Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Handhavingsprotocol Hokverrijking : Praktische uitwerking van open normen in wetgeving helpt varkenswelzijn vooruit
Jonge, Francien de; Nieuwenhuizen, Jeroen van den; Ekkelboom, Myra ; Ernst, Kristi ; Kerssen, Nynke ; Smeets, Sharine ; Sun, Yan ; Yin, Xuetong ; Blaauw, Xana ; He, Zhengxiao ; Jong, Mandy de; Nauta, Charlotte ; Verdaasdonk, Marleen ; Kanhailal, Sharita - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel 353) - ISBN 9789463951685 - 27
Development and body mass inversely affect children's brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during food choice
Meer, Floor van; Laan, Laura N. van der; Eiben, Gabriele ; Lissner, Lauren ; Wolters, Maike ; Rach, Stefan ; Herrmann, Manfred ; Erhard, Peter ; Molnar, Denes ; Orsi, Gergely ; Viergever, Max A. ; Adan, Roger A.H. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2019
NeuroImage 201 (2019). - ISSN 1053-8119
Decision making - Development - fMRI - Food choice - Overweight

Childhood obesity is a rising problem caused in part by unhealthy food choices. Food choices are based on a neural value signal encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and self-control involves modulation of this signal by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We determined the effects of development, body mass (BMI Cole score) and body mass history on the neural correlates of healthy food choice in children. 141 children (aged 10-17y) from Germany, Hungary and Sweden were scanned with fMRI while performing a food choice task. Afterwards health and taste ratings of the foods were collected. In the food choice task children were asked to consider the healthiness or tastiness of the food or to choose naturally. Overall, children made healthier choices when asked to consider healthiness. However, children who had a higher weight gain per year chose less healthy foods when considering healthiness but not when choosing naturally. Pubertal development stage correlated positively while current body mass correlated negatively with dlPFC activation when accepting foods. Pubertal development negatively and current body mass positively influenced the effect of considering healthiness on activation of brain areas involved in salience and motivation. In conclusion, children in earlier stages of pubertal development and children with a higher body weight exhibited less activation in the dlPFC, which has been implicated in self-control during food choice. Furthermore, pubertal development and body mass influenced neural responses to a health cue in areas involved in salience and motivation. Thus, these findings suggest that children in earlier stages of pubertal development, children with a higher body mass gain and children with overweight may possibly be less susceptible to healthy eating interventions that rely on self-control or that highlight health aspects of food.

Grab to eat! Eating motivation dynamics measured by effort exertion depend on hunger state
Pirc, Matjaž ; Čad, E.M. ; Jager, G. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293
Desire to eat - Eating motivation - Effort - Hand-grip force exertion - Liking - Wanting

A crucial challenge in investigating motivated human eating behaviour is to go beyond subjective measures, by developing reliable methods capable of objectively quantifying the dynamic aspects of appetitive motivation. We developed and tested a novel effort-based task (Grab-to-Eat Task (GET)), utilising handgrip force as a motivational measure, to capture eating motivation dynamics throughout consumption. Sixty normal-weight young adults were allocated to one of two hunger state conditions (hungry or satiated) and performed a continuous reinforcement-based task, during which sips of chocolate milk were self-administered with a handgrip force transducer. Motivation was covertly assessed by the magnitude of effort exertion towards each sip. Cumulatively, hungry subjects exerted more effort and consequently consumed more chocolate milk than satiated ones. Effort exertion declined throughout consumption in both groups, with the rate of decline being two-fold greater in hungry subjects. Furthermore, effort exerted in the initial stages of consumption predicted subsequent intake. Present results fit in the theoretical framework of reward-related motivation and suggest that the developed paradigm is sensitive to eating motivation dynamics throughout consumption and to differences in eating motivation related to hunger state. Further validation, ideally involving functional neuroimaging, would be imperative. In the future, this paradigm could be used to investigate eating motivation dynamics in various populations, conditions and food products.

