) challenges the world to connect food production and consumption in a way that matches local contexts and enables everyone to enjoy a healthy diet that is produced sustainably and contributes to the other SDGs. We identify a Missing Middle between food production and consumption, and between globally defined goals and local implementation practices that may hinder progress towards SDG 2. Examples of this Missing Middle and how it can be bridged demonstrate that key challenges should be addressed in a more integrated manner for more effective action on SDG 2. We encourage actors in food provisioning to start addressing the Missing Middle by collaborating with relevant stakeholders in specified cases.
    Quality Improvement in African Food Supply Chains: Determinants of Farmer Performance
    Tefera, Delelegne Abera ; Bijman, Jos ; Slingerland, Maja ; Velde, Gerben van der; Omta, Onno - \ 2020
    European Journal of Development Research 32 (2020)1. - ISSN 0957-8811 - p. 152 - 175.
    Economics of quality - Ethiopia - Institutional arrangement - Malt barley - Quality-upgrading - Smallholders

    The integration of smallholders in modern value chains in sub-Saharan Africa is an important pathway for improving income and farmer livelihoods. Connected to demographic shifts, rapid urbanization, and the emergence of a middle class, there is a demand for higher product quality. In order to access these modern markets, smallholders need to enhance the quality of their products. However, factors that determine smallholders’ decision to invest in quality upgrading are not well understood. Using cross-sectional data from the Ethiopian barley sector, we analyse the factors that explain smallholders’ decision to improve quality. We find that socioeconomic, institutional and market factors affect the decision to improve quality. Our study contributes to the understanding of the determinants of quality upgrading at the micro-level of the economics of quality production, and thus of rural development.

    Multinationals and Modernisation of Domestic Value Chains in Africa: Case Studies from Ethiopia
    Tefera, Delelegne A. ; Bijman, Jos ; Slingerland, Maja A. - \ 2020
    Journal of Development Studies 56 (2020)3. - ISSN 0022-0388 - p. 596 - 612.

    Multinationals can facilitate modernisation in food value chains in developing countries. While most studies focus on export chains, insight on domestic food chains is scant. Our study aims to provide detailed insights into the process of upgrading domestic value chains. A rapidly growing beer market has attracted foreign brewery companies to invest in Ethiopia. These foreign brewers have introduced new sourcing structures in order to increase the supply of high quality raw material. We have used a case study design to explore upgrading processes in malt barley chains, where malt barley is both a food and a cash crop. By introducing strong vertical coordination between farmers and buyers, facilitated by producer organisations and NGOs, foreign brewers have been able to upgrade malt barley chains. We found that both farmers and brewers have benefitted from this upgrading process.

