Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Farm dust resistomes and bacterial microbiomes in European poultry and pig farms
    Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Gompel, Liese Van; Bossers, Alex ; Munk, Patrick ; Joosten, Philip ; Hansen, Rasmus Borup ; Knudsen, Berith E. ; García-Cobos, Silvia ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Aarestrup, Frank M. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Mevius, Dik J. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Schmitt, Heike - \ 2020
    Environment International 143 (2020). - ISSN 0160-4120
    Air - Farm - Metagenomics - Microbiome - One health - Resistome

    Background: Livestock farms are a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria from feces. Airborne dust-bound bacteria can spread across the barn and to the outdoor environment. Therefore, exposure to farm dust may be of concern for animals, farmers and neighboring residents. Although dust is a potential route of transmission, little is known about the resistome and bacterial microbiome of farm dust. Objectives: We describe the resistome and bacterial microbiome of pig and poultry farm dust and their relation with animal feces resistomes and bacterial microbiomes, and on-farm antimicrobial usage (AMU). In addition, the relation between dust and farmers’ stool resistomes was explored. Methods: In the EFFORT-study, resistomes and bacterial microbiomes of indoor farm dust collected on Electrostatic Dust fall Collectors (EDCs), and animal feces of 35 conventional broiler and 44 farrow-to-finish pig farms from nine European countries were determined by shotgun metagenomic analysis. The analysis also included 79 stool samples from farmers working or living at 12 broiler and 19 pig farms and 46 human controls. Relative abundance of and variation in resistome and bacterial composition of farm dust was described and compared to animal feces and farmers’ stool. Results: The farm dust resistome contained a large variety of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs); more than the animal fecal resistome. For both poultry and pigs, composition of dust resistomes finds (partly) its origin in animal feces as dust resistomes correlated significantly with fecal resistomes. The dust bacterial microbiome also correlated significantly with the dust resistome composition. A positive association between AMU in animals on the farm and the total abundance of the dust resistome was found. Occupational exposure to pig farm dust or animal feces may contribute to farmers’ resistomes, however no major shifts in farmers resistome towards feces or dust resistomes were found in this study. Conclusion: Poultry and pig farm dust resistomes are rich and abundant and associated with the fecal resistome of the animals and the dust bacterial microbiome.

    Aromatic Potential of Diverse Non-Conventional Yeast Species for Winemaking and Brewing
    Gamero, Amparo ; Dijkstra, Annereinou ; Smit, Bart ; Jong, Catrienus de - \ 2020
    Fermentation 6 (2020)2. - ISSN 2311-5637
    Traditionally, Saccharomyces species are those used to conduct industrial alcoholic fermentations. Recently, an increasing interest has arisen with respect to the potential of so-called non-conventional yeasts to improve wine and beer aroma profiles, keeping the particular terroir of each region or for the development of craft beers. In this study, the potential of diverse non-conventional yeasts to improve aroma in winemaking and brewing was investigated, testing several pure and mixed culture combinations. In addition, a comparison between microscale and labscale was carried out in order to assess the value of microwine and microbeer as screening tools. The results indicated that non-Saccharomyces yeasts were good candidates to enhance or diversify aroma profiles in alcoholic beverages, especially regarding acetate ester yield and fruity aromas. However, mixed cultures with Saccharomyces spp. are normally required to achieve a successful fermentation. The adjustment of pithing ratios is crucial for this purpose. Microscale is presented as an effective and efficient screening tool to compare different culture combinations, although scaling-up will always be necessary in order to get results closer to real winemaking or brewing processes
    Clinical and Pathological Findings in SARS-CoV-2 Disease Outbreaks in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)
    Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Zwart, Rob ; Rond, Jan de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der - \ 2020
    Veterinary Pathology (2020). - ISSN 0300-9858
    COVID-19 - mink - pneumonia - respiratory disease - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 - zoonoses

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, caused respiratory disease outbreaks with increased mortality in 4 mink farms in the Netherlands. The most striking postmortem finding was an acute interstitial pneumonia, which was found in nearly all examined mink that died at the peak of the outbreaks. Acute alveolar damage was a consistent histopathological finding in mink that died with pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by detection of viral RNA in throat swabs and by immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen in nasal conchae, trachea, and lung. Clinically, the outbreaks lasted for about 4 weeks but some animals were still polymerase chain reaction–positive for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs after clinical signs had disappeared. This is the first report of the clinical and pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in mink farms.

    Description and determinants of the faecal resistome and microbiome of farmers and slaughterhouse workers : A metagenome-wide cross-sectional study
    Gompel, Liese Van; Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Hansen, Rasmus B. ; Munk, Patrick ; Bouwknegt, Martijn ; Heres, Lourens ; Greve, Gerdit D. ; Scherpenisse, Peter ; Jongerius-Gortemaker, Betty G.M. ; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H.G. ; García-Cobos, Silvia ; Dohmen, Wietske ; Dorado-García, Alejandro ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Urlings, Bert A.P. ; Aarestrup, Frank M. ; Mevius, Dik J. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Schmitt, Heike ; Bossers, Alex ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. - \ 2020
    Environment International 143 (2020). - ISSN 0160-4120
    Antimicrobial resistance - Farmers - Microbiome - Occupational exposure - Resistome - Slaughterhouse workers

