Records 1 - 20 / 1151
Correction: Roadmap for naming uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria
Murray, Alison E. ; Freudenstein, John ; Gribaldo, Simonetta ; Hatzenpichler, Roland ; Hugenholtz, Philip ; Kämpfer, Peter ; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T. ; Lane, Christopher E. ; Papke, R.T. ; Parks, Donovan H. ; Rossello-Mora, Ramon ; Stott, Matthew B. ; Sutcliffe, Iain C. ; Thrash, J.C. ; Venter, Stephanus N. ; Whitman, William B. ; Acinas, Silvia G. ; Amann, Rudolf I. ; Anantharaman, Karthik ; Armengaud, Jean ; Baker, Brett J. ; Barco, Roman A. ; Bode, Helge B. ; Boyd, Eric S. ; Brady, Carrie L. ; Carini, Paul ; Chain, Patrick S.G. ; Colman, Daniel R. ; DeAngelis, Kristen M. ; Rios, Maria Asuncion de los; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina ; Dunlap, Christopher A. ; Eisen, Jonathan A. ; Emerson, David ; Ettema, Thijs J.G. ; Eveillard, Damien ; Girguis, Peter R. ; Hentschel, Ute ; Hollibaugh, James T. ; Hug, Laura A. ; Inskeep, William P. ; Ivanova, Elena P. ; Klenk, Hans Peter ; Li, Wen Jun ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; Löffler, Frank E. ; Makhalanyane, Thulani P. ; Moser, Duane P. ; Nunoura, Takuro ; Palmer, Marike ; Parro, Victor ; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos ; Probst, Alexander J. ; Smits, Theo H.M. ; Steen, Andrew D. ; Steenkamp, Emma T. ; Spang, Anja ; Stewart, Frank J. ; Tiedje, James M. ; Vandamme, Peter ; Wagner, Michael ; Wang, Feng Ping ; Yarza, Pablo ; Hedlund, Brian P. ; Reysenbach, Anna Louise - \ 2020
Nature Microbiology (2020). - ISSN 2058-5276
Detection of Gluten in Duplicate Portions to Determine Gluten Intake of Celiac Disease Patients on A Gluten Free Diet
Fels-Klerx, H.J. Van Der; Smits, N.G.E. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Schultink, J.M. ; Nijkamp, M.M. ; Castenmiller, J.J.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. De - \ 2020
The British journal of nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0007-1145
Celiac disease - dietary intake - ELISA - gluten - gluten free diet
This study determined the gluten content of foods and meals consumed by celiac disease (CD) patients who adhere to a gluten free diet, and to estimate the total daily intake of gluten of these patients. CD patients fulfilling defined inclusion criteria were preselected and approached for participation in the study. Duplicate portions (DP) of foods and mixed dishes were collected from the CD patients for evaluating complete daily food intake during two individual days. Also, for these days written food records were completed by the participants. From each DP a laboratory sample was prepared, analysed for its gluten concentration and total daily gluten intake was calculated. Individual's total daily intakes of energy and macronutrients were calculated using the Dutch food composition database.In total 27 CD patients participated, 7 males and 20 females, aged between 21 and 64 years. In 32 (6%) of in total 499 food samples collected, more than 3 mg/kg gluten was present. In four of these 32 samples, the gluten concentration was above the European legal limit of 20 mg/kg and 3 of the 4 samples had a gluten-free label.The maximal gluten intake was 3.3 mg gluten per day. The gluten tolerance for sensitive CD patients (> 0.75 mg per day) was exceeded on at least 6 out of 54 study days. To also protect these sensitive CD patients, legal thresholds should be re-evaluated and the detection limit of analytical methods for gluten analysis lowered.
|Gescheiden werelden achilleshiel Omgevingswet
Kistenkas, F.H. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Smits, M.J.W. - \ 2020
Milieu 26 (2020)4. - ISSN 0920-2234 - p. 16 - 17.