    Klimaatschadeschatter Rapportage 2019
    Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Budding-Polo Ballinas, Monserrat ; Spijker, J.H. ; Kok, Sien ; Bel, Mark de; Jong, Dick de; Kluck, Jeroen ; Harten, Floris ; Stoop, Bianca ; Noome, Wilmer ; Slingerland, Erwin ; Bosch, Peter ; Leuken, Jeroen P.G. van; Goosen, H. ; Koekoek, Arjen ; Bijsterveldt, M.A.J.C. van; Hofland, Sandy - \ 2019
    Bussum : Stichting Climate Adaptation Services (CAS) - 52 p.
    De warme en droge zomers van 2018 en 2019 braken allerlei records, en we zullen er nog veel vaker mee te maken krijgen. Ook korte hevige regen- en hagelbuien komen steeds vaker voor. De effecten van klimaatverandering hebben verschillende gevolgen. Zo moeten er meer mensen naar het ziekenhuis in hete zomers, kan er vaker water het gebouw in stromen en verzakken wegen en panden door droogte. De Klimaatschadeschatter (KSS) helpt om inzicht te krijgen in de schade door klimaatverandering met de focus op de stedelijke omgeving.
    A study on outcomes of RSPO certification for independent smallholders in Central Kalimantan : Technical report by the SEnSOR programme
    Vos, R.E. de; Suwarno, A. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Lucey, J. - \ 2019
    A study into outcomes of RSPO certification for independent smallholders : A science-for-policy brief by the SEnSOR programme
    Suwarno, A. ; Vos, R.E. de; Brouwer, Rens ; Gunnewijk, Ben ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Lucey, Jennifer M. - \ 2019
    SENSOR - 4 p.
    Why do oil palm farmers choose for intensification or expansion? Does certification make a difference?
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Maghfirah Khairuddin, Annisa - \ 2019
    In: Land governance in transition: How to support transformations that work for people and nature?. - LANDac - p. 48 - 48.
    Intercropping in oil palm plantations in Central Kalimantan: an interdisciplinary study on smallholder livelihood strategies
    Vos, R.E. de; Suwarno, A. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2019
    In: Land governance in transition: How to support transformations that work for people and nature?. - LANDac - p. 47 - 47.
    Impacts of RSPO certification on land-use planning by smallholders
    Slingerland, Maja ; Maghfirah Khairuddin, Annisa ; Roth, Dik - \ 2019
    Improving smallholder inclusivity through integrating oil palm with crops
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Khasanah, N. ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Susanti, Ari ; Meilantina, Mayang - \ 2019
    In: Exploring inclusive palm oil production / Jezeer, Rosalien, Pasiecznik, Nick, ETFRN and Tropenbos International, Wageningen (ETFRN News 59) - p. 147 - 154.
    A living income for smallholder commodity farmers and protected forests and biodiversity: how can the private and public sectors contribute? : White Paper on sustainable commodity production
    Waarts, Y.R. ; Janssen, Valerie ; Ingram, V.J. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Rijn, F.C. van; Beekman, G. ; Dengerink, Just ; Vliet, J.A. van; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Sassen, M. ; Guijt, W.J. van; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research 2019-122) - 26 p.
    Interventions and policies in the cocoa, tea and coffee sectors have failed to ensure that all smallholder commodity farmers earn more than the $1.90 World Bank poverty line or a living income, and they have not halted deforestation. Commodity farming is strongly associated with deforestation, in spite of interventions. For more than 50% of the cocoa and tea farmers in our datasets, household income would need to double in order for them to earn a living income. For those farmers, farming will never be a primary pathway out of poverty.
    A sustainability assessment of bioethanol (EtOH) production: The case of cassava in Colombia
    Pabon-Pereira, Claudia ; Slingerland, Maja ; Hogervorst, Sanna ; Lier, Jules van; Rabbinge, Rudy - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)14. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Bioenergy production - Bioethanol - Biofuels - Cassava - Energy crops - Sustainability analysis

    This paper shows how system design determines sustainability outcomes of cassava bioethanol production in Colombia. The recovery of the energy contained in by-products is recommended as compared to single product production. In particular, this study assesses the energy, greenhouse gases, water, and land use performance of alternative cassava cascades working at different scales, highlighting the implications of including anaerobic digestion technology in the chain. The centralized systems showed a poorer energy and greenhouse gases performance as compared to decentralized ones in part due to the artificial drying of cassava chips in the centralized facility. Under solar drying of cassava chips, systems with anaerobic digestion produced three to five times more energy than demanded and produced greenhouse gas savings of 0.3 kgCO2eq L EtOH-1. The water balance output depends upon the water reuse within the ethanol industry, which demands 21-23 L EtOH-1. In the anaerobic digestion scenarios, assuming liquid flows are treated separately, complete water recovery is feasible. Land use for cassava cultivation was calculated to be 0.27-0.35 ha tEtOH-1. The energy and water content of the material to digest, the options for digestate reuse, and the recovery of the methane produced are major considerations substantially influencing the role of anaerobic digestion within cassava cascade configurations.

    Good agricultural practices in oil palm and smallholder inclusion in Indonesia
    Maat, H. ; Lisnawati, L. ; Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2019
    In: Exploring inclusive palm oil production / Jezeer, R., Pasiecznik, N., ETFRN News 2019 (2019)59. - ISSN 1876-5866European Tropical Forest Research Network (ETFRN News 59) - ISBN 9789051131413 - p. 72 - 77.
    The Role of the Integrated Maize-Soybean-Chicken Value Chains in Sustaining Diverse Diets in Tanzania
    Wilson, Wilson ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Baijukya, Frederick ; Oosting, S.J. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2019
    In: Book of abstracts Tropentag 2019: Tropentag 2019International Research on Food Security, NaturalResource Management and Rural Development. - Göttingen : Cuvillier Verlag - ISBN 9783736970830 - p. 459 - 459.
    Explaining the “Certification Gap” for Different Types of Oil Palm Smallholders in Riau Province, Indonesia
    Hutabarat, Sakti ; Slingerland, Maja ; Dries, Liesbeth - \ 2019
    The Journal of Environment & Development 28 (2019)3. - ISSN 1070-4965 - p. 253 - 281.
    certification - independent smallholders - oil palm - RSPO - scheme smallholders

    Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of palm oil, and its smallholder oil palm plantations involve more than 2.3 million farmers. The rapid expansion of the oil palm area, and resulting negative environmental and social impacts, has increased the demand for sustainability certification for palm oil products. This study investigates whether different types of smallholders face different barriers in complying with certification standards. The study uses survey data from 829 smallholders in Riau, Sumatra. First, an assessment is made of the gap between current management practices and practices required by Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil standards for different types of smallholders. Second, the article explores explanations for the gap between current and required practices. Finally, an investigation is made of the different starting points of different types of smallholders. Results indicate that the diversity between smallholders affects their prospects for certification. To date, this diversity in smallholders has not been taken into account in the application of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil standards. This can help to explain the limited success of smallholder certifications in Indonesia.