    Background: By studying the entire human faecal resistome and associated microbiome, the diversity and abundance of faecal antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) can be comprehensively characterized. Prior culture-based studies have shown associations between occupational exposure to livestock and carriage of specific antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Using shotgun metagenomics, the present study investigated 194 faecal resistomes and bacteriomes from humans occupationally exposed to ARGs in livestock (i.e. pig and poultry farmers, employees and family members and pig slaughterhouse workers) and a control population (Lifelines cohort) in the Netherlands. In addition, we sought to identify determinants for the human resistome and bacteriome composition by applying a combination of multivariate (NMDS, PERMANOVA, SIMPER and DESeq2 analysis) and multivariable regression analysis techniques. Results: Pig slaughterhouse workers and pig farmers carried higher total ARG abundances in their stools compared to broiler farmers and control subjects. Tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance gene clusters dominated the resistome of all studied groups. No significant resistome alpha diversity differences were found among the four populations. However, the resistome beta diversity showed a separation of the mean resistome composition of pig and pork exposed workers from broiler farmers and controls, independent of their antimicrobial use. We demonstrated differences in resistome composition between slaughter line positions, pig versus poultry exposed workers, as well as differences between farmers and employees versus family members. In addition, we found a significant correlation between the bacteriome and resistome, and significant differences in the bacteriome composition between and within the studied subpopulations. Finally, an in-depth analysis of pig and poultry farms – of which also farm livestock resistomes were analysed – showed positive associations between the number of on-farm working hours and human faecal AMR loads. Conclusion: We found that the total normalized faecal ARG carriage was larger in persons working in the Dutch pork production chain compared to poultry farmers and controls. Additionally, we showed significant differences in resistome and bacteriome composition of pig and pork exposed workers compared to a control group, as well as within-population (farms, slaughterhouse) compositional differences. The number of on-farm working hours and the farm type (pig or broiler) that persons live or work on are determinants for the human faecal resistome. Overall, our results may suggest direct or indirect livestock contact as a determinant for human ARG carriage. Future studies should further focus on the connection between the human and livestock resistome (i.e. transmission routes) to substantiate the evidence for livestock-associated resistome acquisition.

    Natuur Impuls Oosterschelde : Toepassingsmogelijkheden van slibrijk sediment voor natuurbouw
    Ysebaert, Tom ; Walles, Brenda ; Werf, Jebbe van der; Vet, Lodewijk de; Hansen, Jill ; Duren, Luca van; Smit, Jaco de; Bouma, Tjeerd ; Stronkhorst, Joost - \ 2020
    Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C038/20) - 137
    Ook planten worden ziek
    Gommers, Charlotte - \ 2020
    In: Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 8 - 11.
    We zijn veel met onze eigen gezondheid bezig, zeker als we geïnfecteerd raken met een virus of anderszins door een ziekte worden overvallen. Maar ook de gezondheid van planten moeten we goed bewaken, want akkergewassen, bomen en sierplanten worden continu belaagd door ziekteverwekkers en insecten. Soms zijn die belagers er jarenlang niet, om dan opeens weer toe te slaan. Waar komen ze vandaan, wat is hun impact en hoe worden ze geïdentificeerd door de plantendokters van nu?
    Uitgelicht: Dubbele dreiging
    Willemen, Doriet - \ 2020
    In: Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 12 - 12.
    Ziekteverwekkers en hun trukendozen
    Govers, F. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Pieterse, Corné - \ 2020
    In: Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 14 - 17.
    Voorkómen is beter
    Rossing, W.A.H. - \ 2020
    In: Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 35 - 37.
    Preventie is het codewoord in de plantgezondheid: hoe kunnen we ziektes vóór zijn, hoe kunnen we voorkomen dat het gewas wordt belaagd? Aanpassing van de omgeving van de plant is één manier: zorgen dat de barrières om bij de plant te komen, hoog zijn. Ook ín de plant kunnen we barricades opwerpen, door resistente planten te selecteren en te veredelen. Verder kunnen we met voorbehandeling van het zaad de plant een goede start geven en wapenen tegen indringers. En dan hebben we tegenwoordig ook nog apps die alarm slaan zodra de omstandigheden bevorderlijk zijn voor ziekteverwekkers.
    Uitgelicht: hongersnood en volksverhuizing
    Willemen, Doriet - \ 2020
    In: Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 30 - 30.
    Uitgelicht: vampierplanten
    Willemen, Doriet - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 84 - 84.
    Uitgelicht: echt of vals?
    Willemen, Doriet - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 38 - 38.
    Blik op de toekomst : Preciesielandbouw
    Polder, G. ; Zedde, H.J. van de; Franke, G.J. - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 82 - 85.
    Wetenschappers zoeken nieuwe manieren om de plantgezondheid in de toekomst te waarborgen. Genetici kunnen de plant steeds subtieler bewapenen door kleine wijzigingen in het erfelijk materiaal aan te brengen. Andere wetenschappers onderzoeken hoe de micro-organismen in de bodem de plant te hulp kunnen schieten. Ook zijn er geautomatiseerde systemen in ontwikkeling die de plantenbelagers in een vroeg stadium detecteren en bestrijden. Waarschijnlijk blijft er voldoende perspectief voor de boeren. Zeker als de overheid ervoor zorgt dat zij een betere prijs voor hun producten krijgen.
    Wat als de ziekte toeslaat? : Biologische bestrijding: benut wat de natuur biedt
    Messelink, G.J. ; Köhl, J. - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 52 - 55.
    Als alles gericht is op preventie, waarom zijn er dan nog steeds plantenziekten? Helaas is resistentie tegen lang niet alle plantenbelagers beschikbaar. En soms kan een plantenbelager dankzij genetische mutatie de resistentie omzeilen. Wat dan resteert is een directe vorm van bestrijding, biologisch dan wel chemisch. De discussie of we zonder chemische bestrijding kunnen, wordt momenteel volop gevoerd; de overheid wil er in ieder geval binnen tien jaar afscheid van nemen. De suikerbiet kunnen we dan kwijtraken, gezien de grote druk van allerlei ziekten en plagen. Aardappelteelt blijft wel mogelijk, maar de opbrengsten zullen sterk achteruitgaan. Biologische bestrijding zou een alternatief kunnen zijn, maar zijn er wel voldoende goedwerkende ‘groene middelen’ beschikbaar?
    Uitgelicht: plantenziekten: soms mooi en nuttig
    Willemen, Doriet - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 44 - 44.
    Vermindert plantendiversiteit de kans op ziektes?
    Mommer, L. - \ 2020
    In: Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 32 - 33.
    Wat als de ziekte toeslaat? : Een 'vaccin' voor de iep
    Postma, J. - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 56 - 57.
    Als alles gericht is op preventie, waarom zijn er dan nog steeds plantenziekten? Helaas is resistentie tegen lang niet alle plantenbelagers beschikbaar. En soms kan een plantenbelager dankzij genetische mutatie de resistentie omzeilen. Wat dan resteert is een directe vorm van bestrijding, biologisch dan wel chemisch. De discussie of we zonder chemische bestrijding kunnen, wordt momenteel volop gevoerd; de overheid wil er in ieder geval binnen tien jaar afscheid van nemen. De suikerbiet kunnen we dan kwijtraken, gezien de grote druk van allerlei ziekten en plagen. Aardappelteelt blijft wel mogelijk, maar de opbrengsten zullen sterk achteruitgaan. Biologische bestrijding zou een alternatief kunnen zijn, maar zijn er wel voldoende goedwerkende ‘groene middelen’ beschikbaar?
    Plantgezondheid : Hoe voorkomen we dat planten ziek worden?
    Govers, F. ; Pieterse, Corné ; Termorshuizen, Aad ; Smit, Astrid - \ 2020
    Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - 100 p.
    Beter bewaren
    Gabriëls, S.H.E.J. ; Woltering, E.J. - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij 2020/2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 31 - 31.
    SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020
    Oreshkova, Nadia ; Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Harders, Frank ; Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Gerhards, Nora ; Tolsma, Paulien ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Sikkema, Reina S. ; Tacken, Mirriam G.J. ; Rooij, Myrna M.T. de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Bruschke, Christianne J.M. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Stegeman, Arjan - \ 2020
    Eurosurveillance 25 (2020)23. - ISSN 1025-496X
    interstitial pneumonia - mink - SARS-CoV-2 - transmission

    Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.

    Stadslandbouw en plantenziekten
    Veen, E.J. ; Jansma, J.E. ; Vermeulen, T. ; Vlasakker, Paulien van de - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, Francine, Pieterse, Corné, Termorshuizen, Aad, Smit, Astrid, Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahiers bio-wetenschappen en maatschappij 2) - p. 88 - 89.
    Plantgezondheid : Hoe voorkomen we dat planten ziek worden?
    Govers, Francine ; Pieterse, Corné ; Termorshuizen, Aad ; Smit, Astrid - \ 2020
    Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahiers bio-wetenschappen en maatschappij 39e jaargang, kwartaal 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - 96
    Methanol based chain elongation with acetate to n-butyrate and isobutyrate at varying selectivities dependent on pH
    Leeuw, Kasper de; Smit, Sanne de; Oossanen, Sabine van; Moerland, Merijn ; Buisman, Cees ; Strik, David - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    PRJEB36205 - ERP119366 - metagenome
    Biomass fermentation technologies offer alternative methods to produce platform chemicals that currently originate from fossil sources. This research showed that an enriched microbiome was capable to produce iso-butyric acid via methanol based chain elongation of acetate. A long term continuous reactor experiment showed that the selectivity for isobutyrate (i-C4) and/or n-butyrate (n-C4) could be reversibly adjusted by changing the reactor pH. A reactor pH of 6.75 led to formation of (carbon per total carbon of products) of 0.78 n-C4 and 0.024 i-C4, whereas a reactor pH of 5.2 led to a selectivity of 0.25 n-C4 and 0.63 i-C4 . This shift in product spectrum was also represented by a shift in microbial composition. The results suggest that an Eubacterium genus is responsible for the formation of n-C4, whereas a Clostridium luticellarii strain is responsible for the formation of a mixture of i-C4 and n¬¬-C4. The formation of n and i-C4 at a low pH was observed to be coupled according to the thermodynamics of isomerization. At a reactor pH of 5.5 and 5.2 the product ratio of i-C4:n-C4 approached the ratio of 0.684 i-C4 : 0.316 n-C4, which is the theoretical ratio that would be achieved when i-C4 and n-C4 would be formed at amounts determined by the equilibrium of isomerization. Various batch experiments at pH 5.5 and 5.2 confirmed that addition of either n-C4 or i-C4 at the start of the batch would immediately lead to the formation of the other butyrate component. Moreover, batch experiments performed at pH 6.5 immediately produced mainly n-C4 and led to the development of a completely different microbiome. The imposed pH as a strong selective pressure can immediately facilitate changes in product selectivities for n-C4 and i-C4 during methanol based chain elongation of acetate.
    Methanol-Based Chain Elongation with Acetate to n-Butyrate and Isobutyrate at Varying Selectivities Dependent on pH
    Leeuw, Kasper D. de; Smit, Sanne M. de; Oossanen, Sabine van; Moerland, Marinus J. ; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Strik, David P.B.T.B. - \ 2020
    ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 8 (2020)22. - ISSN 2168-0485
    Biobased chemicals - Chain elongation - Isobutyrate - Methanol - n-Butyrate - Open-culture fermentation - Selection pressure