Duurzaamheid en integraliteit zijn sleutelwoorden bij de nieuwe generatie
Omgevingsvisies. Alle overheidslagen zijn hier in verband met de Omgevingswet
nu mee bezig. Dat leidt doorgaans tot fraai beleidsproza met de gebruikelijke
platitudes van natuurinclusiviteit en duurzaamheid. Uiteindelijk telt vooral wat
daarvan wordt doorvertaald in juridisch bindende regels.
Webinar samenwerken aan emissiereductie : Interactief webinar van Praktijkcentrum Emissiereductie Veehouderij, onderdeel van het Poultry Expertise Centre
Workamp, Jan ; Jansen, Regina ; Moonen, Wouter ; Smits, Anne-Jo ; Ellen, H.H. - \ 2020
Poultry Expertise Centre
Langetermijneffecten van extensieve duinbegrazing in kalkarme kustduinen
Nijssen, Marijn ; Kuiters, Loek ; Smits, Nina ; Kramer, Henk ; Kuper, Jan ; Brouwer, Julian ; Vogels, Joost - \ 2020
Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren (Rapport 2020/OBN234-DK) - 112
Verrijken, benutten en sparen : Bewegen richting natuurinclusieve landbouw
Smits, M.J.W. ; Dawson, A.W. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. ; Michels, R. ; Migchels, G. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Sukkel, W. - \ 2020
Wageningen Economic Research - 11 p.
innovations - social evolution - returns - circular agriculture
Roadmap for naming uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria
Murray, Alison E. ; Freudenstein, John ; Gribaldo, Simonetta ; Hatzenpichler, Roland ; Hugenholtz, Philip ; Kämpfer, Peter ; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T. ; Lane, Christopher E. ; Papke, R.T. ; Parks, Donovan H. ; Rossello-Mora, Ramon ; Stott, Matthew B. ; Sutcliffe, Iain C. ; Thrash, J.C. ; Venter, Stephanus N. ; Whitman, William B. ; Acinas, Silvia G. ; Amann, Rudolf I. ; Anantharaman, Karthik ; Armengaud, Jean ; Baker, Brett J. ; Barco, Roman A. ; Bode, Helge B. ; Boyd, Eric S. ; Brady, Carrie L. ; Carini, Paul ; Chain, Patrick S.G. ; Colman, Daniel R. ; DeAngelis, Kristen M. ; Rios, Maria Asuncion de los; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina ; Dunlap, Christopher A. ; Eisen, Jonathan A. ; Emerson, David ; Ettema, Thijs J.G. ; Eveillard, Damien ; Girguis, Peter R. ; Hentschel, Ute ; Hollibaugh, James T. ; Hug, Laura A. ; Inskeep, William P. ; Ivanova, Elena P. ; Klenk, Hans Peter ; Li, Wen Jun ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; Löffler, Frank E. ; Makhalanyane, Thulani P. ; Moser, Duane P. ; Nunoura, Takuro ; Palmer, Marike ; Parro, Victor ; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos ; Probst, Alexander J. ; Smits, Theo H.M. ; Steen, Andrew D. ; Steenkamp, Emma T. ; Spang, Anja ; Stewart, Frank J. ; Tiedje, James M. ; Vandamme, Peter ; Wagner, Michael ; Wang, Feng Ping ; Hedlund, Brian P. ; Reysenbach, Anna Louise - \ 2020
Nature Microbiology 5 (2020). - ISSN 2058-5276 - p. 987 - 994.