Colouring perception: Package colour cues affect neural responses to sweet dairy drinks in reward and inhibition related regions
Tijssen, Irene O.J.M. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Goedegebure, Robert P.G. ; Zandstra, Elizabeth H. ; Graaf, Cees de; Jager, Gerry - \ 2019
Appetite 142 (2019). - ISSN 0195-6663
BOLD fMRI - Health interest - Impulsivity - Package colour - Product perception

Extrinsic product cues such as package colour may change product perception and perceived reward value during product evaluation. Healthier foods (i.e., ‘light’, sugar- or fat-reduced) often have different packages than regular products, e.g., they may be less vibrantly coloured. People vary in their degree of health-interest and self-control ability and may be affected differently by package colour. This study assesses the extent to which package colour and participant characteristics interact and influence product perception and brain responses. Thirty-four healthy females performed a functional MRI task in which they viewed four differently coloured packages (regular vs. healthier; differing in brightness and saturation levels) with or without simultaneously tasting a either a regular or a healthier calorie-reduced drink. Results indicate main effects of package and taste and a package*taste interaction effect. Compared to healthier packages viewing regular packages enhanced activation in region implicated in inhibitory control (inferior frontal gyrus) and a reward-related region (striatum), the latter even more so as participants’ health interest increased (r = 0.43, p = 0.01). Incongruent package-taste combinations decreased activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, a region implicated in reward representation) compared to congruent combinations. Tasting the healthier compared to regular product enhanced activation in the middle and superior frontal gyrus, which are implicated in inhibitory control, as well as the striatum and OFC, suggesting a cognitively driven preference for the healthier product. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence for the conditions under which package colour and taste properties modulate neural correlates related to reward and inhibition. Individual differences in health-interest and impulsivity influence package- and taste-related neural correlates and thus underscore the importance of taking participant characteristics into account in food research.

Colorectal cancer survivors’ beliefs on nutrition and cancer; correlates with nutritional information provision
Veen, Merel R. van; Mols, Floortje ; Smeets, Lian ; Kampman, Ellen ; Beijer, Sandra - \ 2019
Supportive Care in Cancer (2019). - ISSN 0941-4355 - 9 p.
Colorectal cancer survivor - Health professionals - Information provision - Nutrition

Purpose: To investigate CRC survivors’ beliefs on nutrition and cancer and the association with nutritional information provision by (kind and number) of health professionals and to inquire about foods that CRC survivors believed either had a positive or negative influence on their cancer. Methods: A total of 326 CRC survivors of an ongoing prospective cohort study filled out questionnaires 1 month after surgery on whether they had received nutritional information from health professionals. Also, their beliefs that nutrition influences (1) feelings of well-being, (2) complaints after treatment, (3) recovery and (4) cancer recurrence were investigated. Prevalence ratios were calculated (using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis) to study associations between information provision and the four beliefs adjusted for age, gender and cancer stage. Results: Sixty-two percent of respondents received information about nutrition from one or more health professionals. Most respondents who received information strongly believe nutrition influences feelings of well-being (59%) and recovery after cancer (62%). Compared with those who did not receive information, respondents who received information from three professionals showed the strongest beliefs on the influence of nutrition on complaints after treatment (PR 3.4; 95% CI 1.6–7.4), recovery after treatment (PR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.3) and recurrence (PR 2.8; 95% CI 1.3–6.2). Conclusion: Nutritional information provision by health professionals positively influences the beliefs of CRC survivors on the influence of nutrition on cancer outcomes: stronger beliefs occur when respondents received information from three health professionals.

Unaware of the amount consumed : Systematic error in estimating food- and drink intake
Lasschuijt, Marlou P. ; Camps, Guido ; Koopman, Ylva ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2019
Physiology and Behavior 209 (2019). - ISSN 0031-9384
Eating effort - Food form - Food intake - Portion size estimation - Visual cues