    Improving smallholder inclusiveness in palm oil production — a global review
    Jezeer, Rosalien ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Laan, Carina van der; Pasiecznik, Nick - \ 2019
    Tropenbos International (ETFRN News 59) - 15 p.
    Summary review from the ETFRN news 59 'Exploring inclusive palm oil production' where the experiences perceptions and perspectives of individuals, companies, institutions and NGOs on what has been done and is being done on the ground to increase the involvement of and benefits to smallholder oil palm farmers are discussed and compared.
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) production in Indonesia: carbon footprint and diversification options
    Khasanah, N. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. van Noordwijk, co-promotor(en): M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435697 - 205

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a uniquely valuable palm as source of low-cost vegetable oil. However, the success and method of its expansion (monoculture plantation) especially in biodiversity-rich Indonesia and Malaysia have made it one of the most controversial crops of the world. One of the policy consequences of the boycotts and debate is the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of European countries that sets binding targets for the emission savings to be achieved when oils are used as feedstock of biofuel. Exporting countries such as Indonesia need to have reliable data on the carbon footprint of their product across production systems and the products’ lifecycle. Diversification of oil palm plantations starts to gain attention as a strategy to increase farmer resilience. The objectives of this thesis were (1) to estimate the carbon footprint of palm oil production in Indonesia when it is used as biofuel and express it as CO2 equivalent and emissions saving, and (2) to explore mixed oil palm systems as diversification strategy to increase farmer benefit and to reduce the carbon footprint. Through a survey and sample collection in more than 20 plantations distributed over Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi we analysed the palm oil life cycle. Using the Biofuel Emission Reduction Estimator Scheme (BERES) emissions savings were differentiated by carbon debt (land use change) and current practices. Process-based modelling using WaNuLCAS (Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry System) helped explore intercropping systems beyond current practice. Results show that it is possible to achieve the high emission savings target with palm oil to comply with the RED requirement. Of companies with ‘good agricultural practice’ 40% and 25% of production can meet the 35% (2015) and 60% (2018) emissions savings standards, respectively. The larger the areas that were converted from high-C stock forest, the larger the fraction of peat, the larger the emissions from fertilizers, transportation and processing (incl. methane) and the lower the yield of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB), in a mix of production situations that is accounted for jointly (as is the case for ‘company’ level assessments), the harder it is to achieve emission savings. While fertilizer application increases FFB yield, it also increases N2O emissions. Selected mixed oil palm systems can provide considerable economic and environmental system improvements. The Land Equivalent Ratio of mixed oil palm – cacao systems can be 1.4, showing a superior way to achieve land sparing as a goal of efficient use of land, relative to monocultures for each commodity separately. Diversification should be a valid counterpart of current intensification research and policies to help make palm oil more sustainable from both social and environmental perspectives.

    On yield gaps and better management practices in Indonesian smallholder oil palm plantations
    Woittiez, Lotte S. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K.E. Giller, co-promotor(en): M.A. Slingerland; M. van Noordwijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435918 - 287

    Palm oil is currently the most important vegetable oil in the world, and Indonesia is the world’s largest producer. Oil palm plantations are an important source of revenue, but rapid expansion has led to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Forty per cent of the plantation area in Indonesia is owned by smallholders, whose yields are relatively poor. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the yield gaps and agronomic practices in Indonesian smallholder oil palm plantations, with a focus on fertiliser application, and to propose and test better management practices that can contribute to sustainable intensification. The research consisted of an in-depth literature review, several surveys, the collection of samples in smallholder plantations, and a three-year experiment with 14 smallholder farmers.

    In yield gap analysis, three yield levels are recognised: potential, limited, and actual yield. The potential yield in a plantation is determined by radiation, CO2 concentration, temperature, planting material, culling, planting density, pruning, pollination, and crop recovery (harvesting). The yield-limiting factors are rainfall, irrigation, soil, waterlogging, topography, slope, and nutrition. The yield-reducing factors are weeds, pests, and diseases. In smallholder plantations, the yield gap is mostly explained by poor planting material, poor drainage, sub-optimal planting density, poor culling (leading to large variability and the presence of unproductive palms), infrequent harvesting, soil erosion, poor nutrient management, and rat damage, but the effects of these factors on yield vary depending on local conditions.