The assembly of single-amplified genomes (SAGs) and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has led to a surge in genome-based discoveries of members affiliated with Archaea and Bacteria, bringing with it a need to develop guidelines for nomenclature of uncultivated microorganisms. The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) only recognizes cultures as ‘type material’, thereby preventing the naming of uncultivated organisms. In this Consensus Statement, we propose two potential paths to solve this nomenclatural conundrum. One option is the adoption of previously proposed modifications to the ICNP to recognize DNA sequences as acceptable type material; the other option creates a nomenclatural code for uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria that could eventually be merged with the ICNP in the future. Regardless of the path taken, we believe that action is needed now within the scientific community to develop consistent rules for nomenclature of uncultivated taxa in order to provide clarity and stability, and to effectively communicate microbial diversity.
Van A naar Biodiversiteit : Op weg naar een natuurinclusieve landbouw
Smits, Marie-José ; Dawson, Andrew ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, Marijke ; Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, Reina ; Michels, Rolf ; Migchels, Gerard ; Polman, Nico ; Schrijver, Raymond ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Vogelzang, Theo ; Kistenkas, Fred - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Rapport / Wageningen Economic Research 2020-043) - ISBN 9789463953955 - 67
This report explores first of all literature on transition management. The knowledge gained is taken into account to develop a route planner, which can be used to stimulate nature-inclusive agriculture at a regional level. This route planner is intended for stakeholders who want to promote nature-inclusive agriculture in their own region. We then ask ourselves what nature-inclusive agriculture means, and how it relates to circular agriculture and ecosystem services. An important focus in the route planner is the development of a vision. For this reason, concrete measures are described for arable farming and livestock farming that fit into such a nature-inclusive vision.
The effect of maternal antibiotic use in sows on intestinal development in offspring
Greeff, Astrid de; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Roubos-van den Hil, Petra ; Ramaekers, Peter ; Vastenhouw, Stephanie A. ; Harders, Frank ; Bossers, Alex ; Smits, Mari A. ; Rebel, Johanna M.J. - \ 2020
Journal of Animal Science 98 (2020)6. - ISSN 0021-8812
antibiotic - gut development - immune response - microbiota - piglets - transgenerational
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a maternal antibiotic administration during the last week of gestation on the early life intestinal development in neonatal piglets. Colonization of the gut with bacteria starts during birth and plays a major role in the intestinal and immunological development of the intestine. We demonstrate that maternal interventions induced changes in the sows (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) fecal microbiota diversity around birth (P < 0.001, day 1). Whole-genome microarray analysis in small intestinal samples of 1-d old piglets (n = 6 to 8 per treatment) showed significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) which were involved in processes of tight junction formation and immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, when performing morphometry analysis, the number of goblet cells in jejunum was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in piglets from amoxicillin administered sows compared with the respective control piglets. Both significantly expressed genes (Padj < 0.05) and significant morphometry data (jejunum P < 0.05 and ileum P < 0.01) indicate that the crypts of piglets from amoxicillin administered sows deepen around weaning (day 26) as an effect of the amoxicillin administration in sows. The latter might imply that the intestinal development of piglets was delayed by maternal antibiotic administration. Taken together, these results show that maternally oral antibiotic administration changes in early life can affect intestinal development of the offspring piglets for a period of at least 5 wk after the maternal antibiotic administration was finished. These results show that modulation of the neonatal intestine is possible by maternal interventions.
Tackling the nitrogen problem in five stages
Hermans, Tia ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Smits, Nina ; Groenestein, Karin ; Ogink, Nico ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Velthof, Gerard ; Jongschaap, Raymond ; Geerdink, Peter ; Munniks, Sandra ; Jongeneel, Roel ; Ravesloot, Marc - \ 2020
interview met Tia Hermans en Jan Dijstra en Nina Smits
Methods to assess the effect of meat processing on viability of Toxoplasma gondii: towards replacement of mouse bioassay by in vitro testing
Opsteegh, M. ; Dam-Deisz, C. ; Boer, Paulo de; Decraeye, S. ; Faré, Andrea ; Hengeveld, P. ; Luiten, R. ; Schares, Gereon ; Smits, C.B. ; Verhaegen, Bavo ; Verkleij, T.J. ; Giessen, Joke van der; Wisselink, Henk J. - \ 2020
International Journal for Parasitology 50 (2020)5. - ISSN 0020-7519 - p. 357 - 369.