Background: Our current food environment promotes overconsumption due to the overrepresentation of foods that have a high calorie density and can be easily consumed. These food characteristics lead to limited oro-sensory exposure, which may lead to overconsumption due to insufficient perception of the amount consumed. Better perception of the amount eaten and thus a better ability to estimate intake may help control actual food intake through prolonged inter-meal interval and smaller meal sizes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether food form, flavor and portion size influence the error in estimated intake (EiE). Method: Participants (n = 72) were recruited at a science festival where the study was also performed. The experiment had a 2 × 2 × 3 design with a reference condition. Experimental conditions differed in food form (liquid vs. solid stimuli), taste category (savory vs. sweet) and portion size (small, medium, large). Water was used as a reference condition. Results: Participants overestimated the amount consumed of all stimuli. The overestimation was ten times greater for solid compared to liquid products (104 ± 12 vs 12 ± 9% overestimation) and was more pronounced for sweet (75 ± 9%) than for savory products (41 ± 12%). There was a trend for larger EiE% of smaller portions. No differences were found among the differently flavored liquids including the water reference. Conclusion: People overestimate the amount they consume of solid and sweet products more than that of liquid and savory products. This overestimation may be due to overvaluation of the oro-sensory stimulation when visual cues and intake effort are controlled for or because of learned associations. However, the uncontrolled setting of the experiment should be taken into account when drawing conclusions. Future research may replicate the study in a more controlled setting and should determine whether the overestimation of sweet solid product intake also leads to lower intake at a subsequent meal.

Good practice in food-related neuroimaging
Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Dagher, Alain ; Hare, Todd A. ; Kullmann, Stephanie ; Laan, Laura N. van der; Poldrack, Russell A. ; Preissl, Hubert ; Small, Dana ; Stice, Eric ; Veldhuizen, Maria G. - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 (2019)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 491 - 503.
aroma - data sharing - food choice - food viewing - functional magnetic resonance imaging - good practice - neuroimaging - satiation - taste

The use of neuroimaging tools, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, in nutritional research has increased substantially over the past 2 decades. Neuroimaging is a research tool with great potential impact on the field of nutrition, but to achieve that potential, appropriate use of techniques and interpretation of neuroimaging results is necessary. In this article, we present guidelines for good methodological practice in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies and flag specific limitations in the hope of helping researchers to make the most of neuroimaging tools and avoid potential pitfalls. We highlight specific considerations for food-related studies, such as how to adjust statistically for common confounders, like, for example, hunger state, menstrual phase, and BMI, as well as how to optimally match different types of food stimuli. Finally, we summarize current research needs and future directions, such as the use of prospective designs and more realistic paradigms for studying eating behavior.

Healthy diets and reduced land pressure : Towards a double gain for future food systems in Nigeria
Smeets-Kristkova, Zuzana ; Achterbosch, Thom ; Kuiper, Marijke - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
Agricultural intensification - Baseline projections - CGE model - Diet diversity - Food security - Land substitution - Nutrition

Nigeria is one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Strong GDP and population growth coupled with urbanization trends place tremendous pressures on natural resources and the food systems that are dependent on them. Understanding the impact of these "mega trends" is important to identify key leverage points for navigating towards improved nutrition and food security in Nigeria. This paper contributes to the Foresight Project of the Food Systems for Healthier Diets which aims to analyse how the food system in Nigeria is expected to transform in the next decades, and to identify the leverage points for making sure that the transformation contributes to balanced consumer diets. For the food systems foresight, a well-established global economy-wide model, MAGNET, is applied that enables to capture the interlinkages among different food industry players in one consistent framework. By linking MAGNET to the GENUS nutritional database, it is further possible to relate the developments occurring on a macro-level with detailed macro and micronutrient consumption. Model projections suggest that a process of intensification of agriculture in combination with land substitution appears critical for the evolution of food and nutrition security, and for shifts towards healthy diets for the population. Intensification results in greater diversity of the production systems, which in turn cascades into positive effects on the diversity in the food supply and better food security outcomes.