    The survey data showed clear evidence of insufficient and unbalanced fertiliser applications, and visual nutrient deficiency symptoms were observed in many plantations. Leaf sample results showed that 57, 61 and 80% of the plantations in Jambi and Sintang were deficient in N, P and K, respectively. In Riau, 95, 67 and 75% of the plantations were deficient in N, P and K. The implementation of better management practices (including harvesting, weeding, pruning, and nutrient application) in 14 smallholder fields for three years resulted in palms with significantly larger leaves and heavier bunches compared with palms under farmer management, but improvements in yield were small and not statistically significant, and financial returns on better practices were negative. Possible causes of the small yield response were good starting yields, increased inter-palm competition for sunlight, and environmental constraints (particularly the 2015 El Niño event and waterlogging in Jambi).

    On the basis of our findings on yield gaps, nutrient limitations and better practices, we discuss how Indonesian smallholders may be supported to achieve sustainable intensification at a larger scale, and we reflect on the broader implications of our findings for a future supply of truly sustainable palm oil.

    Fertiliser application practices and nutrient deficiencies in smallholder oil palm plantations in Indonesia
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Turhina, Sri ; Deccy, D. ; Slingerland, Maja ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2019
    Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)4. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 543 - 559.
    Oil palm has become an important source of revenue for smallholders in Indonesia, but productivity of smallholder plantations is generally poor. Nutrient limitations have been suggested as an important agronomic constraint to yield. Our research aimed to quantify fertiliser use, soil and tissue nutrient status, and palm growth and yield in a sample of independent smallholder plantations. We selected 49 plantations in Indonesia in two provinces with contrasting soils. For all plantations, we obtained self-reported fertiliser use and yield data, collected soil and tissue samples, and analysed vegetative growth. More than 170 kg N ha−1 year−1 was applied in one site, and P was applied in excess of recommended quantities in both sites, but on average farmers applied less than 100 kg K ha−1 year−1. Soils in the palm circle were poor in N, P and K in 29, 40 and 82% of the plantations, and deficiencies were measured in 57, 61 and 80% of the leaflet samples, respectively. We found statistically significant correlations between tissue nutrient concentrations and vegetative growth, but a large part of the variation in the data remained unaccounted for. Single leaf area was reduced in >80% of the plantations. Average yields were estimated to be 50‒70% of the water-limited potential. Our results demonstrate that widespread nutrient imbalances and deficiencies, especially potassium and phosphorus, occur in smallholder oil palm plantations, due to inadequate and unbalanced fertiliser application practices. These deficiencies may be an important underlying cause of the overall poor productivity, which threatens the economic and environmental sustainability of the smallholder sector.
    Agricultural land use change and associated driving forces over the past 180 years in two municipalities of the Brazilian Cerrado
    Arruda, Murilo Rodrigues de; Slingerland, Maja ; Santos, José Zilton Lopes ; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2019
    GeoJournal 84 (2019)3. - ISSN 0343-2521 - p. 555 - 570.
    Agriculture - Case study - Cattle - Cerrado - Crops - Sugarcane
    This paper aims to test the hypothesis that a single driving force from the local, national, or global level is capable of triggering land use changes, including large scale deforestation, within a historical context. To reach this goal we describe and explain the driving forces from the global to farm level that have shaped agricultural land uses, as a case study, over 180 years in the municipalities of Quirinópolis and Gouvelândia in the Brazilian Cerrado. Through secondary data, field surveys, and interviews with farmers and other stakeholders involved with agricultural production, we identified four distinct periods in which drastic or little land use occurred. The evidence found supports our hypothesis. Two drastic land use changes occurred in Quirinópolis and Gouvelândia. The first one was the replacement of about 400,000 ha of original vegetation by pastures and crops between 1965 and 1985 triggered by the availability of abundant subsidized rural credits for farmers; the second one was initiated in 2005 with the replacement of 100,000 ha of pastures and cropping area by sugarcane, which was driven by the sudden domestic and world demand for sugar and ethanol.
    Is RSPO certification having an impact on smallholders decisions to expand or intensify production? : Science-for-policy brief for RSPO by the Sensor Programme
    Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research - 3 p.
    Aquaponics, an inclusive business to save land and water and to provide nutritious diets to vulnerable groups
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Kappers, B. ; Abebe, T. ; Getahun, A. - \ 2018
    Aquaponics, an inclusive business to save land and water and to provide nutritious diets to vulnerable groups
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2018
    From oil palm monoculture to integration with crops and livestock to enhance resilience of oil palm farming systems