Consumption of meat containing viable tissue cysts is considered one of the main sources of human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. In contrast to fresh meat, raw meat products usually undergo processing, including salting and mixing with other additives such as sodium acetate and sodium lactate, which affects the viability of T. gondii. However, the experiments described in the literature are not always performed in line with the current processing methods applied in industry. It was our goal to study the effect of salting and additives according to the recipes used by industrial producers. Mouse or cat bioassay is the ‘gold standard’ to demonstrate the presence of viable T. gondii. However, it is costly, time consuming and for ethical reasons not preferred for large-scale studies. Therefore, we first aimed to develop an alternative for mouse bioassay that can be used to determine the effect of processing on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. The assays studied were (i) a cell culture method to determine the parasite’s ability to multiply, and (ii) a propidium monoazide (PMA) dye-based assay to selectively detect DNA from intact parasites. Processing experiments were performed with minced meat incubated for 20 h with low concentrations of NaCl, sodium lactate and sodium acetate. NaCl appeared to be the most effective ingredient with only one or two out of eight mice infected after inoculation with pepsin-digest of portions processed with 1.0, 1.2 and 1.6% NaCl. Results of preliminary experiments with the PMA-based method were inconsistent and did not sufficiently discriminate between live and dead parasites. In contrast, the cell culture method showed promising results, but further optimization is needed before it can replace or reduce the number of mouse bioassays needed. In future, standardised in vitro methods are necessary to allow more extensive testing of product-specific processing methods, thereby providing a better indication of the risk of T. gondii infection for consumers.
Effects of undigested protein-rich ingredients on polarised small intestinal organoid monolayers
Kar, Soumya K. ; Hee, Bart Van Der; Loonen, Linda M.P. ; Taverne, Nico ; Taverne-Thiele, Johanna J. ; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Smits, Mari A. ; Jansman, Alfons J.M. ; Wells, Jerry M. - \ 2020
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 1674-9782
Alternative protein sources - Casein - Intestinal organoids - Organoids - Soybean meal - Spray dried plasma protein - Transcriptomics - Yellow meal worm
Here, we describe the use of monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells derived from intestinal organoids and transcriptomics to investigate the direct effects of dietary protein sources on epithelial function. Mechanically dissociated 3D organoids of mouse duodenum were used to generate a polarized epithelium containing all cell types found in the tissue of origin. The organoid-derived cell monolayers were exposed to 4% (w/v) of 'undigested (non-hydrolysed)-soluble' fraction of protein sources used as feed ingredients [soybean meal (SBM) and casein], or alternative protein sources (spray dried plasma protein, and yellow meal worm), or controls for 6 h prior to RNA isolation and transcriptomics. All protein sources altered expression of unique biological processes in the epithelial cells. Exposure of intestinal organoids to SBM downregulated expression of retinol and retinoid metabolic processes as well as cholesterol and lipid biosynthetic pathways, consistent with the reported hypotriglyceridaemic effect of soy protein in vivo. These findings support the use of intestinal organoids as models to evaluate complex interactions between dietary ingredients and the intestinal epithelium and highlights some unique host effects of alternative protein sources in animal feed and potentially human food. Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the study. 3-dimensional organoids were generated from mouse duodenum (1). The organoids were subsequently dissociated into single cells (2) and grown as 2-dimensional polarised monolayers (3). Polarized monolayers of organoid cells were exposed to different protein sources [CAS, SBM, SDPP, YMW, or medium control (MC)] for 6 h (4) and further processed for imaging (5) gene expression (6), and biochemical assays (7), to investigate the effects of undigested protein sources on the duodenal epithelium. [Figure not available: See fulltext.]