    Biomass fermentation technologies offer alternative methods to produce platform chemicals that currently originate from fossil sources. This research showed that an enriched microbiome was capable to produce isobutyrate (i-C4) from acetate via methanol-based chain elongation. A long-term continuous reactor experiment showed that the selectivity for i-C4 and/or n-butyrate (n-C4) could be reversibly adjusted by changing the reactor pH. A reactor pH of 6.75 led to formation of (carbon per total carbon of products) 0.78 n-C4 and 0.024 i-C4, whereas a reactor pH of 5.2 led to a selectivity of 0.24 n-C4 and 0.65 i-C4. This shift in product spectrum was also represented by a shift in microbial composition. The results suggest that a Eubacterium genus is responsible for the formation of n-C4, whereas a Clostridium luticellarii strain is responsible for the formation of a mixture of i-C4 and n-C4. The formation of n-C4 and i-C4 at a low pH was observed to be coupled according to the thermodynamics of isomerization. At a reactor pH of 5.5 and 5.2, the product ratio of i-C4:n-C4 approached 0.69 i-C4:0.31 n-C4, which is the theoretical ratio that would be achieved when determined by the equilibrium of isomerization. Various batch experiments at pH 5.5 and 5.2 confirmed that addition of either n-C4 or i-C4 at the start of the batch would directly lead to the formation of the other butyrate component. Moreover, batch experiments performed at pH 6.5 produced mainly n-C4 and led to the development of a completely different microbiome. The imposed pH is a strong selection pressure that can facilitate changes in product selectivities for n-C4 and i-C4 during methanol-based chain elongation of acetate.

    Seagrass coastal protection services reduced by invasive species expansion and megaherbivore grazing
    James, Rebecca K. ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Katwijk, Marieke M. van; Smit, Jaco C. de; Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Herman, Peter M.J. ; Bouma, Tjeerd J. - \ 2020
    Journal of Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0022-0477
    coastal protection - conservation - ecosystem services - exotic species - marine ecology - marine vegetation - storm resilience - tropical ecology

    Seagrasses provide an important ecosystem service by creating a stable erosion-resistant seabed that contributes to effective coastal protection. Variable morphologies and life-history strategies, however, are likely to impact the sediment stabilization capacity of different seagrass species. We question how opportunistic invasive species and increasing grazing by megaherbivores may alter sediment stabilization services provided by established seagrass meadows, using the Caribbean as a case study. Utilizing two portable field-flumes that simulate unidirectional and oscillatory flow regimes, we compared the sediment stabilization capacity of natural seagrass meadows in situ under current- and wave-dominated regimes. Monospecific patches of a native (Thalassia testudinum) and an invasive (Halophila stipulacea) seagrass species were compared, along with the effect of three levels of megaherbivore grazing on T. testudinum: ungrazed, lightly grazed and intensively grazed. For both hydrodynamic regimes, the long-leaved, dense meadows of the climax species, T. testudinum provided the highest stabilization. However, the loss of above-ground biomass by intensive grazing reduced the capacity of the native seagrass to stabilize the surface sediment. Caribbean seagrass meadows are presently threatened by the rapid spread of the invasive opportunistic seagrass, H. stipulacea. The dense meadows of H. stipulacea were found to accumulate fine sediment, and thereby, appear to be effective in reducing bottom shear stress during calm periods. This fine sediment within the invasive meadows, however, is easily resuspended by hydrodynamic forces, and the low below-ground biomass of H. stipulacea make it susceptible to uprooting during storm events, potentially leaving large regions vulnerable to erosion. Overall, this present study highlights that intensive megaherbivore grazing and opportunistic invasive species threaten the coastal protection services provided by mildly grazed native species. Synthesis. Seagrass meadows of dense, long-leaved species stabilize the sediment surface and maintain the seabed integrity, thereby contributing to coastal protection. These services are threatened by intensive megaherbivore grazing, which reduces the stability of the surface sediment, and opportunistic invasive species, which are susceptible to uprooting in storms and thereby can leave the seabed vulnerable to erosion.