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2018
    From oil palm monoculture to integration with crops and livestock to enhance resilience of oil palm farming systems
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Migeon, A. ; Khasanah, N. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Koekkoek, Solveigh - \ 2018
    Developing an atlas of yield potential and yield gaps for current oil palm plantation area in Indonesia
    Grassini, Patricio ; Rattalino Edreira, Juan I. ; Andrade, Jose ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Hekman, Willem ; Beuken, Rob van den; Ittersum, M.K. van; Rahutomo, Suroso ; Sutarta, Edy Sigit ; Agus, F. ; Oberthür, Thomas ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2018
    Estimating yield gaps in oilpalm in Indonesia using PALMSIM to inform policy on the scope of intensification
    Hekman, Willem ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Beuken, Rob van den; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Grassini, Patricio ; Andrade, Jose ; Rattalino Edreira, Juan I. ; Rahutomo, Suroso ; Sutarta, Edy Sigit ; Agus, F. - \ 2018
    Partnerships in research for sustainable palm oil
    Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2018
    The Missing Middle in SDG 2: The dual disconnect between global goals and local contexts, and between food production and consumption
    Veldhuizen, L.J.L. ; Giller, K.E. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. ; Janssen, S.J.C. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2018
    Session S6
    Brechas de rendimeinto en el cultivo de palma de aceite: una revision cuantitativa de factores determinantes
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Wijk, Mark T. van; Slingerland, M.A. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Giller, K.E. - \ 2018
    Revista Palmas 39 (2018)1. - p. 16 - 68.
    Costs and benefits of certification of independent oil palm smallholders in Indonesia
    Hutabarat, S. ; Slingerland, Maja ; Rietberg, P.I. ; Dries, L.K.E. - \ 2018
    International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 21 (2018)6. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 681 - 700.
    RSPO - certification - smallholders - Indonesia - oil palm - costs and benefits
    Sustainable certification schemes have surged in years. The introduction of these schemes poses serious challenges to smallholders. One such certification scheme is the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), which uses certification to increase equitable and sustainable production of palm oil. This study calculates upfront and recurrent costs and monetary benefits of RSPO certification of the Amanah Independent Oil Palm Smallholders Association in Ukui District, Indonesia. Survey and interview data was collected between 2013 and 2015. Results show that upfront costs of certification were 86 euro per hectare. Furthermore, despite generating up to 21% higher revenues from sales, certification created up to an 8%loss of net income per hectare on average per smallholder in the first year after certification, compared to the situation prior to certification. To motivate smallholders for RSPO certification, the economic performance of certified oil palm smallholders should be improved. This can result from further yield increases, a guaranteed premium price or the sales of GreenPalm certificates to provide additional income.
    Nutritional imbalance in smallholder oil palm plantations in Indonesia
    Woittiez, Lotte S. ; Slingerland, Maja ; Rafik, Rukaiyah ; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2018
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 111 (2018)1. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 73 - 86.
    Fertiliser - Good agricultural practices - Nutrient management - Soil fertility - Training - Yield
    In Indonesia more than 40% of the area under oil palm is owned by smallholders. The productivity in smallholder plantations is usually less than in large plantations, and limited fertiliser applications may be one of the key reasons. We investigated the use of fertilisers by > 300 smallholder farmers in Sumatra and Kalimantan, some of whom were involved in training programmes aimed at yield improvement. In our sample, the total applications of N were largest (166 kg ha−1 year−1), followed by K (122 kg) and P (56 kg). The applications of K were insufficient to compensate for the off-take with a production of 20 tonne fruit bunches ha−1 year−1, while N applications were excessive. On average, farmers applied 1130 kg fertiliser ha−1 year−1, and relied strongly on subsidised fertilisers, especially NPK Ponska (66%) and urea (39%). The average costs for fertiliser application were USD 225 ha−1 year−1. Trained farmers applied significantly more P in one research area, but for the other nutrients and research areas, there was no significant difference between trained and untrained farmers. Plantation size and nutrient application were weakly correlated in some areas, but not in the sample as a whole. Previously reported nutrient application rates were mostly less than our findings indicated, suggesting that actual nutrient limitations may be more severe. To overcome nutrient limitations and enhance nutrient use efficiency, we recommend that fertilisers are used in the correct balance; a ground cover vegetation is maintained to protect against erosion; and the application of empty fruit bunches is encouraged.
    Can good Agricultural practices sustain oil palm yields for bioenergy production in northeast Thailand?
    Somnuek, Siriluk ; Slingerland, Maja - \ 2018
    Experimental Agriculture 54 (2018)6. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 915 - 930.