Local supply of lignocellulosic biomass to paper industry in Gelderland : Development of circular and value-added chains
Vural Gursel, Iris ; Groenestijn, Johan van; Elbersen, Wolter ; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan ; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan ; Kranendonk, Remco ; Jong, Anjo de; Leeuwen, Myrna van; Smits, Marie-Jose - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 2046) - ISBN 9789463954105 - 38
Development and internal validation of prediction models for colorectal cancer survivors to estimate the 1-year risk of low health-related quality of life in multiple domains
Révész, Dóra ; Kuijk, Sander M.J. van; Mols, Floortje ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Winkels, Renate M. ; Hoofs, Huub ; Kant, IJ. ; Smits, Luc J. ; Breukink, Stéphanie O. ; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de; Kampman, Ellen ; Beijer, Sandra ; Weijenberg, Matty P. ; Bours, Martijn J.L. - \ 2020
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 20 (2020). - ISSN 1472-6947
Cancer survivors - Colorectal cancer - Internal validation - Model development - Prediction models - Quality of life
Background: Many colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors experience persisting health problems post-treatment that compromise their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Prediction models are useful tools for identifying survivors at risk of low HRQoL in the future and for taking preventive action. Therefore, we developed prediction models for CRC survivors to estimate the 1-year risk of low HRQoL in multiple domains. Methods: In 1458 CRC survivors, seven HRQoL domains (EORTC QLQ-C30: Global QoL; cognitive, emotional, physical, role, social functioning; fatigue) were measured prospectively at study baseline and 1 year later. For each HRQoL domain, scores at 1-year follow-up were dichotomized into low versus normal/high. Separate multivariable logistic prediction models including biopsychosocial predictors measured at baseline were developed for the seven HRQoL domains, and internally validated using bootstrapping. Results: Average time since diagnosis was 5 years at study baseline. Prediction models included both non-modifiable predictors (age, sex, socio-economic status, time since diagnosis, tumor stage, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, stoma, micturition, chemotherapy-related, stoma-related and gastrointestinal complaints, comorbidities, social inhibition/negative affectivity, and working status) and modifiable predictors (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, meat consumption, anxiety/depression, pain, and baseline fatigue and HRQoL scores). Internally validated models showed good calibration and discrimination (AUCs: 0.83-0.93). Conclusions: The prediction models performed well for estimating 1-year risk of low HRQoL in seven domains. External validation is needed before models can be applied in practice.
Cryopreservation of equine oocytes: Looking into the crystal ball
Coster, Tine De; Velez, Daniel Angel ; Soom, Ann Van; Woelders, Henri ; Smits, Katrien - \ 2020
Reproduction Fertility and Development 32 (2020)5. - ISSN 1031-3613 - p. 453 - 467.
blastocyst - cumulus cells - intracytoplasmic sperm injection - maturation - vitrification
In vitro embryo production has evolved rapidly in the horse over the past decade, but blastocyst rates from vitrified equine oocytes remain quite poor and further research is needed to warrant application. Oocyte vitrification is affected by several technical and biological factors. In the horse, short exposure of immature oocytes to the combination of permeating and non-permeating cryoprotective agents has been associated with the best results so far. High cooling and warming rates are also crucial and can be obtained by using minimal volumes and open cryodevices. Vitrification of in vivo-matured oocytes has yielded better results, but is less practical. The presence of the corona radiata seems to partially protect those factors that are necessary for the construction of the normal spindle and for chromosome alignment, but multiple layers of cumulus cells may impair permeation of cryoprotective agents. In addition to the spindle, the oolemma and mitochondria are also particularly sensitive to vitrification damage, which should be minimised in future vitrification procedures. This review presents promising protocols and novel strategies in equine oocyte vitrification, with a focus on blastocyst development and foal production as most reliable outcome parameters.