    Het succes verklaard: Biologische landbouw in Flevoland bloeit en groeit
    Dekking, A.J.G. ; Jansma, J.E. ; Smit, A.B. ; Janssens, S.R.M. - \ 2020
    Ekoland 40 (2020)5. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 26 - 27.
    Specification and regulation of vascular tissue identity in the Arabidopsis embryo
    Smit, Margot E. ; Llavata-Peris, Cristina I. ; Roosjen, Mark ; Beijnum, Henriette van; Novikova, Daria ; Levitsky, Victor ; Sevilem, Iris ; Roszak, Pawel ; Slane, Daniel ; Jürgens, Gerd ; Mironova, Victoria ; Brady, Siobhan M. ; Weijers, Dolf - \ 2020
    Development 147 (2020)8. - ISSN 0950-1991
    Arabidopsis - Auxin - Embryo - Gene regulatory network - Vascular development

    Development of plant vascular tissues involves tissue identity specification, growth, pattern formation and cell-type differentiation. Although later developmental steps are understood in some detail, it is still largely unknown how the tissue is initially specified. We used the early Arabidopsis embryo as a simple model to study this process. Using a large collection of marker genes, we found that vascular identity was specified in the 16-cell embryo. After a transient precursor state, however, there was no persistent uniform tissue identity. Auxin is intimately connected to vascular tissue development. We found that, although an AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5/MONOPTEROS (ARF5/MP)-dependent auxin response was required, it was not sufficient for tissue specification. We therefore used a large-scale enhanced yeast one-hybrid assay to identify potential regulators of vascular identity. Network and functional analysis of candidate regulators suggest that vascular identity is under robust, complex control. We found that one candidate regulator, the G-class bZIP transcription factor GBF2, can modulate vascular gene expression by tuning MP output through direct interaction. Our work uncovers components of a gene regulatory network that controls the initial specification of vascular tissue identity.

    Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase/AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli in Horses
    Hordijk, Joost ; Farmakioti, Evangelia ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Duim, Birgitta ; Graveland, Haitske ; Theelen, Mathijs J.P. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. - \ 2020
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 86 (2020)8. - ISSN 0099-2240
    AmpC - antimicrobial resistance - equidae - ESBL - fecal carriage - risk factor

    A nationwide study on the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC in nonhospitalized horses in the Netherlands was performed. Molecular characterization was done, and questionnaires were analyzed to identify factors associated with carriage. In total, 796 horse owners were approached; 281 of these submitted a fecal sample from their horse(s), resulting in 362 samples. All samples were cultured qualitatively in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and subsequently on MacConkey agar, both supplemented with 1 mg/liter cefotaxime (LB+ and MC+). Positive samples were subsequently cultured quantitatively on MC+. Initial extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC screening was performed by PCR, followed by whole-genome sequencing on selected strains. Associations between ESBL/AmpC carriage and questionnaire items were analyzed using a univariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis, followed by a multiple GEE model for relevant factors. In total, 39 of 362 samples (11%) were determined to be positive for ESBL/AmpC. blaCTX-M-1-carrying isolates were obtained from 77% of positive samples (n = 30). Other ESBL/AmpC genes observed included blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-32, blaSHV-12, blaCMY-2, and blaACT-10 A high association between the presence of blaCTX-M-1 and IncHI1 plasmids was observed (46% of samples; n = 18). Based on core genome analysis (n = 48 isolates), six Escherichia coli clusters were identified, three of which represented 80% of the isolates. A negative association between ESBL/AmpC carriage and horses being in contact with other horses at a different site was observed. The presence of a dog on the premises and housing in a more densely human-populated region were positively associated.IMPORTANCE Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are widespread in human and animal populations and in the environment. Many different ESBL variants exist. The dissemination of ESBLs within and between populations and the environment is also largely influenced by genetic mobile elements (e.g., plasmids) that facilitate spread of these ESBLs. In order to identify potential attributable ESBL sources for, e.g., the human population, it is important to identify the different ESBL variants, the bacteria carrying them, and the potential risk factors for ESBL carriage from other potential sources. This nationwide study focuses on ESBL carriage in the open horse population and investigated the molecular characteristics, geographical distribution throughout the Netherlands, and potential risk factors for fecal ESBL carriage in horses. These data can be used for future attribution studies in order to reduce potential transmission of ESBL-producing bacteria between sources.