    The government of Thailand aims for sustainability of palm oil production in the Northeast for bioenergy and farmers’ income. This study investigated whether producers in Northeast Thailand managed their oil palm according to good agricultural practices (GAP) and if not, what effects this has on yield. A survey was conducted amongst 108 randomly selected farmers. For 25 selected plots, management and yields were monitored twice a month for two full years. Compliance to GAP was high for weeding, harvesting, pruning and pest and disease control but not for irrigation (40%) and fertiliser application (20–40%). GAP adoption scores per households positively correlated with income from other crops, tree age and degree of training. We showed that rainfall was insufficient for good oil palm growth between October and April. In the monitored group, use of irrigation and amounts of N, P, K and Mg applied were strongly correlated. The yield was significantly greater with irrigation and fertiliser, reaching similar levels as in the South of Thailand (up to 25–30 Mg Fresh Fruit Bunches: FFB ha−1), but did not differ with soil texture. This allows us to conclude that better application of GAP, especially including a combination of irrigation and fertilisers overcame the unsuitable soil and rainfall conditions in the Northeast of Thailand. However, the costs of fertilisers compared to the price of FFB affected the profitability of FFB production, which may affect farmers’ motivation to apply GAP, especially on unsuitable soils. When the government aims for sustainable palm oil production in the Northeast it needs to invest in frequent technical support, irrigation infrastructure and affordable fertilisers. Otherwise, farmers may not apply GAP because of low returns on investments and yields will remain very modest.

    Palm oil expansion in tropical forest margins or sustainability of production? : Focal issues of regulations and private standards
    Noordwijk, M. van; Pacheco, Pablo ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Dewi, S. ; Khasanah, N. - \ 2017
    Bogor : World Agroforestry Centre (Working Paper 274) - 72
    Indonesia, Malaysia, Elaeis guineensis, certification, RSPO, ISPO
    Palm oil expansion captures headlines, primarily out of concern that encroachment to tropical forest causes environmental problem and ignites social issues. Cascading ecological and social issues cause loss of trust, (threats of) consumer boycotts and multiple standards and certification responses. However, diverse sustainability issues should be taken into account within the issue-attention cycle. Most of current production (89%) occurs in SE Asia, with Indonesia in the lead. Peru and Cameroon are examples of current expansion elsewhere. In Indonesia two phases of new establishment of palm oil coexist within a forest transition gradient: (i) (industry-led) expansion into new forest margins with many social and ecological consequences; and (ii) (often farmer-led) conversion of existing agroforestry and tree crop (often rubber-based) or pasture economies in mosaic landscapes. External consumer concerns refer to the expansion phase, rather than to production sustainability or issues of smallholder concern. However, certification standards are only partially adjusted to the latter. After a ‘voluntary industry standards’ phase of differentiation with and shifting blame to non-certified others, government involvement in Malaysia and Indonesia suggests that standards and certification can trickle down to enforceable good practice standards for all. This leads to ineffective policies that does not address the real issues in local context. On the other hand, subnational jurisdictional entities are the scale at which oil palm production can be balanced with other goals, such as forest conservation and smallholder welfare.
    Open Science Meeting 2017 Towards resilient society
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2017
    Food, water and energy: smart and local solutions (2) : From trade-offs to synergies
    Stakeholder workshop oil palm cooperation Netherlands-Malaysia
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2017
    Malaysia – Netherlands Oil Palm Collaboration with MPOB 2017 – 2020
    The Missing Middle in Sustainable Development Goal 2
    Veldhuizen, L.J.L. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Brouwer, I.D. ; Giller, K.E. ; Janssen, S.J.C. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2017
    Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector
    Tefera, Delelegne Abera - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta, co-promotor(en): W.J.J. Bijman; M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437165 - 217
    foreign investment - organizations - innovations - management science - food supply - supply chain management - farmers - barley - economic sectors - ethiopia - east africa - buitenlandse investering - organisaties - innovaties - bedrijfswetenschap - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - boeren - gerst - economische sectoren - ethiopië - oost-afrika

    Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern distribution channels (e.g. supermarkets), consolidation of retail markets, and an increase in export orientation. The rapid growth in demand of modern food with higher quality and safety attracts multinational enterprises to invest in agriculture and food processing in emerging economies. The appearance of multinationals in the food systems of developing countries has been claimed to have a positive impact on economic development and reduction of poverty. The multinationals have adopted modern supply chain management practices for securing a large volume and consistent supply of high quality products. They introduce new technologies that boost productivity and post-harvest management for product upgrading.