Flooded by jargon: how the interpretation of water-related terms differs between hydrology experts and the general audience
Venhuizen, G.J. ; Hut, Rolf ; Albers, Casper ; Stoof, C.R. ; Smeets, Ionica - \ 2019
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 23 (2019)1. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 393 - 403.
Communication about hydrology-induced hazards is important, in order to keep the impact of floods, droughts et cetera as low as possible. However, sometimes the boundary between specialized and non-specialized language can be vague. Therefore, a close scrutiny of the use of hydrological vocabulary by both experts and laypeople is necessary. In this study, we compare the expert and lay definitions of 12 common water-related terms and 10 water-related pictures to see where misunderstandings might arise both in text and pictures. Our primary objective is to analyze the degree of agreement between experts and laypeople in their definition of the used terms. In this way, we hope to contribute to improving the communication between these groups in the future. Our study was based on a survey completed by 34 experts and 119 laypeople. Especially concerning the definition of water-related words there are some profound differences between experts and laypeople: words like river and river basin turn out to have a thoroughly different interpretation between the two groups. Concerning the pictures, there is much more agreement between the groups.
Nandrolone decanoate administration does not attenuate muscle atrophy during a short period of disuse
Horstman, Astrid M.H. ; Backx, Evelien M.P. ; Smeets, Joey S.J. ; Marzuca-Nassr, Gabriel N. ; Kranenburg, Janneau van; Boer, Douwe de; Dolmans, John ; Snijders, Tim ; Verdijk, Lex B. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Loon, Luc J.C. van - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)1. - ISSN 1932-6203 - p. e0210823 - e0210823.

BACKGROUND: A few days of bed rest or immobilization following injury, disease, or surgery can lead to considerable loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has been speculated that such short, successive periods of muscle disuse may be largely responsible for the age-related loss of muscle mass throughout the lifespan. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a single intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate prior to immobilization can attenuate the loss of muscle mass and strength in vivo in humans. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Thirty healthy (22 ± 1 years) men were subjected to 7 days of one-legged knee immobilization by means of a full leg cast with (NAD, n = 15) or without (CON, n = 15) prior intramuscular nandrolone decanoate injection (200 mg). MEASURES: Before and immediately after immobilization, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (by means of single-slice computed tomography (CT) scans of the upper leg) and one-legged knee extension strength (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) were assessed for both legs. Furthermore, muscle biopsies from the immobilized leg were taken before and after immobilization to assess type I and type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area. RESULTS: Quadriceps muscle CSA decreased during immobilization in both CON and NAD (-6 ± 1% and -6 ± 1%, respectively; main effect of time P<0.01), with no differences between the groups (time × treatment interaction, P = 0.59). Leg muscle strength declined following immobilization (-6 ± 2% in CON and -7 ± 3% in NAD; main effect of time, P<0.05), with no differences between groups (time × treatment interaction, P = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report that nandrolone decanoate administration does not preserve skeletal muscle mass and strength during a short period of leg immobilization in vivo in humans.

Levelling the playing field for EU biomass usage
Philippidis, George ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Helming, John ; M’barek, Robert ; Smeets, Edward ; Meijl, Hans van - \ 2019
Economic Systems Research 31 (2019)2. - ISSN 0953-5314 - p. 158 - 177.
Bioeconomy - CGE - foresight study - MAGNET

The threats of climate change, food security, resource depletion and energy security are driving society towards a sustainable low-carbon future. Within this paradigm, biomass plays an invaluable role in meeting the food, feed, energy and material needs of future generations. Current EU thinking advocates biomass for high-value materials, which is not aligned with EU public policy support for ‘lower value’ bioenergy applications. ‘High-technology’ and ‘no bioenergy mandate’ pathways explore market conditions that generate a more equitable distribution between competing biomass conversion technologies and competing biomass and fossil technologies. In achieving greater equity, these pathways ease biomass market tensions; enhance EU food security; improve EU biobased trade balances; accelerate biomaterial sectors’ output performance and favour macroeconomic growth. Moreover, an additional 80% increase in the oil price signals a tipping point in favour of first generation biofuels, whilst simultaneously boosting output in advanced material conversion technologies even more than the high-technology pathway.

Brain Responses to Anticipation and Consumption of Beer with and without Alcohol
Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Graaf, Cees de - \ 2019
Chemical Senses 44 (2019)1. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 51 - 60.