    Ontwerp Boerderij van de Toekomst
    Visser, Chris de; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Kempenaar, Corné ; Wal, Tamme van der; Wolf, Pieter de; Visser, Andries ; Smit, Bert ; Schoorlemmer, Herman ; Schoutsen, Maureen ; Klompe, Koen ; Veldhuisen, Bram ; Selin-Noren, Isabella ; Dijk, Chris van; Hol, Stefan ; Voort, Marcel van der; Janssens, Bas - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Open Teelten (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Open Teelten WPR-823) - 45
    Bodemmaatregelen op dalgrond in de Veenkoloniën: effecten op bodemkwaliteit, opbrengst en financiële meerwaarde : Analyse van de resultaten van de systeemproef Bodemkwaliteit Veenkoloniën 2014-2017
    Haan, Janjo de; Asperen, Paulien van; Visser, Johnny ; Burgt, Geert Jan van der; Smit, Elsbeth ; Dawson, Andrew ; Klompe, Koen - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Businessunit WUR Open Teelten (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Businessunit WUR Open Teelten WPR-831) - 69
    In een langjarig experiment op proefbedrijf Valthermond wordt op dalgrond met gemiddeld 11% organische stof een vijftal maatregelen in een vierjarige akkerbouwvruchtwisseling vergeleken met de standaard werkwijze, in vier herhalingen. De maatregelen Tagetes, Compost, sturen Ca/Mg-verhouding, Steenmeel zijn elk op hun eigen wijze gericht op verbetering van de bodemkwaliteit. Ook een combinatie van alle maatregelen is onderzocht. Over de maatregelen heen liggen varianten van grondbewerking (NKG en Spitten) in duplo. Na vier jaar blijkt de maatregel Tagetes (de teelt van zomergerst vervangen door een hoofdteelt Tagetes) zowel meer opbrengst op te leveren in de aardappelteelt als economisch rendabel te zijn, ondanks de opbrengstderving door het wegvallen van de verkoop van gerst. De andere strategieën hebben weinig of geen effect op de opbrengst en de kosten zijn hoger dan de eventuele extra inkomsten door opbrengstverhoging. NKG lijkt een positief effect te hebben op de opbrengst maar dat is nog niet statistisch significant. Wel leidt NKG tot kostenbesparing ten opzichte van Spitten door lagere machinekosten en lager brandstofverbruik. Veranderingen in bodemkwaliteit zijn nog nauwelijks waargenomen. Dat komt naar verwachting mede doordat die effecten meer tijd nodig hebben om zich te tonen. De nitraatnorm voor grondwater wordt meestal overschreden, onafhankelijk van de maatregel. Waar de norm wel gehaald wordt ligt het aan bodem en grondwater, niet aan de bemestingsstrategie. Het onderzoek wordt voortgezet.
    Opportunities for improving the dairy sector in Romania
    Zaalmink, Wim ; Bergevoet, Ron ; Daatselaar, Co ; Smit, Bert - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research report 2020-015) - ISBN 9789463953160 - 52
    Romania is a milk importing country. Dairy farming in the country is small-scale but offers good prospects. The level of agricultural knowledge among farmers is still low due to insufficient agricultural education. Dutch businesses are active in Romania to develop dairy farming but are running up against this low level of knowledge. This report describes the experiences of transferring knowledge to farmers and advisors in central Transylvania.
    Measurement and genetic architecture of lifetime depression in the Netherlands as assessed by LIDAS (Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report)
    Fedko, Iryna O. ; Hottenga, Jouke Jan ; Helmer, Quinta ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; Huider, Floris ; Amin, Najaf ; Beulens, Joline W. ; Bremmer, Marijke A. ; Elders, Petra J. ; Galesloot, Tessel E. ; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. ; Loo, Hanna M. Van; Picavet, H.S.J. ; Rutters, Femke ; Spek, Ashley Van Der; De Wiel, Anne M. Van; Duijn, Cornelia Van; Geus, Eco J.C. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Hartman, Catharina A. ; Oldehinkel, Albertine J. ; Smit, Jan H. ; Verschuren, W.M.W. ; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Bot, Mariska - \ 2020
    Psychological Medicine (2020). - ISSN 0033-2917
    LIDAS - Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report - major depressive disorder - online assessment tool - prevalence

    BackgroundMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder, with a heritability of around 34%. Molecular genetic studies made significant progress and identified genetic markers associated with the risk of MDD; however, progress is slowed down by substantial heterogeneity as MDD is assessed differently across international cohorts. Here, we used a standardized online approach to measure MDD in multiple cohorts in the Netherlands and evaluated whether this approach can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.MethodsWithin the Biobank Netherlands Internet Collaboration (BIONIC) project, we collected MDD data in eight cohorts involving 31 936 participants, using the online Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), and estimated the prevalence of current and lifetime MDD in 22 623 unrelated individuals. In a large Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) twin-family dataset (n 18 000), we estimated the heritability of MDD, and the prediction of MDD in a subset (n = 4782) through Polygenic Risk Score (PRS).ResultsEstimates of current and lifetime MDD prevalence were 6.7% and 18.1%, respectively, in line with population estimates based on validated psychiatric interviews. In the NTR heritability estimates were 0.34/0.30 (s.e. = 0.02/0.02) for current/lifetime MDD, respectively, showing that the LIDAS gives similar heritability rates for MDD as reported in the literature. The PRS predicted risk of MDD (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.32, R2 = 1.47%).ConclusionsBy assessing MDD status in the Netherlands using the LIDAS instrument, we were able to confirm previously reported MDD prevalence and heritability estimates, which suggests that this instrument can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.

    Perceptions of Care Sport Connectors’ Tasks for Strengthening the Connection Between Primary Care, Sports and Physical Activity: A Delphi Study
    Smit, Eva ; Leenaars, Karlijn E.F. ; Wagemakers, Annemarie ; Velden, Koos Van Der; Molleman, Gerard R.M. - \ 2020
    International Journal of Integrated Care 20 (2020)1. - ISSN 1568-4156 - p. 2 - 2.
    Introduction: Care sport connectors stimulate physical activity and facilitate collaboration between the primary care and physical activity sectors in the Netherlands. To strengthen intersectoral collaboration between the primary care and sports sectors, it is necessary to study which tasks a care sport connector must fulfil according to their own and other professionals’ perceptions.

    Methods: A Delphi study was conducted with 182 professionals from the primary care, public health and physical activity sectors. Rounds 1 and 2 included questions about task perception, willingness to collaborate and expectations of care sport connectors. Rounds 3 and 4 were used to reach consensus.