IAG proficiency test feed composition 2019
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Smits, C.P.A.F. ; Hedemann, B. ; Vliege, J.J.M. - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Food Safety Research (WFSR report 2019.014) - 25
A proficiency test was organized for the microscopic determination and semi-quantification of botanic ingredients in the formulation of an animal feed, in the framework of the annual proficiency tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the proficiency test was Wageningen Food Safety Research, The Netherlands. The aim of the proficiency study was to provide the participants information on the performance of the local implementation of the method for composition analysis of feed. The current proficiency test was focusing on the control of the label declaration of the botanic composition of a ruminant feed. Participants received a sample of the ruminant feed and were asked to check the correctness of the label information. Therefore, the label declaration was provided together with the sample. The formulation as declared by the label showed the correct composition. Results should show the share of the different ingredients in percentages. Indicated shares were considered under- or overestimations when exceeding the limits of the IAG uncertainty interval model.A total of 22 sets of results was returned. Six of the nine ingredients had shares with intervals of which the lower limits were still higher than zero percent in the IAG estimation model. Correct estimation of these shares needs more precision than in a situation where only an upper limit applies. The reported shares of these six ingredients were within the limits of the uncertainty model in 87.9% of the total number of estimations. The correct estimations of all reports of the shares of nine ingredients is 80.3%. Six out of 22 participants delivered an errorless composition, which is 27%. Besides this, six participants made one error, three made two errors and two participants made three errors. There is no clear correlation with the method applied. Only three participants reported an indication of the correctness of the label. The current information on the capability of botanic composition analysis reveals that this technique is valuable as part of the enforcement of feed and food safety. The current lack of a complementary system for the analysis of chemical composition (ash, proteins, fat, dietary carbohydrates, fibres, etc.), which would provide parameters for the control of an established botanic composition, could be a drawback for the overall performance of the technique for botanic composition analysis. Besides a proper method description and up-to-date descriptions of ingredients, well developed skills of technicians are vital for a good performance. The use of an expert system as tool for maintenance and dissemination of expertise might improve future performance.The analysis of composition in terms of ingredients is important for detecting economic fraud and for monitoring feed safety. Botanic composition analysis and label control of feed is regulated in Regulation (EC) 767/2009. This technique can support traceability (Regulation (EC) 178/2002), for detection of fraud (Regulation (EU) 2017/625) and for categorization (Regulation (EU) 1308/2013; Regulation (EU) 2016/1821). In a broader view, composition analysis in the entire food chain can improve the effect of monitoring actions. The legislation on food labelling (Regulation (EC) 1169/2011) obliges to provide more detailed information to customers on composition and related topics.
Chrono-nutrition and diet quality in adolescents with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder
Berendsen, Maxime ; Boss, Myrthe ; Smits, Marcel ; Pot, Gerda K. - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)2. - ISSN 2072-6643
Adolescents - Chrono-nutrition - Circadian rhythms - Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder - Diet quality - Meal timing
Background: Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSPD), characterized by delayed sleep-onset and problems with awakening in the morning, is mostly prevalent in adolescents. Several studies have suggested chrono-nutrition could present a possible modifiable risk factor for DSPD. Objective: To describe differences in chrono-nutrition and diet quality in adolescents with DSPD compared to age-related controls. Methods: Chrono-nutrition and diet quality of 46 adolescents with DSPD, aged 13–20 years, and 43 controls were assessed via questionnaires. Diet quality included the Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index) and Eating Choices Index (ECI). Results were analysed using logistic regression and Spearman’s partial correlation. Results: Compared with controls, DSPD patients consumed their first food of the day significantly later on weekdays (+32 ± 12 min, p = 0.010) and weekends (+25 ± 8 min, p = 0.005). They consumed their dinner more regularly (80.4% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.002) and consumed morning-snacks less frequently (3.0 ± 2.1 days vs. 4.2 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.006). No differences in clock times of breakfast, lunch, or dinner were found. Moreover, no significant differences in overall diet quality were observed. Conclusion: This descriptive study showed chrono-nutritional differences between adolescents with and without DPSD. Further studies are needed to explore features of chrono-nutrition as a possible treatment of DPSD.