    While so far most research on the modernization of food systems has focused on export chains, there is growing interest in the transformation of domestic and staple food chains. Upgrading domestic food chains is needed for a more efficient supply to fast growing urban markets and to sustain access to affordable food for the rapidly growing urban consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. As domestic food value chains are more inclusive than high-value export chains, upgrading these food chains can contribute more to poverty reduction and food security. However, much remains to be understood about the process of modernization in domestic food chains and its implications for rural development. The overarching aim of this dissertation was to deepen our understanding on how organizational innovations facilitate modernization of domestic food chains using case studies from the Ethiopian barley sector. In particular, the thesis examines the effectiveness and impacts of foreign direct investments (FDI), contract farming arrangements (CFAs), producer organizations (POs), and partnerships on the upgrading of malt barley value chains and welfare of local suppliers. To address this objective, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric econometric models.

    The findings from the empirical chapters show that: First, our analysis reveals that the appearance of foreign companies in the malt barley chain has brought important changes in the structure and economics of the barley value chain, resulting in the development of a modern chain next to the conventional chain. It is also shown that participation in modern supply chains is determined by a range of factors that include farmer and farm characteristics. Second, the results show that participation in modern supply chains has a positive and significant impact on commercialization, intensification, quality improvement and farm gate prices, ultimately resulting in increased farmer income and spillovers towards productivity of other food crops. Third, we found that POs perform diverse economic functions to enhance rural development , but tighter coordination in food value chains demands alignment of chain activities among actors which leads to changes in the strategies and functions of POs. Fourth, we showed that POs have a positive impact on farm productivity and smallholder income. However, this positive impact of POs come at the expense of inclusiveness, i.e. POs are less inclusive. Thus, there is a tension between business performance and inclusiveness of POs. Moreover, the results show that the motivation to participate in a PO is determined by demographic and economic factors. Lastly, we found that the determinants of quality improvement at farm level are socioeconomic, technological and institutional factors. Specifically, the identified factors are farmers’ level of education, age (as a proxy for farming experience), entrepreneurial attitude, PO membership, CFA participation, and type of improved seed varieties. The thesis concludes that enhancing the modernization of food value chains involving smallholders requires organizational innovation that facilitate coordination and collaborative activities among chain actors.

    Welfare Impact Of Contracting In Value Chains: The Case Of Malt Barley Producers In Ethiopia : The Case Of Malt Barley Producers In Ethiopia
    Tefera, Delelegne ; Bijman, J. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; VanderVelde, Gerben ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2017
    Food chains in Africa are undergoing major changes because of rapid urbanization and rising income. Contract farming arrangement (CFA) has been central in the modernization of food supply chains and receives increased attention in the development strategies of many African countries. Several studies investigated the welfare impacts of CFA; however, most of these focused on export supply chains of horticultural products. We examined the welfare impacts of CFA within a domestic grain supply chain using propensity score-matching. The study utilized cross-sectional survey data from Ethiopia. Consistent with literature, we found CFA has robust positive impacts on farmers’ income and livelihood.
    Nutrient status and vegetative growth in mature smallholder oil palm plantations
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2017
    In: Proceedings book XVIII International Plant Nutrition Colloquium & Boron and Manganese Satellite Meetings. - Copenhagen : University of Copenhagen - ISBN 9788799627400 - p. 783 - 784.
    Panel discussion 5: Rural development agenda for sustainable advanced biomass economy: A critical supporting enabler
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2017
    Panel discussion 5:
    Policy Recommendations: Training Smallholder Oil Palm Farmers in Good Agricultural Practices
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Jacobs, E. ; Meppelink, Carien ; Zondag, C. ; Rietberg, P.I. - \ 2017
    Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH) - 41 p.
    Where is sugarcane cropping expanding in the brazilian cerrado, and why? A case study
    Arruda, M.R. de; Giller, K.E. ; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2017
    Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 89 (2017)suppl. 3. - ISSN 0001-3765 - p. 2485 - 2493.
    Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this
    assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás. Within the studied period, sugarcane cropping expansion was related to large farms, lower risk perceived by farmers, and higher profitability compared with soybean and beef cattle-raising. For smallholders, particularly dairy farmers, the need to comply with the set-aside rules under Brazilian Forest Code (Código Florestal Brasileiro) made a shift to sugarcane less attractive, as it would have forced them to reduce farm cultivable area, with loss of incomes. From 30,408 ha under sugarcane surveyed, 45.7% had used to be pastures, 31% had previously been pastures rotated with soybean and maize, and 23.3% had been cropped exclusively with soybean or maize.
    With the right institutional set up, smallholder palm oil can outperform estate plantations
    Jelsma, I. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2017

    Article in the SHARP Newsletter referring to article "Collective action in a smallholder oil palm production system in Indonesia: The key to sustainable and inclusive smallholder palm oil?" by Jelsma, Slingerland, Giller.