    Results: All professions acknowledged physical activity promotion tasks, but they are not all willing to collaborate. They expect a broad range of roles from care sport connectors: informative, executive, guiding and intermediate. Care sport connectors reached consensus on two roles: informative and intermediate.

    Discussion: Care sport connectors have an important role in strengthening intersectoral collaboration. All the professions acknowledged a task concerning physical activity promotion and accepted a broker role. Thus, a public health mind-set seems to be present to some extent. However, challenges remain, such as the lack of willingness to collaborate among primary care professionals and sports policies not (yet) supporting intersectoral collaboration.
    Biologische landbouw in Flevoland : Omvang en productstromen
    Dekking, Arjan ; Jansma, Jan-Eelco ; Janssens, Bas ; Smit, Bert - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research (WR), business unit Wageningen Plant Research (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research (WR), business unit Wageningen Plant Research WPR-822) - 40
    Effect extra CO2 inkoop op emissie van de glastuinbouw in 2030
    Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2020-005) - 15
    Effect of growth conditions on the efficiency of cell disruption of Neochloris oleoabundans
    Safi, C. ; Olivieri, G. ; Engelen-Smit, N. ; Spekking, W. ; Veloo, R. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Sijtsma, L. - \ 2020
    Bioresource Technology 300 (2020). - ISSN 0960-8524
    Cell disintegration - Enzymes - High-pressure homogenization - Nitrogen deplete - Nitrogen replete

    The impact of four different growth conditions on the cell disruption efficiency of Neochloris oleoabundans was investigated. A mechanical and biological cell disruption methods were evaluated separately and combined. It has been established that microalgae grown in marine water under nitrogen deprivation were the most resistant against cell disruption methods and released the lowest amount of proteins. The release of lipids, however, followed the “hindered molecule diffusion phenomenon” because it did not follow the same release pattern as proteins. The enzymatic treatment was efficient enough to release the majority of the proteins without combining it with high-pressure homogenization. Regarding energy input, Neochloris oleoabundans grown in marine water under nitrogen deprivation required the highest energy input to release proteins (Ep = 13.76 kWh.kg−1) and to break the cells by high-pressure homogenization (Ex – HPH = 1.14 kWh.kg−1) or by the combination of enzymes and High-pressure homogenization (Ex – ENZ = 2.79 kWh.kg−1).