How Do Configuration Shifts in Fragmented Energy Governance Affect Policy Output? A Case Study of Changing Biogas Regimes in Indonesia
Budiman, Ibnu ; Smits, M. - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 23 p.
biogas - fragmentation - governance - Indonesia - regime complex - policy output
Biogas technology to support rural livelihoods and low-carbon development has been developed in different projects and programs in the Global South over the last few decades. However, the existence of multiple projects, actors and designs involved may lead to so-called fragmentation in governance. This research addresses the fragmented governance amongst the biogas programmes in
Indonesia to study their impact on the implementation; the numbers of biodigesters disseminated and knowledge transferred. Drawing on concepts of fragmentation, regime effectiveness, and policy output, the research uses data from interviews with relevant actors, supplemented with documents review. Findings show that the governance architecture of biogas regime in Indonesia consists of different types of biogas programmes championed by different types of actors pursuing different objectives. There had been patterns and periodical shifts of configuration within the Indonesian biogas regime, i.e., from administrative fragmentation (2007–2009), to conflictive fragmentation (2010–2012), to cooperative fragmentation (2013–2016), and reduced fragmentation (2017). Shifting
from administrative to cooperative fragmentation resonates with the increase of the number of biodigesters dissemination more than fourfold in ten years, from 800 in 2007, to 37,999 in 2016. The distribution of power within the governance architecture among government bodies, NGOs, and the private sector influenced the speed of implementation and innovation of the biogas programs.
This suggests that a higher degree of distribution of power and cooperation within a governance architecture contribute to increasing policy output of the regime complex of renewable energy.
Akkermansia muciniphila Exerts Lipid-Lowering and Immunomodulatory Effects without Affecting Neointima Formation in Hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice
Katiraei, Saeed ; Vries, Margreet R. de; Costain, Alice H. ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Hoving, Lisa R. ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Smits, Hermelijn H. ; Bouter, Kristien E. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Quax, Paul H.A. ; Nieuwdorp, Max ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Cani, Patrice D. ; Belzer, Clara ; Dijk, Ko Willems van; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. ; Harmelen, Vanessa van - \ 2020
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64 (2020)15. - ISSN 1613-4125 - 10 p.
Akkermansia muciniphila - atherosclerosis - immunity - lipid metabolism - mesenteric lymph nodes
Scope: Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) is an intestinal commensal with anti-inflammatory properties both in the intestine and other organs. The aim is to investigate the effects of oral administration of A. muciniphila on lipid metabolism, immunity, and cuff-induced neointima formation in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L).CETP mice. Methods and results: Hyperlipidemic male E3L.CETP mice are daily treated with 2 × 108 CFU A. muciniphila by oral gavage for 4 weeks and the effects are determined on plasma lipid levels, immune parameters, and cuff-induced neointima formation and composition. A. muciniphila administration lowers body weight and plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. A. muciniphila influences the immune cell composition in mesenteric lymph nodes, as evident from an increased total B cell population, while reducing the total T cell and neutrophil populations. Importantly, A. muciniphila reduces the expression of the activation markers MHCII on dendritic cells and CD86 on B cells. A. muciniphila also increases whole blood ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-10 release. Finally, although treatment with A. muciniphila improves lipid metabolism and immunity, it does not affect neointima formation or composition. Conclusions: Four weeks of treatment with A. muciniphila exerts lipid-lowering and immunomodulatory effects, which are insufficient to inhibit neointima formation in hyperlipidemic E3L.CETP mice.
|Microsphere-based multiplex technology for the simultaneous detection of food allergens
Smits, N.G.E. ; Hoof, R.A. van; Peters, J. ; Koops, A.J. ; Bovee, T.F.H. ; Ginkel, L.A. van - \ 2019