Beer is a popular alcoholic beverage worldwide. Nonalcoholic beer (NA-beer) is increasingly marketed. Brain responses to beer and NA-beer have not been compared. It could be that the flavor of beer constitutes a conditioned stimulus associated with alcohol reward. Therefore, we investigated whether oral exposure to NA-beer with or without alcohol elicits similar brain responses in reward-related areas in a context where regular alcoholic beer is expected. Healthy men (n = 21) who were regular beer drinkers were scanned using functional MRI. Participants were exposed to word cues signaling delivery of a 10-mL sip of chilled beer or carbonated water (control) and subsequent sips of NA-beer with or without alcohol or water (control). Beer alcohol content was not signaled. The beer cue elicited less activation than the control cue in the primary visual cortex, supplementary motor area (reward-related region) and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/frontal operculum. During tasting, there were no significant differences between the 2 beers. Taste activation after swallowing was significantly greater for alcoholic than for NA-beer in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus). This appears to be due to sensory stimulation by ethanol rather than reward processing. In conclusion, we found no differences in acute brain reward upon consumption of NA-beer with and without alcohol, when presented in a context where regular alcoholic beer is expected. This suggests that in regular consumers, beer flavor rather than the presence of alcohol is the main driver of the consumption experience.

Effectiveness of nutritional interventions in older adults at risk of malnutrition across different health care settings: Pooled analyses of individual participant data from nine randomized controlled trials
Reinders, Ilse ; Volkert, Dorothee ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Beck, Anne Marie ; Feldblum, Ilana ; Jobse, Inken ; Neelemaat, Floor ; Schueren, Marian A.E. de van der; Shahar, Danit R. ; Smeets, Ellen T.H.C. ; Tieland, Michael ; Twisk, Jos W.R. ; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A.H. ; Visser, Marjolein - \ 2019
Clinical Nutrition 38 (2019)4. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 1797 - 1806.
Dietary counseling - Oral nutritional supplements - Protein-energy malnutrition - Undernutrition - Weight gain

Background & aims: Protein-energy malnutrition is a health concern among older adults. Improving nutritional status by increasing energy and protein intake likely benefits health. We therefore aimed to investigate effects of nutritional interventions in older adults (at risk of malnutrition) on change in energy intake and body weight, and explore if the intervention effect was modified by study or participants’ characteristics, analysing pooled individual participant data. Methods: We searched for RCTs investigating the effect of dietary counseling, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) or both on energy intake and weight. Principle investigators of eligible studies provided individual participant data. We investigated the effect of nutritional intervention on meaningful increase in energy intake (>250 kcal/day) and meaningful weight gain (>1.0 kg). Logistic generalized estimating equations were performed and ORs with 95% CIs presented. Results: We included data of nine studies with a total of 990 participants, aged 79.2 ± 8.2 years, 64.5% women and mean baseline BMI 23.9 ± 4.7 kg/m2. An non-significant intervention effect was observed for increase in energy intake (OR:1.59; 95% CI 0.95, 2.66) and a significant intervention effect for weight gain (OR:1.58; 95% CI 1.16, 2.17). Stratifying by type of intervention, an intervention effect on increase in energy intake was only observed for dietary counseling in combination with ONS (OR:2.28; 95% CI 1.90, 2.73). The intervention effect on increase in energy intake was greater for women, older participants, and those with lower BMI. Regarding weight gain, an intervention effect was observed for dietary counseling (OR:1.40; 95% CI 1.14, 1.73) and dietary counseling in combination with ONS (OR:2.48; 95% CI 1.92, 3.31). The intervention effect on weight gain was not influenced by participants’ characteristics. Conclusions: Based on pooled data of older adults (at risk of malnutrition), nutritional interventions have a positive effect on energy intake and body weight. Dietary counseling combined with ONS is the most effective intervention.