    Collective action in a smallholder oil palm production system in Indonesia: The key to sustainable and inclusive smallholder palm oil?
    Jelsma, Idsert ; Slingerland, Maja ; Giller, Ken E. ; Bijman, Jos - \ 2017
    Journal of Rural Studies 54 (2017). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 198 - 210.
    Collective action - Indonesia - Intensive agriculture - Oil palm - Smallholders - West-Sumatra
    Indonesian smallholder oil palm generally yield much less than corporate plantations. We analysed a smallholder oil palm production system in West Sumatra which outperformed its nucleus estate plantation, consistently producing yields far above the national average for over 25 years. Its institutional setup allowed farmers to combine the advantages of smallholder and plantation agriculture by capitalizing on collective action. Collective action design principles (Ostrom, 1990; Cox, 2010) are used to assess the institutional setup of a smallholder production system. This case study demonstrates that with a strong institutional arrangement, smallholder oil palm farmers can participate in supply chains on advantageous conditions and substantially increase productivity, thereby contributing to both rural development and land sparing.
    Opening and introduction
    Slingerland, Maja - \ 2017
    Is there life after hype for Jatropha? Exploring growth and yield in Indonesia
    Tjeuw, Juliana - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K.E. Giller; M. van Noordwijk, co-promotor(en): M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431927 - 223
    fuel crops - jatropha curcas - crop yield - new crops - feasibility studies - indonesia - cultural methods - cultivation - disincentives - biobased economy - cropping systems - intercropping - brandstofgewassen - jatropha curcas - gewasopbrengst - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - haalbaarheidsstudies - indonesië - cultuurmethoden - teelt - belemmeringen - biobased economy - teeltsystemen - tussenteelt

    Jatropha curcas L. is a biofuel crop that has not lived up to expectations due to a combination of hype and disappointment and biophysical factors. This PhD thesis is based on the plant production component of the JARAK programme which aimed to bridge the gap between truth and fiction. This study reviewed the jatropha hype and disappointment and further investigated the hypothesis that jatropha growth and yield are limited by biophysical factors of plant characteristics, cropping systems, and management. My review of the hype and disappointment shows that despite the high expectations fuelled by market pull and technology push, and numerous actors, the commercial potential for jatropha is limited by policy and governance, economics, social, technology, logistical, and environmental. A study of the biophysical components confirms that no current varieties suited to different cropping systems and locations are available. Jatropha aboveground biomass is partitioned predominantly into a structure of stem, branches, and twigs. The below to aboveground biomass ratio was 0.5 and fruit which was found only on productive twigs accounted for the smallest portion of biomass measured. Seed yields were disappointingly small (109 kg ha-1) and were largest in monoculture, followed by intercropping and hedgerows in that order, although yields were influenced by age and management of pruning and fertiliser. Seed yield across the three cropping systems can be predicted using plant height and the number of productive twig/branch, although the number of inflorescence clusters per productive twig may be important. Intercropping between jatropha and maize (Zea mays L.) resulted in competition for resources both belowground and aboveground that reduced maize yields. Shoot pruning was effective in managing aboveground competition, while root pruning and root barriers effectively managed competition belowground. Leaf prunings provided a limited, but positive fertility effect on maize yield comparable to 21 kg N ha-1. Jatropha - maize intercropping has potential for long-term productivity provided management practices such as fertiliser, pruning, and planting density can be developed to minimise competition and enhance complementarity. Based on my review of the jatropha hype and disappointment and my biophysical research results, the planting of jatropha by smallholders, or as a plantation crop cannot be recommended. Once the issues I highlight have been resolved and market confidence restored, jatropha may finally become a commercial source of biodiesel able to provide improved socio-economic and environmental benefits.

    Aid under contestation : Public works, labour and community based food security programming in post-conflict northern Uganda
    Wairimu, Winnie ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Hilhorst, D.J.M. - \ 2017
    In: People, Aid and Institutions in Socio-Economic Recovery / Hilhorst, Dorothea, Weijs, Bart, van der Haar, Gemma, London/NewYork : Routledge / Earthscan (Routledge Humanitarian Studies ) - ISBN 9781138914506 - p. 156 - 172.
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