    A PXY-Mediated Transcriptional Network Integrates Signaling Mechanisms to Control Vascular Development in Arabidopsis
    Smit, Margot ; Mcgregor, Shauni ; Sun, Heng ; Gough, Catherine ; Bågman, Anne-Maarit ; Soyars, Cara L. ; Kroon, Johan T.M. ; Gaudinier, Allison ; Williams, Clara J. ; Yang, Xiyan ; Nimchuk, Zachary L. ; Weijers, Dolf ; Turner, Simon R. ; Brady, Siobhan M. ; Etchells, Peter - \ 2020
    The Plant Cell 32 (2020)2. - ISSN 1040-4651
    Vascular meristems generate the majority of biomass in higher plants. They constitute a bifacial stem cell population from which xylem and phloem are specified on opposing sides by positional signals. The PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM (PXY) receptor kinase promotes vascular cell division and organisation. However, how these functions are specified and integrated is unknown. Here, a putative PXY-mediated transcriptional regulatory network comprised of 690 transcription factor-promoter interactions was mapped. Among these interactions was a feed-forward loop containing transcription factors WUSCHEL HOMEOBOX RELATED 14 (WOX14) and TARGET OF MONOPTEROS 6 (TMO6), which each regulate the expression of a third transcription factor, LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN 4 (LBD4). PXY signalling in turn regulates the WOX14, TMO6, LBD4 loop to control vascular proliferation. Genetic interaction between LBD4 and PXY suggests that LBD4 marks the phloem-procambium boundary, thus defining the shape of the vascular bundle. These data collectively support a novel mechanism that influences recruitment of cells into the phloem lineage, and defines the role of PXY signalling in this context to the arrangement of vascular tissue.
    Overview of in vivo and ex vivo endpoints in murine food allergy models: Suitable for evaluation of the sensitizing capacity of novel proteins?
    Castan, Laure ; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm ; Maryniak, Natalia Z. ; Epstein, M. ; Kazemi, Sahar ; O'Mahony, Liam ; Bodinier, Marie ; Smit, Joost ; Bilsen, Jolanda H.M. Van; Blanchard, Carine ; Głogowski, Robert ; Kozakova, Hana ; Schwarzer, Martin ; Noti, Mario ; Wit, N.J.W. de; Bouchaud, Grégory ; Bastiaan-Net, S. - \ 2020
    Allergy 75 (2020)2. - ISSN 0105-4538 - p. 289 - 301.
    Significant efforts are necessary to introduce new dietary protein sources to feed a growing world population while maintaining food supply chain sustainability. Such a sustainable protein transition includes the use of highly modified proteins from side streams or the introduction of new protein sources that may lead to increased clinically relevant allergic sensitization. With food allergy being a major health problem of increasing concern, understanding the potential allergenicity of new or modified proteins is crucial to ensure public health protection. The best predictive risk assessment methods currently relied on are in vivo models, making the choice of endpoint parameters a key element in evaluating the sensitizing capacity of novel proteins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the most frequently used in vivo and ex vivo endpoints in murine food allergy models, addressing their strengths and limitations for assessing sensitization risks. For optimal laboratory‐to‐laboratory reproducibility and reliable use of predictive tests for protein risk assessment, it is important that researchers maintain and apply the same relevant parameters and procedures. Thus, there is an urgent need for a consensus on key food allergy parameters to be applied in future food allergy research in synergy between both knowledge institutes and clinicians.
    Hecaton
    Wijfjes, R. ; Smit, S. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
    Code repository for Hecaton, a tool for CNV detection in plants
    Veehouderij en Gezondheid Omwonenden III: Longontsteking in de nabijheid van geitenhouderijen in Gelderland, Overijssel en Utrecht
    Smit, Lidwien ; Huss, Anke ; Jacobs, José ; Baliatsas, Christos ; Dückers, Michel ; Boender, Gert Jan ; McCarthy, Catharine ; Hagenaars, Thomas ; IJzermans, Joris ; Heederik, Dick - \ 2019
    Utrecht : Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Universiteit Utrecht - 39
    Glastuinbouw: Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 38 p.
    De factsheet Glastuinbouw maakt onderdeel uit van de Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant. In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Brabant wordt op basis van feiten over een breed terrein een zo actueel mogelijk beeld gegeven van de primaire agrarische sectoren. Ook wordt inzicht gegeven in opgetreden ontwikkelingen in de laatste decennia, en wordt een vergelijk gemaakt met de nationale ontwikkeling.
    Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 32 p.
    Melkveehouderij: Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 36 p.
    De factsheet Melkveehouderij maakt onderdeel uit van de Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant. In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Brabant wordt op basis van feiten over een breed terrein een zo actueel mogelijk beeld gegeven van de primaire agrarische sectoren. Ook wordt inzicht gegeven in opgetreden ontwikkelingen in de laatste decennia, en wordt een vergelijk gemaakt met de nationale ontwikkeling.
    Overig tuinbouw en blijvende teelt: Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 29 p.
    De factsheet Overige tuinbouw en blijvende teelt maakt onderdeel uit van de Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant. In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Brabant wordt op basis van feiten over een breed terrein een zo actueel mogelijk beeld gegeven van de primaire agrarische sectoren. Ook wordt inzicht gegeven in opgetreden ontwikkelingen in de laatste decennia, en wordt een vergelijk gemaakt met de nationale ontwikkeling.
    Overige veehouderij: Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 29 p.
    De factsheet Overige veehouderij maakt onderdeel uit van de Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant. In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Brabant wordt op basis van feiten over een breed terrein een zo actueel mogelijk beeld gegeven van de primaire agrarische sectoren. Ook wordt inzicht gegeven in opgetreden ontwikkelingen in de laatste decennia, en wordt een vergelijk gemaakt met de nationale ontwikkeling.
    Pluimveehouderij: Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 34 p.
    De factsheet Pluimveehouderij maakt onderdeel uit van de Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant. In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Brabant wordt op basis van feiten over een breed terrein een zo actueel mogelijk beeld gegeven van de primaire agrarische sectoren. Ook wordt inzicht gegeven in opgetreden ontwikkelingen in de laatste decennia, en wordt een vergelijk gemaakt met de nationale ontwikkeling.
    Akkerbouw en vollegrondsgroenteteelt: Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 43 p.
    De factsheet Akkerbouw en vollegrondsgroenteteelt maakt onderdeel uit van de Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant. In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Brabant wordt op basis van feiten over een breed terrein een zo actueel mogelijk beeld gegeven van de primaire agrarische sectoren. Ook wordt inzicht gegeven in opgetreden ontwikkelingen in de laatste decennia, en wordt een vergelijk gemaakt met de nationale ontwikkeling.
    Varkenshouderij: Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 33 p.
    VarkenshouderijBarometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant | Wageningen Economic ResearchDe factsheet Varkenshouderij maakt onderdeel uit van de Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant. In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Brabant wordt op basis van feiten over een breed terrein een zo actueel mogelijk beeld gegeven van de primaire agrarische sectoren. Ook wordt inzicht gegeven in opgetreden ontwikkelingen in de laatste decennia, en wordt een vergelijk gemaakt met de nationale ontwikkeling.
    Boomkwekerij: Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant
    Venema, G.S. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Jukema, G.D. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research - 24 p.
    De factsheet Boomkwekerij maakt onderdeel uit van de Barometer Duurzame landbouw Noord-Brabant. In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Brabant wordt op basis van feiten over een breed terrein een zo actueel mogelijk beeld gegeven van de primaire agrarische sectoren. Ook wordt inzicht gegeven in opgetreden ontwikkelingen in de laatste decennia, en wordt een vergelijk gemaakt met de nationale ontwikkeling.
    Innovatieproject Hondsbossche Duinen : Eindrapportage, definitief 01
    Bodde, Willem ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; IJff, S. ; Kramer, H. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Lagendijk, Georgette ; Leenders, Jakolien ; Ouwerkerk, S.J. ; Scholl, M.M. ; Smit, Marije ; Smits, N.A.C. ; Stuurman, Roelof ; Valk, Bert van der; Verheijen, Anne ; Vries, Daisy de; Wegman, Carolien - \ 2019
    Ecoshape (Wageningen Marine Research Rapport C002/19) - 145 p.
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