Cursus dierenwelzijn
Ruis, M.A.W. ; Luyten, I. ; Hilverda, H. ; Smeets, M. ; Jessen, E. van; Jong-Timmerman, M. de; Bolderman, K. ; Heemink, G. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Dierenwelzijnsweb
dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - diergedrag - diervoeding - huisvesting, dieren - dierethiek - dierverzorging - lesmaterialen - animal husbandry - animal welfare - animal health - animal behaviour - animal nutrition - animal housing - animal ethics - care of animals - teaching materials
Deze cursus helpt je te begrijpen wat dierenwelzijn precies inhoudt. De cursus behandelt de onderwerpen gedrag en gezondheid, informatiebronnen voor dierenwelzijn, huisvesting en voeding, omgevingsfactoren die een belangrijke invloed hebben op dierenwelzijn. Daarnaast helpt de cursus je te begrijpen wat dierethiek is en leer je zelf een afweging te maken over hoe jij vindt dat wij met dieren om moeten gaan. Aan de hand van praktische voorbeelden, dilemma's en casussen leer je na te denken over dierenwelzijn. De voorbeelden betreffen o.a. gezelschapsdieren, landbouwhuisdieren, proefdieren en in het wild levende dieren. Aan het eind van elk blok vind je een toets, waarmee je je kennis over dat onderwerp kunt testen.
Men and women differ in gastric fluid retention and neural activation after consumption of carbonated beverages
Camps, Guido ; Graaf, Kees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2018
The Journal of Nutrition 148 (2018)10. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1976 - 1983.
Bloating - Carbonated drinks - Cerebral blood flow - Gastric emptying - Gender - Perfusion fMRI

Background: The most commonly consumed carbonated beverages are soda and beer. Carbon dioxide increases gastric volume, which can lead to epigastric discomfort. Women are more susceptible to this; however, correlations with neural activity and gastric distention are unknown. Objective: This study sought to determine the subjective, gastric, and neural correlates of epigastric discomfort in men and women. Methods: Thirty-four healthy, normal-weight adults [17 women; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 22.3 ± 1.9; 17 men; BMI: 22.8 ± 1.8] participated in a randomized crossover study with 2 treatments: ingestion of 500 mL beer or soda. Before and after consumption, gastric content and brain activity were measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants rated fullness, bloating, hunger, and nausea at baseline and at t = 0, 10, 20, and 30 min together with gastric MRI. Brain activity [cerebral blood flow (CBF)] was measured at baseline and at t = 5 and 35 min. Liquid, gas, and total gastric volume (TGV) were segmented from gastric MRI. Ratings and gastric content areas under the curve (AUCs) were tested with a mixed model with sex and drink as factors. Results: For subjective ratings, only nausea in the beer condition scored significantly greater for women (9.4-point increase; P = 0.045). Liquid stomach content was significantly greater for women (2525 mL × min increase; P = 0.019). In both men and women, the strongest correlation for bloating was with TGV (r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and for nausea was with the liquid fraction AUC (r = 0.45, P < 0.01). CBF changes did not differ between the drinks. Men showed greater CBF than women in the left precentral and postcentral gyri at t = 5 min. Conclusions: There are differences between sexes when it comes to appetite ratings, gastric fluid retention, and neural activation. Discomfort in women may be related to fluid rather than gas in the stomach, because they retain more fluid than men. Differences between men and women should be considered when studying digestion.

Effects of (a switch in) enriched vs barren housing on the response to reward loss in pigs in a negative contrast test
Luo, Lu ; Reimert, I. ; Smeets, Sharine ; Haas, E.N. de; Parmentier, H.K. ; Kemp, B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 52nd Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863228 - p. 233 - 233.
Several studies suggest that animals in a negative emotional state are more sensitive to reward losses as shown by behavioural and neurophysiological responses. In a successive negative contrast (SNC) test, reward losses are induced by decreasing the size of the reward for a task for which animals have been trained. is SNC paradigm has not been widely used in pigs. It is well known that environmental enrichment positively inuences the welfare of pigs, and may induce a more optimistic emotional state, which could reduce their sensitivity to reward losses. We studied pigs in barren (B) or enriched (E) housing, experiencing either a switch in housing conditions at 7 weeks of age or not (4 treatment groups: EE, EB, BE, BB, n=8 pens per group) in an SNC runway task. We hypothesized that B housed pigs, particularly those that changed from E to B housing, would show an enhanced sensitivity to reward losses. One pig per pen was trained to run a 24.6 m U-shaped runway for 6 pieces and one for 1 piece of apple. Each pig received 3 trials per day, with a maximum of 120 sec/trial. Latency to start eating the reward was recorded, and the average was calculated per day. Aer 11 days, all pigs received 1 piece of apple only for another 11 days (reward shi: 6-1 vs 1-1 reward group), i.e. the group originally receiving 6 pieces of apple experienced a reward loss. Eects of pre-housing, post-housing, (original) reward size, day and interactions were analysed using mixed models with a random eect of animal. Fiy-one pigs were successfully trained. Before the reward shi, over the rst 11 days, pre-housing × post-housing × reward size aected the average run-time (P<0.05). All BB pigs ran slower than other pigs (BB: 59.3±2.8; BE: 35.9±1.7; EB: 39.6±2.2; EE: 40.9±2.2, P<0.05), without any other signicant pairwise dierences. Analysis per treatment revealed, however, that EB 6-reward pigs were faster than the 1-reward pigs. Overall latency was higher on the last days (P<0.001). Aer the reward size shied to 1 on day 12, pre-housing × post-housing aected the latency (P<0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that again, BB pigs were slower than other pigs (BB: 88.2±2.7; BE 62.3±2.3; EB: 57.3±2.3; EE: 70.4±2.6, P<0.001), and EB pigs were faster than EE pigs (P<0.05). Pigs ran slower aer than before the reward shi (P<0.001). Nevertheless, pigs in the 6-1 group ran slower than pigs in the 1-1 group aer the reward shi (6-1: 73.9±2.0; 1-1: 66.4±1.8, P<0.05), suggesting that pigs are sensitive to a loss in reward size. is was, however, irrespective of housing given the lack of interactions with reward size. We conclude that housing aected the latency to run down a runway for a reward in pigs, which can indicate a lower motivation in the BB pigs, an eect that was absent in the B pigs that switched to enriched housing (BE pigs). We found, however, no evidence that housing or a switch in housing conditions aected the sensitivity to reward loss.
The Good, the Bad and the Uncertain : Bioenergy Use in the European Union
Philippidis, George ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Helming, John ; M'barek, Robert ; Smeets, Edward ; Meijl, Hans van - \ 2018
Energies 11 (2018)10. - ISSN 1996-1073
Advanced technologies - Agricultural production - Bio-chemicals - Bio-energy - Biomass - Economic modelling - Land use - MAGNET model - Trade

As the EU is moving towards a low carbon economy and seeks to further develop its renewable energy policy, this paper quantitatively investigates the impact of plausible energy market reforms from the perspective of bio-renewables. Employing a state-of-the-art biobased variant of a computable general equilibrium model, this study assesses the perceived medium-term benefits, risks and trade-offs which arise from an advanced biofuels plan, two exploratory scenarios of a more 'sustainable' conventional biofuels plan and a 'no-mandate' scenario. Consistent with more recent studies, none of the scenarios considered present significant challenges to EU food-security or agricultural land usage. An illustrative advanced biofuels plan simulation requires non-trivial public support to implement whilst a degree of competition for biomass with (high-value) advanced biomass material industries is observed. On the other hand, it significantly alleviates land use pressures, whilst lignocellulose biomass prices are not expected to increase to unsustainable levels. Clearly, these observations are subject to assumptions on technological change, sustainable biomass limits, expected trends in fossil fuel prices and EU access to third-country trade. With these same caveats in mind, the switch to increased bioethanol production does not result in significant market tensions in biomass markets.

Volumetric gray matter measures of amygdala and accumbens in childhood overweight/obesity
Perlaki, Gabor ; Molnar, Denes ; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Ahrens, Wolfgang ; Wolters, Maike ; Eiben, Gabriele ; Lissner, Lauren ; Erhard, Peter ; Meer, Floor van; Herrmann, Manfred ; Janszky, Jozsef ; Orsi, Gergely - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)10. - ISSN 1932-6203

Objectives Neuroimaging data suggest that pediatric overweight and obesity are associated with morphological alterations in gray matter (GM) brain structures, but previous studies using mainly voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed inconsistent results. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between youth obesity and the volume of predefined reward system structures using magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry. We also aimed to complement volumetry with VBM-style analysis. Methods Fifty-one Caucasian young subjects (32 females; mean age: 13.8±1.9, range: 10.2–16.5 years) were included. Subjects were selected from a subsample of the I.Family study examined in the Hungarian center. A T1-weighted 1 mm3 isotropic resolution image was acquired. Age- and sex-standardized body mass index (zBMI) was assessed at the day of MRI and ~1.89 years (mean±SD: 689±188 days) before the examination. Obesity related GM alterations were investigated using MR volumetry in five predefined brain structures presumed to play crucial roles in body weight regulation (hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, caudate, putamen), as well as whole-brain and regional VBM. Results The volumes of accumbens and amygdala showed significant positive correlations with zBMI, while their GM densities were inversely related to zBMI. Voxel-based GM mass also showed significant negative correlation with zBMI when investigated in the predefined amygdala region, but this relationship was mediated by GM density. Conclusions Overweight/obesity related morphometric brain differences already seem to be present in children/adolescents. Our work highlights the disparity between volume and VBM-derived measures and that GM mass (combination of volume and density) is not informative in the context of obesity related volumetric changes. To better characterize the association between childhood obesity and GM morphometry, a combination of volumetric segmentation and VBM methods, as well as future longitudinal studies are necessary. Our results suggest that childhood obesity is associated with enlarged structural volumes, but decreased GM density in the reward system.

A novel oral nutritional supplement improves gait speed in Dutch older adults with (risk of) undernutrition
Grootswagers, P. ; Smeets, Ellen ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2018
Altered neural responsivity to food cues in relation to food preferences, but not appetite-related hormone concentrations after RYGB-surgery
Zoon, Harriët F.A. ; Bruijn, Suzanne E.M. de; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Graaf, Cees de; Janssen, Ignace M.C. ; Schijns, Wendy ; Aarts, Edo O. ; Jager, Gerry ; Boesveldt, Sanne - \ 2018
Behavioural Brain Research 353 (2018). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 194 - 202.
Endocannabinoid - Energy-density - fMRI - Food cues - Ghrelin - Obesity - Olfactory - Reward - Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery - Visual

Background: After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, patients report a shift in food preferences away from high-energy foods. Objective: We aimed to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying this shift in food preferences by assessing changes in neural responses to food pictures and odors before and after RYGB. Additionally, we investigated whether altered neural responsivity was associated with changes in plasma endocannabinoid and ghrelin concentrations. Design: 19 RYGB patients (4 men; age 41 ± 10 years; BMI 41 ± 1 kg/m2 before; BMI 36 ± 1 kg/m2 after) participated in this study. Before and two months after RYGB surgery, they rated their food preferences using the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task and BOLD fMRI responses towards pictures and odors of high-, and low-energy foods and non-food items were measured. Blood samples were taken to determine plasma endocannabinoid and ghrelin concentrations pre- and post-surgery. Results: Patients demonstrated a shift in food preferences away from high-fat/sweet and towards low-energy/savory food products, which correlated with decreased superior parietal lobule responsivity to high-energy food odor and a reduced difference in precuneus responsivity to high-energy versus low-energy food pictures. In the anteroventral prefrontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus) the difference in deactivation towards high-energy versus non-food odors reduced. The precuneus was less deactivated in response to all cues. Plasma concentrations of anandamide were higher after surgery, while plasma concentrations of other endocannabinoids and ghrelin did not change. Alterations in appetite-related hormone concentrations did not correlate with changes in neural responsivity. Conclusions: RYGB leads to changed responsivity of the frontoparietal control network that orchestrates top-down control to high-energy food compared to low-energy food and non-food cues, rather than in reward related brain regions, in a satiated state. Together with correlations with the shift in food preference from high- to low-energy foods this indicates a possible role in new food preference formation.

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